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Entered, aooording to Act of Congress, in the year 1638, by 

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The present edition of Caesar is on the san^e pl&a 
with the Sallust and Cicero, and, it is hoped, will prov« 
equally acceptable. As Cssar^s Commentaries axe 
generally placed in the hands of students at an earh 
period of their career, the explanatory notes have beer, 
specially prepared for the use of beginners, and no- 
thing has been in fact omitted, that may tend to facil- 
itate the perusal of the work. The Greek paraphrase 
iS but little known in this country, and the first book, 
therefore, has been given partly as a literary novelty, 
and partly as an easy introduction to Greek studies. 
Considerable use has been made of it, as will be seen 
by the notes appended to this volume, in elucidating 
passages of the Latin work that are in any respect 
obscure, or the meaning of which has been disputed 
among previous commentators. It has also been found 
of importance on several occasions in settling the text. 
From whose pen the paraphrase proceeds is a matter 
of great uncertainty : it has been assigned by some to 
Maximus Planudes, by others to Theodore Gaza, while 

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by a thiid class the author has been regarded as alto- 
gether unknown. Planudes, it is conceived, will be 
found, on a careful investigation of the matter, to have 
the best claim. The style of the paraphrase deviates, 
it is true, in more than one instance, from classical 
usage, yet still the discrepance is not so marked as to 
occasion any difficulty to the learner, and may very 
easily be rectified by any competent instructor. 

The wood-cuts, giving plans of battles, sieges, &c., 
cannot but prove useful. They are executed with 
great ability by that talented artist, Mr. A. J. Mason 

C. A. 

Columbia College, Jan. 18, 1638 

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Dr. B. What odd-looking volume is that over which you are ponii|{ 
10 attentiyely, Henry Arlington 1 Something very rare and curious, 1 
suppose, to draw you off from our Oriel College election. 

H. A very singular book, indeed, Dr. Barton, which I discovered 
yesterday, by mere accident, among the treasures of the Bodleian. It 
is Berger's treatise " De naturali pulchrUudine OrationiSf** in which 
the Commentaries of Julius Caesar are lauded to the skies, as a model 
of all that is excellent in writing. 

Dr. B. I know the work well, and admire your patience in cultivating 
an acquaintance with it. Were I troubled with sleepless nights, I vrov}d 
c ertainly take to readbg Berger, afler retiring to my couch, in the full 
expectation of speedy and lasting relief. 

H. I think you are too hard upon him, doctor. Amid a mass of heavy 
reading, I have found several things to arrest my attention and reward 
me for the labour expended upon his work. You surely do not regar 
Caesar's Latinity as of inferior merit. 

Dr. B. Quite the reverse, Henry. No writer equals Caesar in elegant 
simplicity, and in that transparent clearness of style which forms the 
great charm of historical narrative. Lord Bacon, whom Berger not U2>- 
cptly calls ^ BrUannorum Socraits^^^ has well expressed his wonder, 
that a mind rendered so '* turbid" by ambition as Caesar's was, should 
express itself in writing with so much calmness and serenity. My only 
objection is, that Berger pushes his theory much farther than either you 
jr I will concede, when he undertakes to find, in the Conunentaries ol 
Caesar, all the excellences of composition that are noted and praised, ia 
a later age, in the treatise of Longinus. 

H. X am entirely of youz opmion, my dear doctor ; and, having now 
MtfiMfied my vriosity respecting Bexger's work, will riiow you anoibes, 

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«f a difieient character, which I obtained this morrJjog firom Parker's 
A is the second part of the '' Fasti Hellenici," by Clinton of Christ 
Church. Are his dates in the case of Roman authors worthy of reli- 
ance 1 

Dr. B. Most undoubtedly. No scholar of the present day has con- 
ferred a more signal service on the literary chronology of Greece and 
Rome than this very able writer, or has contributed more essentially to 
raise the classical reputation of his country on the continent of Europe 
But come, Henry, as Cssax has been thus far the theme of our conver 
sation, how would you like that we take up his life and literary charac- 
ter, passing briefly over the former, and dwelling more at huge upon the 
latter 1 

H. There is no one thing that would delight me more, Dr. Barton 
and I trust you will forgive me, if I occasionally interrupt you by a 
question or two, when any point seems to me to require any additional 
illustration on your part. 

Dr. B. I shall consider all such interruptions, my dear Henry, as the 
surest proof that my remarks are not uninteresting, and shall be more 
pleased the oftener they occur. Let us proceed, then, to our task. 0' 
all those whom history has honoured with the title of great, no one, per- 
haps, deserved it more than the subject of our present remarks. A de> 
scendant of the celebrated Julian house, which traced its fabulous origin 
to ^neas, he was bom in the year of Rome 654, and exactly a century 
before the advent of our Saviour. In his early boyhood he was an eye- 
witness of the civil wars between Sylla and Marius, the latter his mater- 
nal uncle ; and when he attained to the beginning of manhood, or the age 
of seventeen, Sylla, who was then supreme, could not forgive him for 
being the nephew of Marius and the son-in-law of Cinna. He even 
issued against him a decree of proscription, which he was only induced 
to revoke by the solicitations of the vestal virgins and the influence of 
the Julian family.^ 

H. Was it not on that occasion, doctor, that Sylla said he saw manv 
Mariuses in Ciesar 1' 

Dr. B. It was ; and the remark does credit to his sagacity and knowi 
edge of character, while it shows plainly, that, even at this early p^riot 
of life, the young Roman had given some peculiar indications of laten 
talents and ambition. Having escaped from the proscription ot Sylla 
he retired from the capital, and sought a retreat m Asia, where he com 

1. Sueton. VU, Jul, e. 1 Flntareh's account dilTera flr^m this, but is less a^co 
fste * 

i **CtUtaninuito» Marin* tn^jtn." Sueton, ib 

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nenced iiis miHtaiy career in th» suite of Thermus,^ the Roman gov- 
onor, from whom he received the ciTic czown on the capture of Mity- 
lene * The death of SyUa, however, recalled him to Rome,'' and we 
find him soon engaged in conducting a prosecution against Comehus 
Dolabelia, charged by him with extortion m his province, bat soeceas- 
fullv defended by Hortensius and Cotta.* 

H. Was not this a bold step, doctor, for a yomig man to take against 
a person who stood so high as Dolabelia ?' for, if I remember correctly, 
the latter h«d both held the consulship, and eijoyed the honours of a 

Dr. B. Not &t all bold, Henry, but one, on the contrary, of commos 
occurrence. The young patricians were fond of accusing distinguishes 
individuals, not so much from a patriotic motive, as in order to acquirs 
for themselves the reputation of eloquence. After the acquittal of Do' 
abella, Cssar made a voyage to Rhodes, and became a pupil of Apollo 
nius Molo, a distinguished teacher of the art of watery. 

H. Ah ! Was not this same Molo the preceptor of Cicero t 

Dr. B. He was. Q'^ero heard him at Rome, B. G. 87, and afterwari 
at Rhodes, B. C. 78, so that you perceive these two eminent men wen 
almost fellow-pupils of the same instructer.' Passing over the stoiy 
about the pirates,^ which you can find in the pages of your Plutarch, an4 
the services which he rendered to the Roman allies> in Asia against the 
encroachments of Mithridates, though possessing himself no actual mil- 
itary command, we come to the period of his second return to Rome, 
when he found Pompey at the head of the senate and republic. Since 
Cssar*s known attachment hitherto to the party of Marius operated as 
an obstacle to his ambition, he now went over to the dominant factioa 
of the day, and united with Cicero in advocating the passage of the Man» 
ilian law, the object of which was to clothe Pompey with extraordinary 
powers for ending the Mithridatic war. 

H. I cannot see the policy of this step on Caesar's ^)art. He waf 
only strengthening the hands of one, who, he must have known, woule 
one day prove his most formidable rival. 

U " Stipendia prima in Asia/ecU, M* Thermi prMoris eontubernio.^ Stut(m 
YiL Jul, e. 3. Compare AureL Via. c. 83. 

a. Sueton, ib.—Idv. EpiU lib. 89. 

S. Cie, Brut. 92.— FaZ. JlfodP. 8, 9, 3.— Pfttf . Ccts. e. 4. 

4. ** Consularem et tritanphdUm virumJ* Sueton. I. c. 

& Olinton*s Fasti HeUenici, part 3 p. 147. 

0. Plntarcb places the stoiy of the pirates earlier in point of time, malung Caraai 
lo luiTe been taken by tbem daring bis first visit to Asia. But consalt Snetonleik. 
Tit Jkl. 0. 4 and OnisiiM ad loc. 

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Dr. D. Paidop me, Hemy ; it was a stroke . of copsnirnnatw policy 
The Manilian law, and the high prerogatives conferred by it upon a sin 
gle individual, introduced divisicns and dissensions among the leading 
men at Rome, and could not but tend to favour secretly the pretensions 
of those, who, like Cssar, wished one day to raise themselves above the 
laws of their country. The same principle of action governed his con- 
duct, when, not long after this, he exerted his endeavours, along witb 
other equally ambitious men, to have the tribunes of the commons, whose 
power Sylla had wisely curtailed, restored to all their former privileges ,- 
for he well knew that he would find, in most of them, so many ready 
cools for the accomplishment of his designs upon the liberty of bin 

H. But how did the people, with whom Marius had ever been a fa- 
vourite, relish Cssar^s abandonment of the principles of that leader 1 

Dr. B. You err, Henry, in common with many others, as to this part 
of Caesar's bstory. At his first entrance into the political arena, when 
the influence of Pompey was paramount, any professed adherence to the 
principles that governed the party of Marius would have been fatal to 
Caesar's advancement in the state. When, however, he felt himself 
more securely established in public favour, the mask was dropped. The 
memory of Marius, notwithstanding all his enormities, was still cherished 
by the Roman populace, for he had, in one sense, been their champion 
against the party of the senate, and Caesar now neglected no opportunity 
of flattering the multitude, by showing respect to the name of their 
former leader. When quaestor, he had the boldness, on delivering a 
funeral eulogium upon his aunt JuUa, to produce before the view of the 
people the images of Marius, which had not been seen since the dicta- 
torship of Sylla.' And, when elevated to the office of sdile, he caused 
the statues and trophies of the conqueror of the Cimbri to be restored 
to their former places.* From this period he was suspected of aspiring 
to absolute power, and was even accused of it in the senate ; but his 
/argesses among Uie populace, and the splendour of his public shows, 
found him ^00 many friends and devoted partisans for the senate to ven- 
ture on his condenmation. '^ 

1 **Auaores reatituenda tribunidm potestatist eujus vim SvUa demintterat, m 
ueUtittu juvit," {Sueton, Vit Jvl.p. 5.) The final restoration was made by Foo^ 
pe> and Crassas, when consuls, A. U. C. 681. Compare VeVL Pat, 2, 80.— Liv. Jb. 
lb Vr.—Cic Verr. 1, 15. 

9. Pita. Vit. Cos. c. ft. 

8. Suetan, Vit. Jul c. 11. FlnlarcVs account is somewhat diffbrent: thc&vat 
imtiiffaro Map/ov jcp60a, icai vUoi rposraio^^pavf, S; ipifnav wkt^ di rd carcreSXM* 
iwitrnotV' Compare r«UL Pat S. 43. 

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H. niifl xemindt me^ doctor, of the timidity of the Mnat >, when hie 
defence of the eccomplkee of Catiline, and his conduct geaenUy, in 
leletian to thit eflair, caused him to be more than suspected of a peitici- 
pation in the conspiracy. 

Dr. B. Yes, the senate were afraid of the people without, who^ with 
loud cries, were demanding their favourite. His life, howerer, was 
actually in danger from the Roman knights that stood around the senate* 
house as a guard, and he was mainly saved by the interference of Cicero. 

H. Yon made some allusion, a moment ago, to his lavish ezpendi 
tures. Where did he obtain the means for supporting these ? 

Br. B. By bonowing. He is said, before he enjoyed any public 
office, to have owed 1300 talents, over ^£300,000.* And when, aftet 
his prstorahiqp, which was not long subsequent to the period just men- 
tioned by me, he set out for a government in Spain, he himself confessed 
that he was, what would be in our own cuziency more than £3,000,000 
worse than nothing ! 

H. These debts, of course, were never paid. 

Dr. B. His extortions in Spain enriched him to such a degree, that 
he not only liquidated this almost incredible sum, but even had wealth 
sufficient remaining to ahield himself from a public prosecution, and te 
purchase the services of a large number o( partisans. So much for the 
tender mercies of Roman magistrates in the management of their prov 

H. And for the purity of justice at home. But do tell me, doctor, 
where were Pompey and Crassus at this time ^ 

Dr. B. Cffisar had reconciled them,* and thus obtained their united 
aid for the attainment of the consulship. He attached the foimer also 
still more strong^ to himself, by giving him his daughter Julia in mar- 
riage. We have now reached an .important era in the history of the 
ambitious Roman whose career we are delineating^ and this was the 
government of Gaul, which he obtained not long after the union of his 
daughter with Pompey. The Vatinian law gave him this province for 

1. Soetonias states, that bis lUb was threatened by the eqnites, eyen while he was 
la the ■enste-booset that the senalns sitting near him moved away tn alarm, and 
that eidy a tow naslaed by hbn to alAfd pioteetion :* 7mp jiouet eom|ri»M ^^ 
wkjeeU pnttagriHL* {SuOon, Vtf. Jul, e. 14.) Plncsreb's aceoaaC is ftUowed, 
however, in the text. Oonsult Crnalos, ad Sueten. L e. 

S. Pier. rtf. CmM^o^i^Appim. B C.8,a Cfassns hsd to beeooM soraty fm 
Urn belbn he coeid leave Home tbr his fOTsrasMnt. Hm. Tit Chut. o. 7.— Jd. Fif 
aw.0.11. Theeonpatation in the text mskes the Attietslsnt or silver 94U. IS*. 4d 
Oompsrs Knigk^ PttUgom. ad Som.^96, and BoeekVMPiOUe Beonamg vfJikm 
vsl. i., p. S5. 

t 19.— Pter.Vtt.rtft.e.ll--4d fir.CMM.14 

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five yean, and, at the expiration of this period, his command was 
continued for five years longer. The Gallic war,- then, in all its 
branches, continued for the space of nearly ten years,^ and, during 
that time, Cesar is said to have reduced by force or by the terror of 
his arms eight hundred cities, to have subjugated three hundred com« 
munities or nations, to have defeated in battle at difierent periods 
three millions of men, and to have slain one third of this number, and 
led another third into captivity.* . 

H. An exaggerated account, most probably. 

Dr. B. Of course, as sach statements always are. Yet still, firom the 
fsown valour of the Gsllic race, and the cold-blooded cruelty with 
which, accordmg to Cssar's own account, many of his victories were fol- 
lowed up, the carnage of the whole war must have been appalling in tht 
extreme. In the midst of his conquests, as may well be imagined, the 
Roman conunander neglected no opportmiity of amassmg the most ex- 
tensive riches, and, with this view, plundered both the temples of the 
Gallic deities, and the land of allies as well as enemies. Everything^ 
in fact, that might terve to augment his power, appeared to hhn just and 
honourable ; and Cicero relates, that he had often on his lips the well' 
known passage of £urq)ides, that, if justice is to be violated, it ought !» 
be for sovereign power. Do you know the lines to which I alluda, 

H. It occum in the << Phoenisss," in the speech of Eteocles to his 

Jtlwtp yip ^iuutif xf^ npavptios rfyi 

But was no notice taken by the Roman senate of the coume of conduct 
in which he thus openly indulged 1 . 

Dr. B. His enemies at Rome were by no means inactive, and an 
effort was made to have commissioners sent by the senate, for the pur- 
pose of investigating the chaxges prefezied against him ; but the splen- 
dour of , his numerous victories, the favour of the people, and the htrga 
sums which he privately distributed, caused every attempt of the kind te 
(ffdve ineffectual. 

H. I have seen it remarked somewhere, Doctor Barton, that the sol 

1. TlM tMl war broke oat, according Co Saetonhis,' befi»ra>tlM ezjllrStiOB IdT Stu 
meodH period of Uto yesia. So PZtcfaf«^ 9, 15, hv yip ood2 iim woTuitiinf wtp 
raXorlay, «. t. X. 

S. P/icI; 1. e.— H Vit. Potnp. e. fi7.— jtjvpion. B. COt. ft. p.73.-^KrM. H. /V. 7. SI 
Oompare, bowever, the remarks of Boyto, Diet. HitL s. v. Cifor . 

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diton of the Tepublic became erentoaUy, by reason of his strong personal 
tnflaenee, the soldiers of Csssar. 

Dr. B. The remark is perfectly correct. His soldiers became 
strongly attached to him, in consequence of the care that "he erer evinced 
for their comfort and emolnmeqt. He seemed, indeed, to be merely 
the depositary of the riches which he accmnnlated from day to day, and 
to set a value on these only aa they furnished him with prizes for valonr. 
and with recompenses for military merit His character in this respecC 
bears a striking resemblance to that of the celebrated Napoleon. Thou^ 
perhaps, after all, the motive of each wiU be fomid to have been a 
purely selfish one ; for he who labours to accomplish a certain end must, 
in order to succeed, have instruments fitted for his purpose, and under 
his absolute control. If soldiers be devoted to their leader, he is al- 
ready more than half victorious. 

H. Talking of Napoleon, doctor, I have lately seen a French work 
which purports to contain his military criticisms on the campaigns of 
Cesar.' Do you regard it as possessing any claims to authenticity t 

Dr. B. I am surprised at your question, Henry. The work to which 
you refer is a miserable affair, which bears the impress of falsehood on 
its very front. The criticisms which it contains are below contempt, 
and never could have emanated from the great leader of modem times. 
They are the puny ofispring of some anonymous scribbler. Let me 
give yon, in their stead, the remarks of another writer, that are far more 
worthy of your notice. I will read them to you from the volume befora 
aie.* ^ ** Though the Commentaries on the Gallic War compreheni 
but a small extent of time, and are not the general history of a nation 
they embrace events of the highest importance, and detail, perh^M, the 
greatest military operations to be found in ancient stoxy. We see in 
them all that is great and consummate in the art of war.. The ablest 
commander of the most wariike people on earth records the history of 
his own campaigns. Placed at the head of the finest army ever formed 
in the world, and one devoted to his fortunes, but opposed by prowess 
only second to their own, he and the soldien he commanded may be 
praised almost in the words in which Nestor praised the heroes who had 
gone before him ;* for the Gauls and Germans were among the bravest 
> nd most warlike nations then on earth. In his clear and scientific de- 
tails of military operations, Cssar is reckoned superior to evezy one, 
except, perhaps, Polybius. In general, too, when he speaks of himself^ 

i. Prici$ dea Guerret de JuUa CUar, par PEmperew IfapoUont Paris, 18S0. 
fl Jhmttr^M Jbmum LiUrature, toL tt., p^ 171, teq. 
% DmOop. Rom. JM. vol. U. y. 177. 

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it i0 without affectation or amgance. He taUw of CaBsar aa of an »- 
different person, and always maintains the character which ho haa thus 
assomed ; indeed, it can hardly be coneeiyed that ho had so small a 
share in the great actions he describea, as would appear from his own 
representations.' With the exception of the false colours with which 
he disguises his ambitious projects against the liberties of his countr]( 
ereiything seems to be told with fidelity and candour." 

H. Do you think that he is as accurate in his account of German •• 
•f Gallic manners 1 

Br. B. I do not. He had remained so long in Gaul, and had so thor- 
eiQghly studied the habits and customs of its people, for his own poUtica^ 
purposes, that whatever is delivered concerning that country may be 
confidently relied on. But his intercourse with the German tribes was 
only occasional, and chiefly of a military description. Some of his ob- 
servations on their manners, as their hospitality, the continence of 
their youth, and the successive occupation of different lands by the same 
families, are confirmed by Tacitus ; but in other particulars, especially 
in what relates to their religion, he is contradicted by that great historian. 
The researches of modem writers have also thrown some doubts on the 
accuracy of Cssar's German topography.'. 

H. With regard to the eighth book of the Commentaries on the GalUo 
war, is there not some doubt which of the two be the author, Hirtius or 

Br. B. There is ; but I believe that a careful examination of the point 
will lead to a conviction that the book in question came from the pen of 

H. Is this the same Hirtius that fell at Mutina 1 

Br. B. The same. Either from affection or gratitude, he was always 
attached to the party of Cssar ; but, after the death of the dictator, he 
declared against Antony. Being created consul along with Pansa, he 
set out with his colleague to attack Antony, who was besieging Brutus 
in the city of Mutina, the modem Modena ; and, as you well know, 
they gained a victory over their opponent, but Hirtius was killed in the 
battle, and Pansa died a few days after of his wound. 

H. You made some remarks, doctor, in the commencement of this 
conversation, respecting Cssar's style ; allow me to ask what you would 
regard as its most distinguishing characteristic t 

Br. B. Its perfect equality of expressicm. There was in the mind of 
Cssar a serene and everf dignity. In temper nothing appeared to agi- 
«fte or move him ; in conduct, nothing diverted him from the attainment 

I. JhaUop, Rom. Lit. toi. U, p. ITT. 

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of his ead. In like toasanBtf in his style^ there is nothing swelled or de> 
pvened, end not one word which is not chosen with a view to its ulti- 
mate efEsct, without any Tiew towards embellishment. The opinion of 
Cieeio, who compared the style of Cesar to the unadomed aimpticxty 
of an ancient Greek atatne, may be considered as the highest praise^ 
■ince he certainly entertained no faTOorable feelings towards the author ; 
jod the style was Tory different fiom that which he himself employed in 
his haxangnes or philosophical works, or even in his coneqxmdenca 
The same writer thinks, that this exquisite purity was not insensibly ob- 
tained, fiom domestic habit and familiar conTorsation, but £nm a»sida« 
aas study and thorough knowledge of the Latin tongue.' 

H. Still, however, notwithstanding its purity and elegance, do you not 
think that the style of Cssar is somewhat deficient in both vivacity and 

Dr. B. I do, Henxy. And you will also occasionally find a term in- 
troduced that militates even against the acknowledged purity of his Ian* 
guage. But still, if we consider, that these memoirs were hastily drawn 
up during the tumult and anxiety of campaigns, and were noted down, 
firom day to day, without care or premeditation, we shall be very easily 
mclined to pardon a deficiency of vigour on the one hand, and an occa- 
sional deviation firom purity on the other. 

H. The remark which yon have just made, doctor, reminds me of a 
question that occurred to me the other day relative to Cesar's EpkemertM^ 
or Diary. Do you thmk liiat this work and the Commentaries are the 
same or different productions 1 

Dr. B. I am inclined to think with Bayle,' that they are distinct works, 
and that the Ephemeris, or Ephemerides, may have been a journal ol 
Cesar's life. There are, it is true, several objections to this opinion, 
wmch are urged with great ability by Fabricius, Yossius, and others. 
But still the opposite side of the question appears by far the more rea* 
•enable one. Servius quotes the Epkemerides, as does also Plutarch, 
and Frontinus and Polysnus seem to refer to them, since they relate 
many of Cesar's stratagems not mentioned in the Cbnunentanes, and 
must, in all probability, have read them in the other work. The circun 
stance quoted by Servius^ from the Ephemerides is a very remarkabjis 
one. He states, that Cesaf, on one occasion, was made prisoner by 
the Gauls, and, being hurried along, was met by a GalUo chieftain, who 
¥ claimed in an insulting tone, when he beheld hhn in this state, " C«< 

I. Bnaugf e. JX-^Dunlopt Rom, LU. toI. U., p. 180. 
i. Dia. Hist. &&, s. V. Ctaar. 

B. Ad,Virg.Mn,,r.74X 


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Xnil LIFS aKD writings of CiBSAR. 

MT, Ctfsor." Now, aocoidiog to Servius, thiB proper same Ctuar hap' 
peoed to mean, in the Gallic tongce, ** let him go," and the conaeqfaenoc 
was, that the persons who held Casar prisoner, and who, it seems, were 
igtorant of his rank, mistook the words of the Gallic chief for an ezder 
to release him, and, in consiequence, allowed hhn to escape. 

H. Rather a whimsical story, doctor. 

Dr. B. Qa'.te so, Henry ; and if Celtic scholars had only viewed &t iu 
this light, they would have heen saved a groat deal of trouble in endeav* 
ounng to find, a Gaelic word sounding like Ctuar, and signifying, to 
quote the language of Servius, dimitte. But we have said enou^ at 
present respecting the life and writings of the Roman commander. His 
other productions will form the subject of a convemat'on when Bie i 
ij^in in Michaelmas term. Fan^w Vii. 

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i^ortnit . . Tofae€tk«uafj^tig9 

Map of Ancient France Page 1 

Attempt of the-HelTetii to cross the Rhone and force the Intrencb- 

ments of Cssar . t 

Disposition of CaBsar's Army to receive the Attack of the Helretii . 14 
Battle between Cssar and Ariovistus ...... 31 

Camp and Position of Cssar after the Passage of the River Axona. 

and Position of the Forces of the Belga . . . • « 38 
Arrijral of Cssar at the River Sambre, and his Battle with the Belgs 42 
Cssarsurprisesandattacks the Camp of the Germans ... 72 
Plan of the Bridge made across the Rhine by Cssar in ten Days 75 

Titurius Sabinns and Aurunculeius Cotta, being attacked by Ambio> 

rix, form their Troops into an Gib . . . . . .103 

Labienms, by a pretended Flight, induces the Treviri to cross the 

River in their front, and defeats them 114 

Mori Yegetiani . ...•••• 152 

Muri Oallicani . 152 

Alesia ... 177 

Roman Consular Camp according to Poivonis . . .481 

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Chap. 1. Divisions and description of GauL 

n. The war with the Hbltbtii. 
Chap. 2. The Helvetii, dissatisfied with their existing settlements m 
Gaul, and instigated by Orgetoriz, form the design of migrating, and 
seeking a larger and more commodious territory in the same country 
They hare also in view, as an ulterior object, the sovereign control 
of Gaul. 3. P^parations for this step. Orgetonz appointed to su- 
perintend them. He forms a secret plan for self-aggrandizement with 

- two inflaential nobles in two other states. 4. The plot discovered. 
Orgetorix put to his trial. Rescued by his retainers. Death. 5 
The Helvetii go on notwithstanding with their preparations for remo- 
ving. 6. Two routes present themselves. 7. Cesar resolves to pre- 
vent their intended march through the Roman province. They send 
ambassadors requesting permission to pursue this route. 8. Works 
erected by Caesar. Answer in the negative given to the Helvetian 
ambassadors. The itelvetii attempt to force the passage of the Rhone. 
Are repulsed. 9. They obtain permission from the Sequani to past 
through their territories. 10. Plans of Caesar to pitevent their prog- 
ress. 11. Complaints of the Gauls respecting the injuries they were 
enffering from tho Helvetii. 12. The Tigurini are defeated by the 
Romans neiar the rver Arar. 13, 14. Ambassadors sent to Cesar by 
the Helvetii. His answer to them. 15. The cavalry of the G^aOic 
Mudliazies defeated by the Helvetii. The maarch of both araoiea 

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16-20. Cssar cmnphins of the dilatory conduct of the Aedui in sap- 
plying proTisions. Llbcus replies in extenuation, anft discloses the 
ambitious designs and treacheiy of Bumnorix. Cassar paidons the 
latter at the instance of his brother Divitiacus. 21, 22. P. Considius 
causes by his fears a favourable opportunity to be lost of attacking thp 
HelTetl' to adrantage. 23-26. Engagement between the Rotnans and 
Helvetii. The latter entirely routed. 27,28. They submit to the 
Romans, and are ordered to return to their own country. 29. Com 
wratiye estimate of the number of the Hehretii that left home, and of 
ue number that returned after the war. 
III. Wab with Ariovistus. 

Chap. 30-32. A general assembly of Gaul called with Caesar's per 
mission. Complaints preferred to him against Arioyistus and the 
Gennans. 33. Caesar resolves to interfere. 34. Sends ambassadors 
to Arioyistus requesting an mterview. Answer^f Arioyistus declining 
one. 35, 36. A second embassy sent, with the demands of Caesar. 
Answer of Arioyistus. 37, 38. Ciesar hastens after Arioyistus, and 
occupies Yesontio. 39. Remains at Yesontio for a few days to ffro- 
cure provisions for his army. The Roman soldiers are seized with a 
panic at the accounts which they receive of the great stature and cour 
age of the Germans. 40. Caesar's speech to them. 41. Good effects of 
this harangue. March. 42-46. Interview between Caesar and Ario< 
vistus. It is broken off by an attack of the Gennan horse. 47. Ne 
gotiations renewed by Ariovistus. Roman ambassadors imprisoned. 
48. Ariovistus avoids coming to a battle. Meantime skirmishes oi 
the horse tak^ place daily. German mode of fighting described. 
49, 50. Caesar's two scamps. The smaller one attacked by Ariovistusw 
Caesar learns from the Gennan prisoners why their countr3rmeD 
civoided a general engagement. 51-54. The two armies come at 
last to a conflict, and the Germans are defeated. The ambassadors 
who had been detained by Ariovistus are retaken by the Romans. 
Caesar places his army in winter quarters under the charge of Labienus 
and then sets off for Cisalpine Gaul to hold his circuit. 

1. 'Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, 'quarani 
iinam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, ^ertiam, qui ipsorum 
tingua ^Celts, nostra G|illi, appellantur. Hi omnes %ngua« 
Institutis, legibus inter se difiemnt. ''Gallos ab Aquitanis 
Garomna flumen, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana dividit 
HoTum omnium ^ortissimi simt Belgs, propterea^quod a 

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LIBER .1 CAP. II. 8 

eulttt atque hmnanitate Provinciae longissime abtiint, ^mini- 
meque ad eos mercatores ssspe commeant, atque ea, quae 
ad efieminandos animos pertinent, important ; 'proximique 
sunt Genhanis, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, quibuscum con- 
tinenter bellum gerunt : qua de causa ^Helvetii quoque reli- 
quos Gallos virtute praecedunt, quod fere quotidianis prosliis 
cum Germanis contendunt, ^cum aut suis finibus eos prohi- 
bent, aut ipsi in eorum finibus bellum gerunt. / ^Eorum una 
pars, quam Gallos ^obtinere dictum esll, initium capit x flu- 
mine Rhbdano ; 'continetur Garumna flumine, Ocearo, lini- 
bus Belgarum ; attingit etiam ab Sequanis et Helv.tiis flu- 
men Rhenum; "vergit ad septentriones. Belgar 'ab ex 
tremis Galliae finibus oriuntur ; pertinent ad inferiorem par- 
tem fiuminis Rheni ; N*°8pectant in septentriones et orientem 
Bolem.* Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenseos montes, 
"et eam partem Oceani, quae est ad Hispaniam, pertinet; 
*'spectat inter occasum solis et septentriones. 

2. Apud Helvetios longe nobilissimus et ditissimus fuit 
*Orgetorix. Is, "Marco Messala et Marco Pisone Consul- 
ibus, *^egni cupiditate inductus, conjurationem nobilitatis 
fecit ; et *®civitati persuasit, ut "de finibus suis cum omnibus 
copiis exirent : perfacile esse, cum virtute omnibus praesta- 
rent, totius Galliae J^imperio potiri. ^''Id hoc facilius eis 
persuasit, quod undique loci natura Helve til continentur: 
una ex parte flumine Rheno, latissimo atque altissimo, qui 
agrum Helvetium a Germanis dividit : altera ex parte, 
"monte Jura altissimo, qui est inter Sequanos et Helvetios , 
tertia, *4acu Lemanno, et flumine Rhodano, qui Provinciam 
nostram ab Helvetiis dividit. His rebus fiebat, ut et'^inus 
late vagarentur, et minus facile finitimis bellum inferre pos- 
sent : qua de causa homines bellandi cupidi magno dolore 
afliciebantur. "Pro multitudine au'em hominum, et pro 
gloria belli atque fortiCudinis, angustob se fines habere aibi 
trabantur, ^qui in longitudinem millia passuum ducenta et 
quadraginta, in latiitudinem centum et ot^toginta patebant. 

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3. 'His rebus adducti, et auctoritate Orgetongis perinoti 
coastituerunt ea, qu» ad proficiscendum pertinerent, com- 
parare ; jumentorum et 'carrorum quam maximum numerum 
coemere ; 'sementes quam maximas facere, ut in itinere 
copia frmnenti suppeteret ; cum proximis civitatibus pacem 
et amicitiam confirmare. Ad eas res conficiendas biemiium 
sibi satis esse duxerunt; ^ tertium amium profectionem 
lege confirmant. 'Ad eas res conficiendas Orgetorix deli- 
gitur. Is sibi legationem ad civitates suscepit. * In eo 
itinere persuadet Castico, Catamantaledis filio, Sequano, 
cujus pc ter ^egnum in Sequanis multos annos obtinnerat, 
^t ''s. sen itu populi Romani amicus appellatus erat, ut reg- 
num in civitate sua "occuparet, quod pater ante habuerat ; 
itemque Dumnorigi ^duo, fratri Divitiaci, qui eo tempore 
^rincipatum in civitate obtinebat, ac maxime plebi A;ceptus 
erat, ut idem conaretur persuadet, eique filiam suam in mat- 
rimonium dat. '^Perfacile factu esse, illis {MFobat, conata 
perficere, propterea quod ipse suae civitatis imperium obten- 
turus esset : non esse dubium, "quin totius Gallis plurimum 
Helvetii possent : se suis copiis suoque exercitu **illis regna 
conciliaturuip, confirmat. Hac oratione adducti, inter se 
fiiem et jusjurandum dant, *'et, regno occupato, per tres po- 
tentissimos ac '^firmissimos populos *Hotius Galliae sese 
potiri posse sperant. 

4. ''£a res ut est Helvetiis per indicium enunciata, 
'^moribus suis Orgetorigem ex vinculis causam dicere coe 
gerunt : 'Mamnatum posnam seqiil oportebat, ut igni ere 
maretur. Die constituta '^causaB dictionis, Orgetorix ad ju- 
dicium '"omnem suam familiam, ad hominum millia d^cem, , 
undique coegit ; et omnes clientes, ^'obaeratosque suos, quo- 
rum magnum numerum habebat, "eodem conduxit : per eos, 
ne causam dlceret, se eripuit. Cum civitas, ob earn rem 
^citata, armis jus s aum exsequi conaretur, multitudinem- 
que hominum ex agris.^magistratus cogerent, Orgetorix 
mortuus est : nequo abest suspicio, ut Helvetii arbitrantur 
"ouin ipse sibi mortem consciverit 

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5. Post ejas moitem nihilo minus Helvetii id, quod con- 
BUtuei:aiU, facere conantur, ut e finibus suis c^xeant. Ubi 
j^m se ad earn rcni paratos esse arbitrati sunt, 'oppida sua 
omnia, numero ad duodecim, yicos ad quadringentos, reliqua 
privata sedificia incendunt ; fruihentum omne, prffiter quod 
secum porta^i erant, comburunt ; ut, Momum reditionis 
spe sublata, paratiores ad omnia pericula subeunda essent « 
vrium mensium molita cibaria sibi quemque domo efferre 
jubent. , Persuadent Raiiracis, et Tulingis, et Latobrigis, 
finitimis, uti, ^eodem usi consilio, oppidis suis vicisque ex- 
ustis, upa cum iis proficiscantur : Boiosque, qui ^ans Rhe 
num incoluerant, et in agnmi Noiicum transierant Noreiam 
que oppugnarant, ^eceptos ad se, socios sibi adsciscunt. 

6. Erant omnino itinera duo, ''quibus itineribus domo 
cxire possent : unum per Sequanos, angustum et difficile, 
inter montem Juram et flumen Rhodanum, Mx qua singuli 
cam ducerentur ; mons autem altissimus impendebat, ^t 
facile perpauci prohibere possent : alterum per *°Provinciam 
nostram, multo facilius atque expeditius, propterea quod 
Helvetiorum inter fines, et "AUobrogum, qui nuper pacati 
erant, Rhodanus fluit, isque nonnuUis locis *Vado transitur. 
Extremum oppidum* AUobrogum est, proximumque Helveti- 
orum finibus, Geneva. ^Ex eo oppido pons ai Helvetios 
pertinet. AUobrogibus sese vel persuasuros, quod nondum 
"bono animo in Populum Romanum viderentur, existima- 
bant ; vel vi coaciuros, ut per sues fines eos ire paterentur. 
Omnibus rebus ad profectionem comparatis, '*diem dicunt, 
qua die ad ripam Rbodani omnes conveniant : ^^s dies erat 
*'ante diem quintum Kalendas Aprilis, *^ucio Pisone, Aulo 
(^abinio Consulibus. 

7. Caesari cum id nuntis^ra esset, eos per Provinciam 
nostram i^er facere conari, maturat ^®ab urbe proficisci, et, 
^quam maximis potest itineribus, in **Galliam ulteriorem 
eontendit, et ad Genevam pervenit : ^Provinciae tpti quam 
maximum militum numerum imperat (erat ^omnino in 

A 2 

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Gallia ulieriore legio una) ; pontem, qui erat 'ad Geneyain 
jubet rescindi. Ubi de ejus adventu Helvetii 'certioreB facti 
sunt, legates ad eum mittnnt, nobilissimos civitatis, cujus 
legationis Nameius et Verudoctius 'piincipem locum obtin- 
ebant, qui dicerent, ^* sibi esse in animo, sine ullo male- 
ficio iter per Provinciam facere, propterea quod aliud iter 
haberent nullum: rogare, ut ejus yoluntate id sibi facere 
liceat." Caesar, quod memoria tenebat, Lucium Cassium 
Consulem 'occisum, exercitumque ejus ab Helvetiis pulsum. 
et 'sub jugum missum, concedendum non putabat : neque 
homines inimico animo, Mata facultate per Provinciam itin- 
eris faciundi, temperaturois ab injuria et maleficio existi- 
mabat. Tamen, \it spatium^tercedere posset, dum nulites, 
quos imperaverat, convenirent, legatis respondit, " diem se 
ad deliberandum sumturum ; si quid vellent, 'ante diem Idus 
Apriles reverterentur." 

8. Interea ea legipne, quam secum habebat, militibusque. 
qui ex Provincia convenerant, a lacu Lemanno, *°qui in flu- 
men Rhodanum infiuit, "ad montem Juram, qui fines Sequa- 
norum ab Helvetiis djvidit, **millia passuum decem novem 
murum, in altitudinem pedum sedecim, fossamque perducit 
Eo bpere perfecto, praesidia disponit, ""castella communit, 
-auo facilius, sii)6e invito/;ransire conarentur, prohibere pos- 
4it. Ubi ea dies, ^^quarn constituera'c cum legatis, venit, et 
iegati ad eum revertenmt, %egat, "se more et exemplo 
Populi Romani posse iter uUi per Provjnciam dare; et, si 
vim facere conentur, prohibiturum *®ostendit." Helvetii, ea 
spe dejecti, '''navibus junctis ratibusque compluribus factis 
dii vadis Rhodani, *^qua minima altitudo fluminis erat, non« 
nnnquam interdiu, saepius noctu, si perrumpere possent, 
conatl, operis munitione et militum concursu et telis repulsi* 
hoc conatu d^stiterunt. 

9. Relinquebatur una per Sequanos via, qua, Sequams 
invitis, ^^ropter angustias ire non poterant. His cum sua 
Sponte persuadere non possent, legatos ad Dumnorii^eni 

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iEdaum mittunt, *ut eo depiedatore a Sequanis impetrarent 
Dumnorix 'gratia et largitione apud Sequanos pluiimiun po- 
terat, et Helvetiis ers^ amicus, quod ex ea civitate Orgeto- 
rigis filiam ^ matrimonium duxerat ; et, cupiditate regni 
adductus, ^ovis rebus studebat, et quam plurimas civitates 
'suo sibi beneficio habere obstrictas volebat. Itaque "reiii 
soscipit, et a Sequanis impetrat, ut per fines suos ire Hel- 
vetios patiantur ; obsidesque uti inter sese dent, perficit : 
Sequ^oii, n^ itinere Helvetios prohibeant ; Helvetii, ut sine 
maleficio et injuria transeant. 

10. 'Caesari renunciatur Helvetiis esse in animo, per 
agrum Sequanorum et iEdiiorum iter in Santonmn fines 
facere, qui non longe a Tolosatium finibus absunt, "quae civ- 
itas est in Provincia. 'Id si fieret, intelligebat magno cum 
Pfovinciae periculo futurum, ut homines bellicosos, Populi 
Romani inimicos, *^ocis patentibus maximeque frumentariis 
finitimos haberet. Ob eas causas "ci munitioni, quam fe^ 
cerat, Titum Labienum legatum praefecit : ipse ^'in Italiam 
magnis itineribus contendit, duasque ibi legiones conscribit, 
et tres, quae circum Aquileiam hiemabant, ex hibemis educit ; 
et, **qua proximum iter in ulteriorem Galliam per Alpes 
erat, cum his quinque legionibus ire contendit. Ibi Gen 
trones, et Graioceli, et Gaturiges, locis superioribus occupa 
tis, itinere exercitum prohibere conantur. ^^Gompluribuf 
his proeliis pulsis, ab Ocelo, quod est ''^citerioris Provincia 
extremum, in fines Yocontiorum ulterioris Provincial die sep 
timo pervenit ; inde in Allobrogum fines : ab Allobrogibui^ 
in Segusianos exercitum ducit. Hi sunt extra Provinciam 
trans Rhodanum primi. 

11. Helvetii jam per angustias et fines Sequanorum suae 
copias transduxerant, et in JSduorum fines pervenerant, 
eorumque agros populabant^r. ^dui, cum se suaque ab 
iis defendere non possent, fegatos ad Caesarem mit^t '^o- 
gadmi auxilium : " ita se omni tempore de Populo Romano 
meritos esse, u^ paene in conspectu exeTcitus nostri agri 

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vastari, liberi eorum in servitutem abduci, oppida expuguar 
noD debuerint." Eodem tempore iBdui Ambarri, *neces 
sarii et consanguinei iEduprum, Caesarem certiorem faciunt, 
sese^ depopulatis agris, non facile ab oppidis vim bostium 
prohibere : item Allobroges, qui trans Rbodanum vicos pos- 
Bessionesque habebant, fuga se ad Caesarem recipiunt, et 
Meraonstrant, sibi praeter agri solum nihil esse reliqui. 
Quibus rebus adductus Cssar, non expectandum sibi sta- 
tuit, dum, 'omnibus fortunis sociorum con^umtis, in ^San- 
tonos Helvetii pervenirent. 

12. ^Flumen est Arar, quod per fines iEduorum et Sc- 
quanorum in Rhodanum inflmt, %credibili lenitate, ita ut 
oculis, in utram partem fluat, judicari non possit. ''Id Hel- 
vetii ratibus ac lintribus junctis transibant. Ubi per explo- 
ratores Caesar certior factus est, Hres jam copiarum partes 
Helvetios id flumen transduxisse, quartam vero partem citra 
fiumen Ararim reliquam esse ; ®de tertia vigilia cum legi- 
onibus tribus e castris profectus, ad eam partem pervenit, 
quae nondum flumen transierat. Eos *°impeditos et inopi- 
nantes aggressus, magnam eorum partem concidit : reliqui 
fugae sese mandarunt atque in proximas sylvas abdiderunt. 
"Is pagus appellabatur Tiguiinus : nam omnis civitas Hel- 
vetia *^in quatuor pagos divisa est. '®Hic pagus unus, cum 
domo exisset, patrum nostrorum memoria, Lucium Cassium 
Consulem interfecerat, et ejus exercitum sub jugum miserat. 
Ita, sive casu, sive "consilio Deorum immortalium, quae 
pars civitatis Helvetiae insignem calamitatera Populo Ro- 
mano intulerat, ea *^rinceps poenas persolvit. Qua in re 
Caesar non solum publicas, sed etiam privatas injurias ultHs 
est, ^*quod ejiis soceri Lucii Pisonis avum, Lucium Piso- 
nem legatum, Tigurini eodem prcelio, quo Cassium, intcr- 

13. Hoc proelio facto, reliquas copias Helvetiorum ul 
"consequi posset, pontem in Arare faciendum curat atque 
ita exercitum transducit. Helvetii, repentino ojus adventu 

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conmiod, ^cum id, quod ipsi diebus viginti aegemmft con 
feceraat, ut flumen transirent, iino ilium die fecisse inlelli- 
gerent, legsitos ad eum mittunt: 'cujus legationis Diidco 
princeps fuit, qui bello Cassiaao dux HeWetiorum fuerat 
l« ita 'cum Caesaie agit : <* Si pacem Populus Romanus cum 
Helvetiis faceret, in earn partem ituios ^atque ibi futnros 
Helvetios, ubi eos Caesar constituisset atque esse voluisset : 
sin bello persequi perseveraret, reminisceretur et ^reteris 
incommodi Populi Romani et pristinas yirtutis Helyetiorum 
^uod improviso unum pagum adortus esset, cum ii, qui 
flumen transissent, suis auxilium ferre non possent, ne ob 
earn rem aut suae magno opere virtuti tribueret aut ipsos 
despiceret : se ita a patribus majoribusque suis didicisse, ut 
magis viitute, ''quam dolo aut insidiis, niterentur. Quare 
^e committeret, ut is locus, ubi constitissent, ex calamitate 
Populi Romani et intemecione exercitus nomen caperet, 
aut memoriam proderet." 

14. His Caesar ita respondit : '" Eo sibi minus dubitati- 
onis dari, quod eas res, quas legati Helvetii commemoras- 
sent, memoria teneret : *°atque eo gravius ferre, quo minus 
merito Populi Romani accidissent ; "qui si alicujus injuriae 
sibi conscius fiiisset, non fiiisse difficile cavere ; sed eo de- 
ceptum, quod neque commissum a se intelligf ret, quare 
timeret; neque sine causa timendum putaret. "Quod si 
ceteris contumeliae oblivisci vellet; num etiain recentium 
injuriarum, *'quod eo invito iter per Provinciam per vim 
tentassent, quod iBduos, quod Ambarros, quod Allobrogas 
vexassent, memoriam deponere posse ? Quod sua victoria 
tam insolenter gloriarentur, quodque tam diu se impune 
tulisse injurias admirarentur, eodem pertinere : consuesse 
enim Deos immortales, *^quo gravius homines ex commuta* 
tione rerum doleant, quos pro scelere eorum ulcisci velint, 
his secundiores interdum res et diutumiorem impunitatem 
concedere. '"Cum ea ita sint, tamen, si obsides ab iis sibi 
dentur, iiti ea, quae polUoeantur, factnros intelligat, et si 

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iEduis de injariis, qiias ipsis sociisque eorum mtnleriiili 
item si Allobrogibiu satisfaciant, sese cum iis pacem esse 
factmrom." Divico respondit: '*Ita Helvetios a m'ajoribns 
suis ixistitutos esse, uti obsides accipere, non dare, con 
Buerint : 'ejus rei Populum Rcmianum esse testem." Hoc 
responso dato, discessit. 

15. Postero die castra ex eo loco movent : idem facit 
Ceesar ; equitatumque omnem, ad numerum quatuor npllium^ 
quern ex omni Provincia et ^duis atque eorum sociis co- 
actum habebat, prsmittit, qui videant, quas in partes hostes 
iter faciant. 'Qui, cupidius noyissimum agmen insecuti, 
^alieno loco cum equitatu Helvetiorum proelium commit- 
tunt ; et pauci de nostris eadunt. Quo prdelio ^sublati Hel- 
retii, quod quingentis equitibus tantam multitudinem equi« 
tum propulerant, audacius subsistere, nonnunquam ex nov- 
issimo agmine prcelio nostros lacessere, coepenmt. Caesai 
suos a proelio continebat, ac ^ds habebat in prsaentia hos- 
tem rapinis, pabulationibus, populationibusque, prohibere. 
Ita dies circiter quindecim iter fecerunt, uti inter novissimuro 
hostium agmen et ^nostrum primiun non amplius quinis am 
senis miUibus passuum interesset. 

16. interim quotidie Cssar iBduos framentum, quod 
essent pub]fbe polliciti, fiagitare : nam propter frigora, quod 
Gallia *°sub septentrionibus, ut ante dictum est, posita est, 
non modo frumenta in agris matura non erant, sed ne pab- 
uli quidem satis magna copia "suppetebat : ^^eo autem fru- 
mento, quod flumine Arare navibus subvexerat, propterea 
uti minus poterat, quod iter ab Arare Helvetii averterant, a 
quibus discedere nolebat. *^Diem ex die ducere ^dui; 
**conferri, comportari, adesse dicere. Ubi *^se diutius duci 
intellexit, et diem instare, quo die frumentum militibufl 
metiri oporteret ; convocatis eorum principibus, quorum 
magnam copiam in castris habebat, in his Divitiaco et 
lisco, '^qui summo magistratu praeerat (quem '^VergobretiUD 
appellant ^dui, qui creatur annuus, et vits n^eisque in 

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LIBE& I. CAP. XVUI. ] 1 

8U08 habet potest^em), graviter eos accusat, qaod, cum 
neque emi, neqae ex.agris snnii posset, Ham necessario 
tempore, tarn propinquis liostibus, ab lis non sublevetiir; 
praesertim cum magna ex parte eormn precibus adductus 
bcllum susceperit-c multo etiam grayiii8,'qiiod sit destitctus, 

17 Tum demmn Liscus, oratione Gassaris adductus, 
^piod antea tacuerat, proponit i " Esse nomiullos, quorum 
auctoritas apui plebem ^lurimum valeat ; qui ^riyati plus 
possiut, quam ipsi magistratus. ^Hos seditiosa atque im- 
proba oratione multitudinem deterrere, ne frumentum con- 
ferant, quod praestare debeant. ''Si jam principatum Galliae 
obtinere non possint, Gallorum, quam.Romanorum imperia 
perferre, satius esse, fneque dubitare debere, quin, si Hel- 
vetios superaverint Romani, una cimi reliqua Gallia ^duis 
libertatem sint erepturi. "Ab iisdem nostra consilia, queeque 
in castris gerantur, bostibus enunciari : bos *°a se coerceri 
non posse. Quin etiam, quod necessario rem coactus 
Caesari enunciarit, intelligere sese, quanto id cum periculo 
fecerit, et ob earn causam, quam diu potuerit, tacuisse,'' 

18. Caesar bac oratione Lisci Dumnorigem, Divitiaci fra- 
irem, ^'designari sentiebat: sed, quod pluribus praesentibus 
eas res jactari nolebat, celeriter concilium dimittit, Liscum 
retinet : ^^quaerit ex solo ea, qua; in conventu dixerat. Dicit 
liberius atque audacius. Eadem secreto ab aliis quaerit ; 
reperit esse vera. " Ipsum esse Dumnorigem, simuna au- 
dacia, magna apud plebem propter liberalitatem gratia, cu- 
pidum rerum novarum : "complures annos portoria, reliqua- 
que omnia ^duorum vecti^dia, parvo pretio redemta ha- 
bere, propterea quod illo ^^licente contra liceri audeat nemo. 
His rebus et suam rem familiaxem auxisse, et ^^facultatos 
ad largiendum magnas comparasse : magnum numenmi 
cquitatus suo stuntu semper alere et circum se babero: 
neque solum domi, sed etiam apud finitimas civitates '^ar- 
giter posse : atque hujus polentiae causa matrem in Bitun' 
^ B 

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gibiui, boBiini illic nobilissimo ac potentissimo, *cdlocaa86\ 
ipsum ex Uelvetiis uxorem habere j sororem ex matte et 
propinquas suas nuptum in alias civitates coUocasse : favere 
et cupere Helvetiis propter earn affinitatem : 'odisse etiam 
8U0 nomine Caesarem et Romanos, quod eonim adventu po- 
tentia ejus diminuta, et Divitiacus frater ^ antiquum locum 
gratis atque honoris sit restitutus. ^Si quid accidat Ro- 
manis, summam in spem per Helvetios regni obtinendi 
venire ; ^perio Populi Romani non modo de regno, sed 
etiam de ea, quam habeat, gratia desperare." ^eperiebat 
etiam inquirendo Caesar, " quod prcelium equestre adversum 
paucis ante diebus esset factum, initium ejus fugae factum a 
Dumnorige atque ejus equitibus" (nam 'equitatu, quern 
auxilio Caesari iEdui miserant, Diunnorix praeerat), " eorum 
fiiga reliquum esse equitatum perterritum." 

19. Quibus rebus cognitis, cum ad has suspiciones 'cer- 
tissimae res accederent, quod per fines Sequanorum Helve- 
tios transduxisset, quod obsides inter eos dandos cura^set, 
quod ea omnia non modo ^"injussu suo et civitatis, sed etiam 
inscientibus ipsis fecisset, quod a magistratu iBduorum ac- 
cusaretur : satis esse causae arbitrabatur, ^'quare in eum aut 
ipse animadverteret, aut civitatem animadverterejuberet. 
His omnibus rebus unum repugnabat, quod Divitiaci fratris 
siunmum in Populum Romanum studium, summam in se 
'Voluntatem, egregiam fidem, justitiam, temperantisffl^^Mg- 
noverat : nam, ne ejus supplicio Divitiaci animum offende- 
^et, verebatuTj. Itaque priusquam quicquam conaretur, Divit- 
iacum ad se vocari jubet et, quotidianis interpretibus re- 
motis, per '''Caium Valerium Procillum, principem GallisB 
provinciae, familiarem suum, "cui summam onmium rermn 
fidem habebat, cum eo colloquitur : simul commmonefacit 
quae ipso praesente in concilio Gallorum de Dumnorige sint 
dicta, et '^ostendit, quae separatim quisque de eo apud so 
dixerit: petit atque hortatur, ut *^sine ejus offensione animi 
^el ipse de eo, causa cognita, statuat, vel civitatem^ statuere 

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i«IBSK I. CjkJP. XXII 1^5 

20. Diritiacus muftis ctun laciymis, Cssarem complexus, 
absecrare coBpit, *<* ne quid gravius in fratrem statuerot : 
scire se, ilia esse vera, nee quenquam ex ep plus, quam se, 
doibris capere, 'propterea quod, cum ipse gratia plurimum 
domi atque in reliqua GaUia« ille minimum propter adoles- 
centiam posset, per se crevisset ; quibus opibus ac nerris, 
mm solum ad minuendam gratiam, sed paene ad pemicieni 
Buam uteretur : sese tamen et amore fratemo et existima- 
done vulgi cOmmoveri. Quod si quid 'ei a Cssare gravius 
accidisset, cum ipse eum locum amicitis apud eum teneret, 
aemlnem existimaturum, non sua voluntate factum ; qua ex 
re futurum, uti totius Galliee animi a se averterentur.'T Haec 
cum pluribus verbis fiens a Qssare peteret, Caesar ejusHex- 
tram ptendit ; consolatus rogat, finem orandi ^aciat : tanti 
ejus apud s§ gratiam esse ostendit, uti et reipublicae inju 
riam et suum dolorem ejus voluntati ac precibus condonet 
Dumnorigem ad se vocat ; fratrem ^adhibet -^ qus in eo rep- 
rehendat, ostendit ; quae ipse intelligat, quae civitas quera- 
tur, proponlt ; monet, ut in reliquum tempus omnes suspi- 
ciones yjtet ; praeterita se Divitiaco fratri condonare dicit. 
'Dumnorigi cus lodes ponit, ut, quae agat, quibuscum loqua- 
tur^ scire possit. ' y. u 

21. Eodem die ab exploratoribus certior factus, hostes 
»ub monte consedisse miUia passuum ab ipdius castris octo ; 
qualis esset natura montis et qualis in circuitu ascensus, 
qui cognoscerent, misit. Renunciatum est, Yacilem esse. 
De tertia vigilia Titum Labienum, ^egatum pro praetore, 
cum duabus kgionibus, '°et iis ducibus, qui iter cognove- 
rant, summum jugum montis ascendere jubet ; quid sui con- 
silii sit, ostendit. Ipse de quarta vigilia eodem itinere, quo 
hostes ierant, ad eos contendit, equitatumque omnem ante 
se mittit. Publius Considius, qui rei militaris peritissimus 
habebatur, et in exercitu Lucii Sullae, et postea ''in Marci 
Crassi fuerat, cum expli\ratoribus praemittitur. 

22. Prima luce, cum 'hummus mons a Tito Labieno 

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teneretur, 'ipse ab hcBtiiim castris non longius niille et 
quingentis passibus abesset, neque, ut po8]tea ex captiTis 
comperit, aut ipsius adventus,, aut Labieni, cognitus essot 
Considius, 'equo adq^so, ad eum accurrit : dicit, montem 
quern a Labieno occupari yoluerit, ab hostibU8 teneri ; id se 
^ Gailicis armis atque infiignibus cognovisse. Ceesar biuui 
copias in proximum collem ^subducit, aciem instroit. La- 
bienus, ut erat ei praeceptum a Gsesare, ne proelium com- 
mitteret, nisi ipsius copise 'prope bostium castra vis® essent, 
ut undique uno tempore in bostes impetus fieret, monte oc- 
cupato nostros expectajbat proelioque abstinebat. 'Multo 
denique d;^ per exploratores Caesar cognqvit, et montem a 
suis teneri, et Helvetios castra movisse, et Considium, 
timore prasterritum, ^quod non vidisset, pro viso sibi renun- 
ciasse. Eo die, 'quo consuerat intervallo, bc^tes sequitiir, 
et milUa passuum tria ab eorum castris castra ponit. 

23. Postridie ejus diei, 'quod omnino biduum supererat, 
cum exercitu frumentum metiri oporteret, et quod a Bibracte, 
oppido iEduorum longe maximo et copiosissimo, non am- 
plius millibus passuum octodecim aberat, '^ei frumentariae 
prospiciendum existimavit, iter ab Helvetiis avertit, ac Bi- 
bracte ire contendit. Ea res per fugitivos Lucii ^milii, 
"decurionis equitum Gallorum, bostibus nunciatur. Hel- 
vetii, sen quod timore perterritos Romanes '^discedere a se 
existimarent, eo magis, quod pridie, superioribus locis oc- 
cupatis, proelium non commovissent ; sive eo, quod re frU" 
mentaria intercludi posse confiderent ; commutato ^'consilio 
atque itinere converso, nostros a novissimo agmine insequi 
ac lacessere coeperunt. 

24. Postquam id '^nimum advertit, copias suas Caesar in 
proximum collem subducit, equitatumque, qui sustinerel 
bostium impetum, misit. Ipse interim '% coUe medio 
triplicem aciem instruxit legionum quatuor veterananmiy 
ita, uti supra se in summo jugo duas legiones, ''quas in 
Gallia citeriore proximo conscripserat, et omnia auxilia col 

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iocaret ; ac totnm montem homimbus compleri, et interea 
sarcinas inunum locmn conferri, 'et eum ab his, qui in su- 
periore acie constiterant, muniri jussit. Helvetii, cum om* 
oibus suis carris secuti, impedimenta in unum locmn oon- 
tvJenmt : ipsi, 'confertissima acie, rejecto nostro equitatu, 
pkalange facta, 'sub primam nostram aciem succesaerunt 

25. Caesar, piimum ^sno, deinde 'omnium ex conspecta 
rsmotis equis, ut, lequato omnium periculo, spem fagm tol- 
isret, cohortatiis suos, prcelium commisit. Milites, e loco 
superiore^ilis missis, facile hostium phalangem perfrege- 
rant. Ea disjecta, gladiis 'destrictis in eos impetum fece- 
runt. ''Gallis magno ad pugnam erat impedimento, quod, 
pluribus eorum scutis uno ictu pilorum transfixisTet colliga* 
lis, cum ferrum se inflexisset, neque eyelLere, neque, sinis« 
tra impedita, satis commode pugnare poterant ; multi ut, diu 
jactato brachio, praeoptarent scutum manu emittere, et nudo 
corpore pugnare. Tandem vuln«ribus defessi, et 'pedem 
referre, et, quod mons suberat circiter mille passuum, eo se 
recip^re coeperunt. Gapto monte et succedentibus nostris, 
Boii et Tulingi, qui kominum millibus circiter quindecim 
'agmen hostium claudebant, et novissimis praesidio erant, 
**^ex itinere nostrps latere aperto aggressi, tircumvenere : 
et id conspicati Helvetii, qui in montem sese receperant, 
rursus instare et proelium redintegrare coeperunt. "Romam 
conrersa signa bipartite intulerunt : prima, ac secunda 
acies, ut victis ac summotis resisteret ; tertia, ut venientos 

26. Ita '^ancipiti proslio diu atque acriter pugnatum est. 
Diutius cum nostrorum impetus sustinere non possent, 'V- 
teri se, ut coeperant, in montem receperunt ; alteri ad im- 
pedimenta et carros suos se contulerunt. Nam hoc toto 
proelio, cum ab **hora septima ad v^sperum pugnatum sit, 
*®aver8um hostem videre nemo potuit. *'Ad multam noctem 
etiam ad impedimenta pugnatum est, propterea quod pro 
vallo carros objecerant, et e loco superiore in nostros veni 

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entes loia conjiciebant, et nonnuUi, inter carros rotasqae 
mataras ac tragulas subjiciebant nostrosque yplnerabant 
Diu cum esset pugnatum, impedimentis castrisque nostri 
potiti sunt. Ibi 'Orgetorigis filia, atque unus e filiis captus 
est. Ex eo prcelio circiter millia hominum centum et tri* 
ginta superfuerunt, eaque tota nocte continenter ienmt . 
Hiullam partem noctis itinere intermisso, in fines Lingonmn 
die quarto pervenerunt, cum, et propter vulnera militum, et 
, propter sepulturam occisorum, nostri, triduum morati, eos 
sequi non potuissent. Cssar ad Lingonas liter^ nuncios- 
que misit, ne eos frumento, neve alia re juvarent : ^qui si 
juyissent, se eodem loco, quo Helvetios, habiturum. Ipse, 
triduo intermisso, cum omnibus copiis eos sequi coepit. 

27. Helvetii, omnium rerum inopia adducti, legatos de 
deditione ad eum miserunt. 'Qui, cum eum in itinere con- 
venissent, seque ad pedes projecissent, suppliciterque locuti 
flentes pacem petissent, atque eos in eo loco, quo tum es- 
sent, suum adyentum expectare jussisset, paruerunt. "Eo 
postquam Cssar pervenit, obsides, arma, servos, qui ad eos 
perfugissent, poposcit. Dum ea conquiruntur et conferun- 

, tur, nocte intermissa, circiter bominum millia sex ejus pagi, 
qui HTerbigenus appellatur, sive timore perterriti, ne, armis 
traditis, supplicio afficerentur, sive spe salutis inducti, quod, 
in tanta multitudine dedititiorum, suam fugam aut ^occultari, 
aut omnino.ignorari posse existimarent, prima nocte ex cas- 
tris Helvetiorum egressi, ad Kbenum finesque Germanorum 

28. Quod ubi Caesar ^esciit, '^quorum per fines ierant. 
his, uti conquirerent et reducerent, si sibi purgati esse vel- 
lent, imperavit : "reductos in bostium riumero babuit : reli- 
quos omnes, obsidibus, armis, perfugis traditis, in deditionem 
accepit. Helvetios, Tulingos, Latobrigos in fines suos, 
tande erant profecti, reverti jussit ; et quod, ^omnibus firuc- 
tibus amissis, domi nibil erat, quo famem tolerarent, Alio* 
brogibos imperavit, ut u» firumenti copiam facerent : ''ipsos 

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LIB£R I. CAP. XXX. 17 

(^pida vicosque, .quos incenderant, restituere jussit. Id ea 
maxime ratione fecit, quod noluit, eum locum, undo Uelvetu 
discesserant, Vacare; ne propter bonitatem agronun Gei- 
oiani, qui trans Khenuin inoolunt, e suis finibus in Helreti- 
Drum fines transirent, et finitimi Galliee provincis AUobio- 
giHusque essent. ^Boios, petentibus JSduis, quod egregia 
virtute erant cogniti, utin finibus suis collocarent, concessit : 
quibus iUi agros dederunt, quosque postea in parem juris 
libertatisque conditionem, atque ipsi erant, receperunt. 

29. In castris Helvetiorum babuls reperts sunt, ^Uteris 
Graecis confecUe et ad Caesarem relats, quibus in tabulis 
nominatim ^atio confecta .erat, qui numerus domo exisset 
eorum, qui arma ferre possent : et item separatim pueri, 
senes, mulieresque. Quarum omnium rerum ^summa erat, 
Vapitum Helvetiorum millia ducenta et sexaginta tria, Tu- 
lingorum millia triginta sex, Latobrigorum quatuordecim, 
Rauracorum viginti tria, Boiorum triginta duo : ex bis, qu 
arma ferre possent, ad millia nonaginta duo. Summa om- 

. nium fuerunt ad millia trecenta et sexaginta octo. Eorum^ 
qui domum redierunt, "censu habito, ut Caesar imperaverat, 
repertus est numerus millium centum et decem. 

30. Bello Helvetiorum confecto, totius fere *Galliae legad. 
principes civitatum, ad Caesarem gratulatum convenerunt: 
*®" intelligere sese, tametsi, pro veteribus Helvetiorum in- 
juriis Populi Homani, ab iis pcenas bello repetisset, temen 
eam rem non minus ex usu ^'terras Galliae, quam Populi Ro- 
mani accidisse : propterea quod eo consilio, florentissimis 
rebus, domos suas Helvetii reliquissent, uti toti Galliae bel- 
lum inferrent, imperioqn^ potirentur, locumque domicilio 
''ex magna copia dellgerent, quem ex omni Gallia bppor- 
tunissimum ac fructuosissimum judicassent, reliquasque ciT- 
itates ^'stipendiarias baberent." Petierunt, " uti sibi con- 
eilimn totius Galliae ^^ diem certam indicere, idqae Caesaris 
voluntate facere, liceret : sese habere quasdam res, quas ex 
oommuni consensu ab eo petere yellent." £a re permisMu 

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diem concilio constituenmt, et jurejurando, 'ne qois emm 
ciaret, nisi quibus communi consilio mandatum esset, intei 
se sanxerunt. 

31. 'Eo concilio dimisso, iidem principes civitatum, 'qui 
ante fuerant ad Gssarem, reyerterunt, petieruntque uti sibi 
^ei:reto de sua omniumque salute cum e6 agere liceret 
Ea re impetrata, sese omnes flentes Cssari ad pedes pro- 
jecerunt : ^* non minus se id contendere et laborare, ne ea, 
quae dixissent, enunciarentur, quam uti ea, qus vellent, im- 
petrarent ; propterea quod, si enunciatum esset, summum in 
cruciatum se venturos viderent." Locutus est pro his Di- 
vitiacus ^duus : *< Gallis totius ^actiones esse duas 
harum alterius ^principatmn tenere iBduos, alterius Arrer- 
nos. Hi cum tantopere de potentatu inter se multos annos 
contenderent, factum esse uti ab Arvemis 'Sequanisque 
Germani mercede arcesserentur. *Horum primo circiter 
millia quindecim Rhenum transisse : posteaquam agros, et 
cultum, et copias Gallorum homines feri ac barbari adamas- 
sent, transductos plures : nunc esse in Gallia ad centum et 
viginti millium numerum : cum his iEduos eorumque *^cli- 
entes semel atque iterum armis contenidisse ; magnam ca- 
lamitateih pulsos accepisse, omnem nobilitatem, omnem 
senatum, omnem equitatum amisisse. Quibus proeliis ca* 
lamitatibusque fractos, qui et sua virtote, et Populi Roman! 
^^hospitio atque amicitia, plurimum ante in Gallia potuissent, 
coactos esse Sequanis obsides dare, nobilissimos civitatis, 
et jurejurando civitatem obstringere, sese neque obsides 
repetituros, neque auxilium a Populo Romano imploraturos, 
neque recusaturos, quo minus perpetuo sub illorum ditione 
atque imperio essent. ^num se esse ex omni civitate 
JBduorum, qui adduci non potuerit, ut juraret, aut liberos 
soos obsides daret. Ob eam rem se ex civitate profugisse, 
et Romam ad senatum venisse, ''auxilium postulatum, quod 
ecdus neque jurejurando neque obsidibus tenerotur. Sed 
pejus Tictoribus Sequanis, quam JSduis Tictis, accidisso * 

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propterea quod Ariovistus, rex Germanorum, ia eiman finl- 
bus consedisset, tertiamque partem agri Sequani, *qui esset 
optimus tothis Gallias, occupavisset, et nunc de altera parte 
tertia Sequanos decedere juberet [ propterea quod, paucis 
unensibus ante, Harudum millia hominum viginti quatuor ac' 
eumyenissent, 'quibus locus ac sedes pararentur. Futurur 
esse paucis annis, uti omnes ex Galliae finibus pellerentu 
atque omnes German! Rhenum transirent : "neque enin 
conferendum esse Gallicum cum Germanorum agro, ^eque 
lianc consuetudinem victus cum ilia comparandam. Ario 
▼istum autem, *ut serael Gallorum copias proelio vicerit. 
quod proelium factum sit ^ad Magetobriam, superbe et cm* 
deliter imperare, obsides nol)ilissimi cujusqu^Hlberos pos- 
eere, ^et in eos omnia exempla cruciatusque edere, si qua 
res non ad nutum aut ad voluntatem ejus facta sit : %omi 
nem esse barbarum, iracimdum, temerarium : non posse 
ejus imperia diutius sustineri. 'Nisi si quid in Caesare Pop- 
uloque Romano sit auxilii, omnibus Gallis idem esse faci- 
endum, quod,Helvetii fecerint, *®ut domo emigrent, aliud 
domicilium, alias sedes, remotas a Germanis, petant, fortr- 
namque, queecumque accidat, experiantur. "Haso si enui^ 
ciata Ariovisto sint, non dubitare, quin de omnibus obsidibus, 
qui apud eum sint, gravissimum supplicium sumat. Caesar- 
em vel auctoritate sua "*atque exercitus, vel recenti vic- 
toria, vel nomine Populi Romani deterrere posse, ne major 
multitiido Germanorum Rhenum transducatur, Galliamque 
omnom *'ab Ariovisti injuria posse defendere." 

32. Hac oratione ab Divitiaco *%abita, omnes, qui ad- 
erant, magno iietu auxilium a Caesare petere coeperunt. 
Animadvertit Caesar, unos ex omnibus Sequanos nihil earmn 
rerum facere, quas ceteri facerent ; sed tristes, capite de« 
misso, terram intueri. Ejus rei causa quae esset, miratus, 
(^x ipsis qusesiit. Nihil Sequani ^respondere, sed in eadem 
cristitia taciti permanere. Cum ab iis saepius qnacreret, 
aequo ullam omnino vocem **exprimere posset, idem Divit 

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lacoB iEduus respondit : '" Hoc 6886 miseriorem gravio 
remqu6 fortimam Sequanonim, pr» reliquorum, quod soli 
n6 in occulto quidem queri, neque ^uxilium implorare au- 
derent, 'absentisque Ariovisti crudelitatem, velut si coram 
adesset, liorr6rent : propterea quod reliquis tamen fugs 
facultas daretur ; Sequanis vero, qui intra fines suos Ario- 
vistum recepissent, 'quorum oppida omnia in potestate ejus 
essent, ^omnes cruciatus essent perferendi." 

33. Hib rebus cognitis, Caesar 'Gallorum animos verbis 
confirmavit, pollicitusque est, sibi earn rem curae futuram: 
magnam se habere spem, et ^eneficio suo et auctoritate 
adductum Ariovistum finem injuriis facturum. Hac oratione 
habita, coi^^um dimisit ; et ^secundum ea "mult® res eum 
hortabantur, quare sibi earn rem cogitandam et suscipien- 
dam putaret ; in primis quod ^duos, 'fratres consanguineos* 
que saepenumero ab Senatu appellatos, in servitute atque in 
ditione videbat Germanorum teneri^ eorumque obsides ^esse 
apud Ariovistum ac Sequanos intelligebat : quod in tanto 
imperio Populi Romani turpissimum sibi et reipublicae esse 
arbitrabatur. *^Paulatim autem Germanos consuescere 
Rbenum.transire, et in Galliam magnam eorum multitudi-< 
nem venire, Populo Romano periculosum videbat: neque 
"sibi homines feros ac barbaros temperatures existimabat, 
quin, cum omnem Galliam occupassent, ut ante ^'Cimbri 
Teutonique fecisseUt, in Provinciam exirent, atque inde in 
ftaliam contenderent ; ^'praesertim cum Sequanos a Provincia 
nostra Rbodanus divideret. Quibus rebus quam maturrime 
*^occurrendum putabat. Ipse autem Ariovistus tantos sibi 
spiritus, tantam arrogantiam sumserat, ut ferendus non vi« 

34. Quamobrem placuit ei, ut ad Ariovistum legatos mii- 
ieret, qui ab eo postularent, ^ti aliquem locum medium 
atriusque colloquio diceret: velle sese de republica ''et 
summis utriusque rebus cum eo agere. Ei legation! Ario- 
ristus respondit : "'< Si quid ipsi a Gansare opus esael, aesc 

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ad eum yenturum fuisse ; si quid 'ille so relit, ilium ad ae 
reidre oportere. Praeterea se neqne fdne exercitu in eaa 
partea Gallio yenire audere, quas Ceesar possideret ; neque 
exercitum 'sine magno*commeatu alquo emolimento in unum 
locum contrahere posse : sibi autcm mirum yideri, 'quid in 
sua Gallia, ^uam bello yicisset, ant Caesari, aut omnlno 
Populo Romano negotii esset.'' 

35. His responsis ad Caesarem relatis, ^terum ad eum 
Caesar legates cum his mandatis mittit : ^^ Quoniam tanto 
Buo Populique Romani beneficio afiectus (c\mi in consulatu 
suo rex atque amicus a Senaiu appeilatus esset), lianc sib) 
Populoque Romano gratiam vefrrret, ut in colloquium yenire 
inyitatus grayaretur, neque de communi re diceniium sibi et 
cognoscendum putaret ; ha^c esse, quae ab eb postularet : 
primuQi, ne ^quam hominuni muldtudinem amplius trans 
Rhenum in GaUiam transduceret : deinde obsides, quos ha- 
bere! ab ^duis, redderet, 8equanisque permitteret, ut, quos 
Uli haberent, ^roluntate <>jus reddere illis liceret; neye 
iBduos injuria lacesseret, neye his sociisye oorum bellmn 
inferret : si id ita fecisset, sibi Populoque Romano perpet- 
oam gratiam atque ami(;itiiun cum eo futuram : si non im- 
petraret, 'sese (quoniam '^^ Marco Messala Marco Pisoao 
Consulibus, Senatus censiiisset, uti, quicumque Galliam 
proyinciam "obtinerf t, ^qu<«d commodo reipublicae facere 
posset, iEduos ceterosque ainicos Populi Romani defendo- 
ret), sese iEduorum injurias non neglecturum." 

36. Ad haec Arloyistus respondit : " Jus esse belli, ut, 
qui yicissent, iis, quos yicissent, quemadmodum yellent, 
imperarent : "item Populum Romanum victis non ad alteriua 
praBScriptum, sed ad suum arbitrium, imperare consuessc 
Si ipse Populo Romano non praescriberet, '^quemadmodum 
suo jure uterelur ; non oportere sese a Populo Romano in 
■uo jure impediri. ^duos sibi, quoniam belli fortunam ten- 
tusent et armis congressi ac superati essent, "stipendiarios 

factos. '^Magnam Caesarem injuriam facere, qui sup 

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•dTenta vectigalia sibi deteriora faceret. iEdub ce obiidt 
redditurum non esse, neque iis, neque eorum sociss 'iojunf 
bellam lUaturum, si in eo manerent, quod conyenisset, sti- 
pendiumque quotannis penderent : siid mm fecissent, longia 
iis fratemun^nomen Populi Romani abfuturum. 'Quod nbi 
Cssar denunciaret, se iBduorum injurias non neglectuium ; 
neminem secum sine bua pemicie contendisse. Cum vellety 
congrederetui ; inteJlcoturum, quid iiiyicti Germani, ^exer« 
citatissimi in annis, qui 'inter annos quatuordecim tectum 
non subissent, virtute possent." 

37. Hflec eodem tempore C»sari mandata referebantur, 
et legati ab iBduis et a Treviris veniebant : iEdui questum, 
quod 'Harudes, qui nuper in Galliam transportati essent, 
fines eorum popularentur ; sese ne obsidibus quidem datis 
pacem Ariovisti redimere potuisse : ^reviri autem, "p^gos 
centum Suevorum ad ripas jRheni consedisse, 'qui Rhenum 
transire conarentur ; iis prseesse Nasuam et Cimberium 
fratires. Quibus rebus Caesar 'Vehementer commotus, ma^ 
turandum sibi existimavit, ne, si nova manus Suevorum cum 
reteribus copiis Ariovisti sese conjunxisset, minus facile 
resisti posset, ttaque "re frumentaiia, quam celernme 
potuit, comparata, magnis itineribus ad Ariovistum conten- 

38. Cum tridui viam processisset, nunciatum est ei, Ario« 
vistum cum suis omnibus copiis ad occupandum Vesonti<^ 
nem, quod est oppidum maximum Sequanorum, ^'contendere, 
triduique viam a suis finibus profecisse. Id ne accideret, 
magno opere sibi prscavendum Cssar existimabat : nam* 
que omnium rerum, quae ad belltUh usui erant, ''summa eral 
in eo oppido facultas ; idque natura loci sic muniebatur, ut 
magnam *^ad ducendum bellum daret facultatem, propleren 
quod fliunen *^Dubis, *'ut circino circumductum, psne totum 
oppidum cingit : reliquum spatium, quod est non ampliua 
pedum ^^sexcentorum, "qua flumen intermittit, mons ^'con- 
UDf t magna altitudine, ita ut radices ejus montis ex utraque 

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LIBE& I. CAP. XL.' Sa 

purte ripa flimiiiits contingant. 'Hunc muruB circuiiidatiu 
tiemn efELcit et cam oppido conjiingit. Hue Caesar magnia 
^Doctuniis diuniiaqae itineribus contendit, occupatoque op- 
pido, ibi prssidium collocat 

39. Dum paucos dies ad Yesontionem, rei frumentarisi 
eommeatusque causa, moratnr, *ex percunctatione nostrorum 
Tocibusque Gallorom ac mercatorum, qui ingenti magnitu- 
dine corpomm Gennanos, iacredibili yirtute atque exercita- 
done in annis esse pnedicabant, saepenumeio sese, cum eia 
congresses, ne Miltiun quidem atque aciem oculorum ferre 
potuisse, tantus subito timor omnem exercitum occupavit, 
ut non mediocriter omnium mentes animosque perturbaret. 
Hie primum ortns est a Tribunis militum, pnefectis reli- 
quisque, qui, ex ^lrbe amicitiae causa Cssarem sctcuti, non 
magnum in re militari usum habebant : ^quorum alius, alia 
causa illata, quam sibi ad proficiscendum necessariam esse 
dicerent, petebant, ut ejus voluntate discedere liceret : non- 
nulli, pudore adducti, ut timoris suspicionem vitarent, re* 
manebant. Hi neque 'vultum fingere, neque interdum la« 
cr3rmas tenere poterant : abditi in tabemaculis, aut suum 
fatum querebantur, aut cum familiaribus suis commune pe- 
riculum miserabantur. *Yulgo totis castfis testamenta ob* 
signabantur. Horum vocibus ac timore paulatim etiam ii, 
qui 'Magnum in castris usum habebant, milites centuriones- 
que, "quique equitatu prseerant, perturbabantur./ ''Qui se , 
ex bis minus timidos existimari volebant, non se hostem 
Tereri« sed angustias itineris et magnitudinem silvarum, 
quae intercederent inter ipsos atque Ariovistum, aut rem 
ihunentariam, ''ut satis commode supportari posset, timers 
dicebant. Nonnulli etiam Caesari renunciabant, cum castn 
moreri ac '^igna ferri jussisset, non fore dicto audientes 
milites, '^ec propter timorem signa laturos. 

40. Haec cum animadvertisset, '^conrocato consilio, '^om« 
niumque ordinum ad id consilium adbibitis centurionibus, 
Tshementer eos incusavit ; ^* primum, quod, aut quam in 

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partem, aut quo cooailio ducerentnr, sibi qinBrendum anc 
GOgitandum putarent. ArioTistum, tse consule, cupidissima 
Populi Romani amicitiam appetisse ; cur hunc tain tenuxre 
quisquam ab officio discessuruin judicaret ? Sibi quidem 
persuaderi, cognitis Buis 'postulatis atque squitate conditi- 
onum perspecta, eum neque suam, neqae Populi RomauT 
gratiam repudiaturum. Quod si, furore atque amentia im- 
pulsus, bellum intulisset, quid tandem verereniur ? ^ut cur 
do sua virtute, aut de ipsius diligentia, desperarent ? *Fac- 
tum ejus hostis periculum patrum nostrorum memoiia, cum, 
Cimbris et Teutonis a Caio Mario pulsis, non minorem 
laudem exercitus, quam ipse imperator, meritus videbatur : 
^factum etiam nuper in Italia seryili tumultu, 'quos tamen 
aliquid usus ac disciplina, quam a nobis accepissent, sub* 
levarent. Ex quo judicari posset, quantum haberet in se 
boni ^constantia; propterea quod, quos aliquamdiu inermos 
sine causa timuissent, bos postea armatos ac vietores su- 
perassent. Denique hos esse eosdem, quibusoum sspenu- 
mero Helyetii congressi, non soluifi in ^suis, sed etiam in 
illorum finibus, plerumque superarint, qui tamen pares esse 
nostro exercitu non potuerint. Si quos 'adyersnm proelium 
et fuga Gallorum commoyeret, hos, si quaererent, reperire 
posse, diutumitate belli defatigatis Gallis, Arioyistum, cum 
multos menses castris se ac paludibus tenuisset, "neque sui 
potestatem fecisset, desperantes jam de pugna et disperses 
subito adortum, magis ^°ratione et consilio, quam yirtute, 
vicisse. Ciii rationi contra homines barbaros atque imper- 
itos locus fuisset, hac, ne ipsum quidem sperare, nostros 
exercitus capi posse. "Qui suum timorem in rei frumen- 
talis simulationem angustiasque itinerum conlerrent, facero 
airoganter, cum aut de officio imperatoris desperare, aut 
pnescribere yiderentur. Haec^sibi esse curs ; frumentum 
Sequanos, Leucos, Lingonas subministrare ; jamque esse 
in agris frumenta matura : de itinere ipsos %reyi tempore 
iudicaturos. Quod non fore dicto audientes milites, neque 

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gnalaturi dicantur, niM se ea re commoreri : 'scire enim, 
qnibiiscaiiique exercUas dicto audiens non ftierit, ant, male 
re gesta, fortunam deimsse ; ant, aliquo facinore comperto, 
avahtiam esse conjunctam. Suam innocentiam 'perpctua 
vita, felicitatem Helvetiorum bello, esse perspectam. 'Ita- 
que ae*qaod in longiorem diem cpUaturos esset, reprsaen* 
taturum, et proxima nocte de qiiarta vigilia castra motunmi, 
lit quam primum intelligere posset, utrom apud eos pndox 
atque officium, an timer yaleret. Quod si prsterea nemo 
sequatur, tamen se cum sola ^decima legione iturum, de qua 
non dubitaret ; sibique earn prstoriam cohortem futaram.** 
Huic legioni Caesar et indulserat praecipue, et propter vir- 
tutem confidebat maxime., 

41. Hac oratione habita, mirum in modum cenr^rsae sunt 
omnium mentes, summaque alacritas et cupiditas beUi ge« 
rendi innata est, ^rincepsqne decima legio, per tribunes 
miiitum, ei gratias egit; quod de se optimum judicium fe- 
cisset ; seque esse ad bellum gerendum paradssimam con- 
fjrmavit. Deinde reliquas legiones, per tribunes miiitum et 
"primorum ordinum centuriones, egerunt, uti Cssari satis* 
facerent : se neque unquam dubitasse, neque timuisse, 
'neque de summa belli suum judicium, sed imperatoris 
esse, existimavisse. Eomm 'satis&ctione accepta, et itin* 
ere exquisite per Divitiacum, quod ex aliis ei maximam 
(idem babebat, ut millium amplius ^quinquaginta circtiitu 
locis apertis excrcitum duceret, de quarta vigilia, ut dixerat, 
profectus est. Septimo die, cum iter non intermitteret, ab 
exploratoribus certior factus est, ArioTisti copias a noslris 
millibus passuiAi quatuor et viginti abesse. 

42. GognitoGaesaris adrentu, Arionstus legates ad emn 
mitlit : '^quod antea de colloquio postulasset, id per se fieri 
licere, quoniam prOjAUs accessisset : seque id sine periculo 
faeere posse "existimare. Non respuit conditionein Gassar . 
•amque eum ad ^^sanitatem reverd arbitralvitur^ cum id, quod 
antea petc^ti denegasset, ultro polliceretur ; raagnaisqiie i» 


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ipem Teniebat, pio siub tantis Populique Romuii in evni 
bcaefieiis, cognitis svia portnlatia, fore, uti peninacia deaia* 
teret Diea coUoqnio dictoa eat, ex eo die qnintua. Inter- 
im, com a«pe nltio citioqne legati inter eoa mitterentur, 
ArioTiatna poatalayit, ne quern peditem ad coUoqiiium Caaat 
addnceret : Tereri ae, ne per inaidiaa ab eo circnmTeniretur : 
nteique cmn eqnitatu Teniret : 'alia ratione ae non eaae 
Tentamm. Cieaar, quod neqne colloquium interpoaita cauaa 
toUi Tolebat, neque aalutem auam 'Gallorum equitatui com- 
mittere andebat, 'commodiaaimum ease statuit, omnibua 
equia Gallia equitibua detractis, eo legionarios militea legi- 
onia decimn, cni quam maxime confidebat, imponere, ut ^ 
prsaidium quam amicissimum, si quid opua facto eaaet, ha- 
beret Quod cum fieret, ^on irrid?cule quidam ex militibus 
decim» legionia dixit : '' plus, quam pollieitua eaaet, Cieaar- 
em ei facere ; pollicitum, se in cohortia praBtorie loco de- 
cimam legionem habiturum, Hiunc ad equum rescribere.'' 

43. Planities erat magna, et in ea "tumulus teirenus satis 
grandis. Hie locus squo fere spatio ab eastris utrisque 
ab^rat Eo, ut erat dictum, ad colloquium venerunt. Le- 
gionem Cteaar, quam equis devexerat, passibus ducentis ab 
eo tumulo constituit. Item equites ArioTisti pari interrallo 
conatitemiiLt. Ariovistus, ^ex equis ut colloquerentur et, 
preter se, denos ut ad colloquium adducerent, poatulavit. 
Ubi eo ventum est, Csaar, initio orationis, aua Senatusque 
in eum beneficia ^commemoraTit, '< quod rex appellatua 
eaaet a Senatu, quod amicus, quod munera amplissima missa : 
quam rem et paucis contigisse, et 'pro raagnis hominmn 
officiis consij^esse tribui" docebat : <' illum,*cum neque adi 
tum, neqne causam poatulandi Justam haberet, benefioio ac 
liberalitate sua ac SeHatus ea praemia consecutum.** Do- 
cebat etiam, ^^* quam reteres, quamque juatae canatt necea- 
aitudinis ipsis cum JSduis intercederent, quas Senatua eon* 
aulta, qnotiea, qnvnque bonorifica in eoa facta eaaent : "at 
omni tempore totiua Gallias principatum JEdui tenoiaaenti 

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lilUK I. CAf. XLIT. ^ m 

prills •tiam quam nostram amicidam appetiaseat : Pqnifi 
Bomaxii banc lesae consuetadinem, ut aocios atque amlcoa 
aim modo 'sui nihil depeidere, 8«d gratia, dignitate, honore 
auetbrea velit ease : 'quod vero ad amicitiam Popali Ro- 
nuuii attuliaaent, id iis eripi, qda pati posset ?" 'Postulavit 
deinde eadem, que legatis in mandatis dederat, **ne am 
£dui8, ant eonim sociis bellnm inferret ; obsides redderet ! 
si nuUaoi partem Gennanorum dommn remittere posset, at 
ne quo^ ain|diU8 Rhenmn transire pateretor." 

44. Arioyistus ad postulata Caesaris pauca respondit ; Me 
suis Tirtutibiis multa pnedicavit : *' Transisse Rhenun sese, 
non sua sponte, sed xogatum et arcessitum a Gallis ; non 
sine magna spe, magnisque pr«miis, domum propinquosque 
reliquisse ; sedes habere in Gallia, 'ab ipsis concessas ; 
obsides ipsorum voluntate datos ; stipendium capere jure 
belli, quod victores victis imponere consuerint; non sese 
Gallis, sed Gallos sibi bellum intulisse ; ^nmes "Gallis civ- 
itates ad se oppugnandum Tenisse, ac contra se castra habu« 
i&se ; eas omnes copias a se uno prcelio fusas ac superatas 
esse ; si iterum experiii velint, iterum paratnm sese decer- 
tare ; si pace uti velint, iniquum esse, de stipendio recnsare, 
quod sua voluntate ad id tempus pependerint. Amicitiam 
Populi Roman! sibi omamento et praesidio, non detrimento, 
esse oportere, Mque se ea spe petisse. Si per Popnlum 
Romanum ^stipendium remittatur, et dedititii subtrahantur, 
' oon minus libenter sese recusaturum Populi Romani amici- 
tiam, quam appeUerit. *Quod multitudinem Germanormr 
in Galliam transducat, id se sui muniendi, non Gallie im- 
pugnaad«» causa facere ; ejus rei testimonium esse, quod, 
nisi rogatus, non venerit, et quod bellum non intulerit, '^ed 
defenderit. "Se prius in Galliam venisse, quam Populum 
Rmnanum. Nunquam ante hoe tempus exercitum Populi 
Romani Gallis provincifi fines egressum. 'H2uid sibi vel- 
Ut? CurinsuasposseiAioncsTeniret? Promciamsuam 
banc esse Galliam, sicut ilhrai noistram. Ut ipsi concedt 

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lum opoiterety si in nostros fines impetom faceret, sic item 
nos rsse iniquos, 'qui in suo jure se ihteTpelkremus 
*Quoi fratres a Senatu JSduos appellatos diceret, non se 
tain barbamm, neque tarn imperitum esse rerum, ut non 
sci\et, neque bello Allobrogum proximo JSduos Romanis 
auxilium tulisse, neque ipsos in his contendombus, quae 
Jidui secum et cmn Sequanis habuissent, "anxilio Populi 
Itomani usos esse. Debere se suspicari, simukta Gsesaren: 
amicitia, quod exercitum in Gallia habeat, sui opprimendi 
causa habere. ^Qui nisi ^ecedat atque exercitum deducat 
ex his regionibus, sese ilium non pro amico, sed pro hoste 
habiturum : 'quod si eum interfecerit, multis sese nobilibus' 
principibusque Populi Romani gratum esse facturum ; id se 
ab ipsis per eorum nuntios compertuih habere, quorum om- 
nium gratiam atque amicitiam 'ejus morte redimere posset. 
Quod si decessisset, ac liberam possessionem Gallise sibi 
13^ adidisset, magno se ilium pnemio remuneraturum, et, quse- 
cumque bella geri vellet, sine ullo ejus labors et periculo 
confecturum." ' 

45. ^Multa ab Cssare in earn sententiam dicta sunt, quare 
negotio desistere non posset, et " neque suam, neque Populi 
Romani consuetudinem pati, uti optime meritos socios de- 
sereret : neque se judicare, Galliam potius esse Ariovisti, 
quam Populi Romani. Bello superatos esse Arvemos et 
Rutenos ab Q. Fabio Maximo, quibus Populus Romanus 
"ignorisset, neque in provinciam redegisset ; neque stipen- 
dium imposuisset. *Quod si antiquissimum quodque tempus 
spectari oporteret, Populi Romani justissimum esse in Gallia 
imperium : si judicium Senatus observari oporteret, liberam 
debere esse Galliam, quam bello victam suis iegibus uti vol- 

46. Dum hsc in colloquio geruntur, Caesari nunciatnm 
est, equites Ariovisti propius tumulum accedere, et '^ nos 
tros adequitare, lapides telaque in hostros conjicere. Cssai 

>quendi finem "facit seque%d sues reoipit, suisque impe 

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rant, ne quod omnino telum in bostes rejicerent. Nam, 
.etsi sine uUo periculo legionis delects cum equitatu proB- 
lium fore videbat, tamen committendum non putabat, ut, 
pulsis bostibus, dici posset^eos ab se *per fidem in colloquio 
cii^umventos. Tosteaquam in vulgus militum elatum est, 
qua arrogantia in colloquio Arioyistus usus mnni Gallia Ro- 
nianis interdixisset, ^petumque in nostros ejus equites fe- 
cisse eaque res colloquium ut diremisset : multo major 
alacritas studiumque pugnandi majus exercitu ^injectum 

« 47. Biduo post Ariovistus ad Cesarem ^gatos mittit, 
velle se de bis rebus, quae inter eos agi ccBptae, "neque per- 
fects essent, agere cum eo : uti aut iterum colloquio ^em 
constitueret ; aut, si id minus vellet, ^ex suis aliquem ad se 
mitteret. Colloquendi Csesari causa visa non est ; et eo 
magis, quod pridie ejus diei Germani ''retineri non poterant, 
quin in nostros tela conjicerentT Legatum ex suis sese 
magno cum periculo ad eum missurum, et bominibuB feris 
objecturum, bxistims^bat. Commodissimum visum est 
Caium Valerium Procillum, Caii Valerii Caburi filium, 
summa yirtute et bumanitate adolescentem (cujus pater a 
Caio Yalerio Flacco civitate donates erat), et propter fidem 
et propter linguae GaJlicse scientiam, ^qua multa jam Ariovis- 
tus longinqua consuetudine utebatur, et guod in eo peccan!^ 
Germanis causa non esset, ad eum mittere, et Marcum 
Mettium, '"qui bospitio Ariovisti usus erat His mandavit, 
ut, "quae diceret Ariovistus, cognoscerent et ad se referrent. 
Quos cum apud se in castris Ariovistus oonspexisset, exer* 
citu suo praesente, conclamavit: *'Quid ad se venirent? 
in speculandi causa?" Conantes dicere probibuit et in 
catenas conjecit. 

48. Eodem die castra '^promovit et millibus passuum sex 
a Gaesaris castris sub monte consedit. Postridie ejus diei 
ora&ter castra Caesaris suas copias transduxit, et millibus 
passuum duobus ultra enm casstra fecit, eo cdnsilio. uti fin 

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30 DB BEUiO 6ALUC0. 


monlo commealiique, qui ex Seqnanii et JEduis supportare* 
tor, Cssarem intercluderet. ^£x eo die diet contmuoe 
ijuinque Caesar pro castris suas copias produzit, et aciem 
instractam habuit, ut, «i vellet Arioristus proBlio contendere 
ei potestas non deesset Ariovistue bis omnibus diebus ex* 
ercitum castris continuit; equestri proelio quotidie conten* 
dit Harenus hoc erat pugnae, quo se Germani exercuerant 
Equitum millia erant sex : totidem numero pedites velocis- 
simi ac fortissimi ; ^)uob ex onmi copia. singuli singulos, 
suflB salutis causa, delegerant. Cum his in pnsliis versa- 
bantur, ad hos se equites recipiebant : ^, si quid erat d«- 
rius, concurrebant : si qui, graviore vulnere accepto, equo 
deciderat, circumsistebant : si quo erat %ngius prodeun- 
dum, aut eelerius recipiendum, tanta erat horum 'exercita- 
tione celeritas, ut, jubis equbrum sublevati, cursum adaequa- 

49. Ubi eum castris se tenere Caesar intellexit, 'ne diu- 
dus commeatu prohiberetur, ultra eum locum, quo in loco 
Germani consederant, circiter passus sexdentos ab eia, 
castris idoneum locum delegit, "acieque triplici instrtfcta, ad' 
eum locum venit. Primam et seeundam aciem in armis 
esse, tertiam castra munire jussit. Hie locus ab hoste cir- 
citer passus sexcentos, uti dictum est, aberat. £o 'circiter 
hominum numero sexdecim millia expedita cum omni equl 
tatu Ariovistus mfsit, quae copiae nostros perterrerent ei 
munitione prohiberent Nihilo secius Caesar, ut ante con- 
stituerat, duas acies hostem propulsare, tertiam opus per- 
ficore jussit. Munitia castris, duas ibi legiones reliquit et 
■partem auxilicHTum : quatuor reliquas in castra majora re- 

50 Proximo die, "instituto suo, Caesar e castris utrisque 
eopia« suas ednxit ; jpaulumque ^ majoribus progressus, 
aciem instruxit, hostibusque pugnandi potestatem fecit 
Obi ne tum quidem eos >^rodire intellexit, circiter meridiem 
^ercitum in castra reduxit. Tum demum Arioristus par 

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(em suarum copiarum, qus castxa minora oppugnaret, misil 
'acriter utrinque usque ad yespemm pugnatum est Solit 
occasu suas copias Ariovistus, multis et illatis el acceptis 
vulneribus, in castra reduzit. Cum ex captivis qutereret 
Cesar, quam ob rem Ariovistus ^roelio non decertaret, banc 
reperiebat caasam, quod apud Germanos ea consuctudo 
asset, ut 'matres familiae eorum ^sortibus et vaticinationlbua 
declararent, utrum proelium committi ex usu esset, nee ne : 
eas ita dicere, ^" Non esse fas, Germanos superare, si ante 
novam lunam prcBlio contendissent." ^ \ 

51. Postridie ejus diei Csesax praesidio utrisque castrui, 
quod satis esse visum est, reliquit ; ^omnes alarios in con- 
spectu hostium ^pro castris minoribus constituit, quod minus 
multitudine militum legionariorum pro bostium numero va- 
iebat, ut ad speciem alariis uteretur. Ipse, triplici instructa 
acie, usque ad castra bostium accessit. Tum demum ne- 
cessario Germani suas x^opias castris eduxerunt, 'genera- 
timque constituerunt paribusque intervallis Harudes, Mar- 
comanos, Triboccos, Vangiones, Nemetes, Sedusios, Sue- 
vos, omuemque aciem suam *rliedis et carris circumdede- 
runt, ne qua spes in fuga relinqueretmr. *°£o mulieres im- 
ppsuerunt, quae in proelium proficiscentes milites passis cri-* 
nibus flentes iinplorabant, ne se in servitutem Romanis tra- 
der ent. - X 

62. "Csesar sin^is legionibus singulos legates et quaes 
lorem praefecit, uti ^eos testes suae quisque virtutis haberet 
Ipse a dextro comu, quod eam partem minime firmam has 
tium esse animum adverterat, proelium commisit Ita nostri. 
acriter in bostes, signo dato, impetum fecerunt, '^taque 
hostes repente celeriterquo proisurrerUnt, ut spatium pila in 
bostes conjiciendi non daretur. ^^Rejectis pilis, cominut 
gladiis pugnatum est : at Gormani, celeriter ex consuetu 
iine sua ^^balange facta, in2petus gladioitim exceperunt 
depertisunt complures nostri milites, '^qui in pbalangas in^ 
siliront, et scuta manibus revellerent, et desuper vulnera- 
rent. Cum bostium acies '^a sinistro comu pulsa atque iv 

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LIBBR 1. CAP. LIV. 3d 

fugaiii conversa esset, a dextro comu yehementer multitu 
dine suonun nostram aciem premebant. Id cum animad* 
vertisset Publius Grassus adolescens, qui ^equitatu pneeratf 
quod ,ezpeditior erat, quam bi qui inter aciem versabantiur, 
tertiam aciem laborantibus nostris subsidio misit. _^ r 

53. Ita proBlium restitutum est, atque onmes hoetes terga 
roitenmt, 'neque prius fugere destiterunt, quam ad flumen 
Rh^num millia passuum ex eo loco circiter quinquaginta 
pervenerint. Ibi perpauci aut, viribus confisi, transnatare 
contenderunt, aut, lintribi^ inventis, sibi salutem 'repere- 
nmt. ^In his fuit Ariovistus, qui, naviculam deligatam ad 
ripam nactus, ea profiigit : reliquos^mnes consecuti equites 
noetri interfecepnt. ^Duae fiierunt Arioidsti uzores, una 
Suera natione, quam ab domo secum eduxerat ; altera Nor- 
ica, regis Yocionis^soror, quam in Gallia 'duxerat, a fratre 
missam : utreque in ea fiiga perierunt. ''Duae fi^ae haium 
altera occisa, altera capta est. Caius Valerius Pzocillus 
cum a custodibus in fuga ^inis catenis Tinctus traheretur 
in ipsum Caesarem, hostes equitatu perseqnentem, incidit. 
Quae quidem res Caesari non minorem, quam ipsa victoria, 
Yoluptatem attulit / quod hominem bonestissimimi provincias 
Galliae, suum familiarei# et hospitem, erep^imi e manibus 
hostium, sibi restitutum videbat, ^neque ejus calamitate de 
tanta voluptate et gratulatione quicquam fortnna demintierat. 
Is, se praesente, de se^^er sortibus consultum dicebat, utrum 
igni statim necaretur, an in aliud tempus reservaretur : sor- 
tium "beneficio se esse incolumem. Item Marcus Mettius 
repertus et ad eum reductus est. 

64. Hoc proelio trans Rhenum nunciato, Suevi, qui ad 
xipas Rheni renerant, domum reverti coperunt : **quos Ubii, 
qiii i^roximi Rhenum incolunt, perterritos insecuti, magnum 
ex his numerum occiderunt. Caesar, una aestate '^duobus 
maximts bellis confectis, maturius paulo, quam tempus anni 
postulabat, in hibema in Sequanos exercitum deduxit : hi- 
bemis Labienum pisposuit: ipse >% citeriorem Galliam 
^ conrentus a|[[6ndos profectus est. 


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BOOK n. 



Cbip. 1. The Belgs enter mto a confederacy against the lUmna 
fewer. ^. Csaar marchee against them. 3. The Remi suirendoi 
upon his approach. 4. They inform him of the strength and dc 
aigns mf the confederates. 6. March of Cssar, and his encampmei* 
«n the Vanks of the Axons. 6. Bibraz. a town of the Remi, attacked 
hy the Belgs. 7. Relief sent to it l^ Cesar. Siege raised. 8, 9. 
The avmxes drawn up on both sides, bnt without coming to an engage- 
ment. 10. The Belgse, after a collision with the light troops and 
cavalry of the Romans, in which they are worsted, resolve to reiuzs 
home^ in order to defend their own territories against the Aedui. 12 
The Romans attack their rear and make great slaughter. 12. Cesa* 
marches against the Suessiones, and obliges them to submit. 13, 14 
Advancing next into the country of the BeUovaci. he paxdons them at 
the intercession of Divitiacus. 16. Account of the Nervii, who re- 
solve to stand on their' defence against the Romans. 16-28. War 
«ri2h the Nervii. Their overthrow and submission. Great lossep 
sustained by them in this contest. 29^3. War with the Aduatici 
They snbmift, but falling treacherously upon the Romans during th# 
vight, are many of them cut to pieces,' and the rest s^ld forttaves 
"« EzmrrioM op P. Gsassus into AnMonicA. 
Chap. 34. Grassus sent against several msritime states an^ (mbduea 

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lABEM, II. GAP. III. 35 


Chip. 85. Hi^ qpinion entertained of Cssaz** nicccM in this wix 
bythe^miberians. Embasaee sent to him eren fiom nations beyond 
the Rhine. Casar passes into Italy for the pnrpcse of going to lUjv- 
icnm, after haying placed his army in winter qnazteis among tiie 
Camutesy Andea, end Toroces. A thaxiksgiTing of fifteen days de- 
creed hy the senate. 

1. 'Gum esset Cssar in citeriore Gallia in hibemis, ita 
jti supra demonBtrayiniiis, crebri ad eum nimores ajffere- 
bantur, literisque item Labieni certior fiebat,onmes Belgas, 
quam tertiam esse Gallise partem 'dixeramns, contra Popu- 
Imn Romanmn conjurare, obsidesque inter se dare : conju- 
randi has esse causas : primmn, qnod vererentur, ne, omni 
pacata Gallia, ad eos exercitus noster addnceretur : deinde, 
quod ab nonnullis Gallis solicitarentur, ^artim qui, ut Ger- 
manos diutius in Gallia versari noluerant, ita Populi Ro- 
mani ezercitum biemare atque inveterascere in Gallia mo- 
leste ferebant ; ^artim qui mobilitate et levitate animi novis 
imperiis studebant : "ab nonnullis etiam, quod in Gallia a 
potentioribus atque bis. qui ad conducendos homines facul 
tates habebant, vulgo regna occupabantur, qui minus iacilt 
'eam rem in imperio nostro consequi poterant. 

2. lis nuntiis literisque commotus, Caesar duas legiones 
In citeriore Gallia novas conscripsit, et, inita estate, ^in in- 
teriorem Galliam qui deduceret, *Quintum Pedium legatum 
misit. Ipse, cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad 
ezercitum venit : *dat negotium Senonibus reliquisque Gal- 
lis, qui finitimi Belgis erant, uti ea, quae apud eos gerantwr 
cognoscant, seque de bis rebus certiorem faciant. Hi 
^'constanter omnes nunciaverunt, manus cogi, exercitum in 
unum locum conduci. Tum vero dubitandum non ezisti- 
mavit, quin ad eos "proficisceretur. Re frumentaria provisa, 
castra movet, diebusque circiter quindecim ad fines Belga- 
mm penrenit 

8. Eo cum de improvise "celeriusque omnium opinione 
tnenisset, Remi, qui'proximi Galliae ex Belgi8«8unt, ad eum 

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legates, Iccium et Antebrogimn, primes cmtatis, mislhnit 
qui dicerent, se suaque omnia in fidem atque in potestatem 
Populi Romani permittere : 'neque se cum Belgis reliquis 
consensisse, neque contra Populum Romanum omnino con 
juraBse : paratosque esse et obsides dare, et imperata facere 
et oppidis recipere, et frumento ceterisque rebus juvare : 
roliquos omnes Belgas in armis esse : 'Germanosque, qui 
cis Rhenum incolunt, sese cum his conjunxisse ; tantumque 
esse eorum omnium furorem, ut ne Suessiones quidem. 
fratres consanguineosque suos, qui eodem jure et eisdem 
legibus utantur, unum imperium unumque magistratum cum 
ipsis habeant, deterrere potuerint, quin cum his consenti- 

4. Cum ab ^his qusreret, quae civitates, quantaeque in ar- 
mis assent, et quid in bello possent, sic reperiebat : plerosque 
Belgas esse ortos ab Germanis : Rhenumque antiquitus trans- 
ductos, propter loci fertilitatem ibi consedisse, Gallosque, 
qui ea loca incolerent, expulisse ; solosque esse, qui, patrum 
nostrorum memoria, omni Gallia vexata, Teutonos Cimbros- 
que intra fines suos ingredi prohibuerint. Qua ex re fieri, 
uti earum rerum memoria magnam sibi auctoritatem, ^ag- 
» nosque spiritus in re militari smnerent. De numero eorum 
^onmia se habere explorata, Remi dicebant ; propterea quod 
propinquitatibus afidnitatibusque conjimcti, quantam quisque 
multitudinem in communi Belgarum concilio ad id bellum 
poUicitus sit, cognoverint. Plurimum inter eos Bellovacos 
et virtute, et auctoritate, et hominum numero, valere : hoa 
posse conficere armata millia centum : pollicitos ex eo nu- 
mero electa millia sexaginta, totiusque belli imperium sibi 
poatulare. Suessiones suos esse finitimos, latissimos fera- 
cissimosque agros possidere. Apud eos fuisse regem nos* 
tra etiam memoria ^ivitiacum, totius Galliae potentissimum, 
qui cum ma^gnae partis hanim regionum, tum etiam Brittan- 
niae, imperium obtinuerit: nunc esse regem 'Galbam : ad 
hunc, propter justitiam prudentiamque, '%tii# belli sum- 

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mun omnimn yolimtate deferri: oppida habere numera 
duodecim, poliiceri millia armata quinquaginta : totideni 
Nervios, qui maxime feri inter ipsos habeantur ^ngigai 
meqae absint: qiundecim millia Atrebates : Ambianos de 
cem millia : Morinos viginti quinque millia : Men^ioe na 
Tem millia : Caietos decem millia : Velocasses et Veio 
manduos totidem: Aduatucos viginti noFem millia, C(m 
dzQsos, EburoneSy 'Caeraesos, Pa^^anos, qui uno noBiine 
Germani appellantm:, arbitrari ad quadraginta millia. 

5. Caesar, Remos cohortatus ^iberaliterque oratione pro 
secutus, omnem senatom ad se conTenire, principmnque 
liberos obsides ad se adduci jussit. Quife oiimia ab his S 
ligenter %d diem facia simt Ipse, Divitiacmn JSdumr 
magno opere cohortatus, docet, ^quanto opere rei publics 
communisque salutis intersit, manus hostium distineri, ne 
cum tanta multitudine uno tempore confiigendum sit Id 
fieri posse, si suas copias Mdm in fines BelloTacorum in- 
troduxerint, et eormn agros populari coepeiint. His mau- 
datis, eum ab se dimittit. Postquam omnes Belgarum co- 
pias, in unum locum coactas, ad se venire vidit, neque jam 
longe abesse ab his, quos miserat, explpratoribus, et ab 
Remis cognovit, fiumen Axonam, quod est in extremis Re* 
morom finibus, exercitum transducere maturavit, ^atque ibi 
castra posuit. ^Qnb res et latus unum castrorum ripis fiu 
minis muniebat, et post eum quae essent tuta ab hostibus 
reddebat^ et, commeatbs ab Remis reliquisque civitatibus ut 
sine periculc ad eum portari posset, efficiebat. In eo flu- 
mine pons erat. Ibi praesidium ponit, et in altera parte flu* 
minb Quintum Titmium Sabinum legatom cum sex 'cohor* 
fibuB reliquit : castra -n altitudinem pedum dupd^im vallo« 
fosaaque Muodeviginti pedum, ^^munire jubet. 

6 Ab his castris oppidum Remorum, nomine Bibrax, 
aberat millia passuum octo. Id "ex itinere magna impetu 
Btdgae oppugnare coeperunt. ^^gre eo die sustentatum est. 
Mionim eadem atque Belgarum oppugnatio est base Ubi 


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eircumjecta multitadme hominum totis mGenibns imdiqiM 
lapides in munun jaci eoepti sunt, murusqae defensoribus 
nudatns est, Hestudine facta "portas snccedunt murumque 
aubruunt. Quod turn facile fiebat. Nam, cum tanta midti- 
tudo lapides ac tela conjicerent, In muio consistendi potes- 
tas erat nulli. Cum finem oppugnandi nox fecisset, Icciu, 
Remus, %umma nobilitate et gratia inter suos, qui turn op* 
pido prserat, unus ex Us qui legati de pace ad Caesaiem 
venerant, nuncios ad eum mittit, nisi subsidium sibi *8ub- 
mittator, sese diutius sustinere non posse. 

7. Eo 'de media nocte Gsesar, iisdem ducibus usus qui 
nuncii ab Iccio venerant, ^umidas et Gretas sagittarios, et 
fonditores Baleares, subsidio oppidanis mittit : ^]^ulnrum 
adventn et Remis, cum spe defensionis, studium propug^ 
nandi accessit, et hostibus eadem de causa spes potiundi 
oppidi discessit Itaque, paulisper apud oppidum morati, 
agrosque Remorum depopulati, omnibus vicis aedificiisquej 
*quos adire poterant, incensis, ad castra Cssaris ^omnibus 
copiis contenderunt, "et ab millibus passuum minus duobus 
castra posuerunt ; qiuB castra, ut fumo atque ignibus signi* 
ficabatnr, amicus millibus passuum octo in latitudineri 

8. Caesar prime, et propter multitudinem hostium, "et 
propter eximiam opinionem virtutis, proelio supersedere 
statuit ; quotidie tamen equestribus proeliis, quid hostis vir- 
tute posset, et quid nostri auderent,* ''solicitationibus peri- 
clitabatur. Ubi nostros non esse inferiores intellexit, loco 
pro castris, ad aciem instruendam natura opportuno atque 
idoneo (quod b collis, ubi castra posita erant, paululum 
ex planitie editus, tantum '^dversus in latitudinem patebat 
quantum loci acies instructa occupare poterat, atque "ex 
atraque parte lateiis dejectus habebat, ^'et, frontem leniter 
fastigatus, paulatim ad planitiem redibat), ab utroque latere 
ejus collis transversam fossam obduxit circiter passuun 
quadrijigentorum ; et "ad extremas fossaa castella const! 

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Digitized by CnOOglC 


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tslBBR II. CAP. X. 39 

nit, ibique t6rmeiita coUocavit^ ne, cum adem inattnudsset 
hostes, *quod tantum multitudine poterant, ab lateribus pug* 
Uaiites SU09 circumreiiire possent. Hoc facto, duafaus le- 
gionibus, quas proxime conscripserat, in castris reiictb, ut, 
hi qua opus esset, subsidio duci possent, reliqnas sex legi- 
ones pro castris in acie constituit. Hostes item suas copias 
ex castris eductas instruxerant. 

9. ^Palus erat non magna inter nostrum atque hosUura 
exercitum. Hanc si nostri transirent, hostes ^expectabant ; 
nostri autem, si ab illis initium transeundi fieret, ut imped 
itos aggrederentur, parati in armis erant. Interim proBlic 
equestri inter duas acies contendebatur. Ubi neutri tran 
seundi initium faciunt, '^secundiore equitum proslio nostris 
Cffisar suos in castra reduxit^ Hostes protinus ex eo locc 
ad flumeh Axonam contenderunt, quod esse post nostra cas 
tra ^demonstratom est. Ibi vadis repertis, partem suanur 
copiarum trarisducere conati sunt, eoconsilio, ut, si possent^ 
castelluih, cui praeerat Quintus Titurius legatus, expugna* 
rent, pontemque interscinderent ; ^si minus potuissent, agros 
Remorum popularentur, qui magno nobis usui ad bellum 
gerendum erant, commeatuque nostros probiberent. 

10. C»sar, certior factus ab Titurio, omnem equitatum, 
8t ^evis armaturae Numidas, fimditores sagittariosque, pon- 
tem tranisducit, atque ad eos contendit. Acriter in eo loco 
pugilatum est. Hostes ^mpeditos nostri in flumine aggressi, 
magnum eorum numerum occidenint. Per eorum corpora 
reliquos, 'Wdacissime transire conantes, multitudine telo- 
rum repulerunt ; primos, qui transierant, equitatu circum- 
ventos interfecerunt. Hostes, ubi et de expugnando "op- 
pidb, et de flumine transeundo, spem se fefellisse intellexc* 
Tunt, neque nostros in locum iniquiorem progredi pignandi 
causa viderunt, atque ipsos res frumentaria deficere ccepit, 
concilio convocato constituerunt, optimum esse, domom 
suam quemque reverti, ut, '^quorum in fines primum Ro- 
mani exercitum introduxissent, ad eos defendendos undiqw* 

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conTenixent, er podus in BniB, qnain in alienis finibiis, de> 
certarent, >et domesticis copiis rei frumentaris nterentur. 
Ad aam sententiam, cum reliquis cansis, *hmc quoqiie ratio 
eo8 dedimt, quod Bivitiitom atque iBduo0 finibus BellOTa 
coram ajypropinquare cognoverant. 'His persuaderi, uf 
diatius morarentur, neque suia auxilium fenrent, non potent 

11. Ea re constituta, secunda vigilia magno cum strepito 
ac tmnulta castria egreasi, %iillo cefto ordine neque imperio, 
*cam aibi qniaque primum itineris locom peteret, et domum 
perrenire properaret, fecerunt, ut- consimilis fugte profectio 
nderetur. Hac re statim, Cssar, per speculatorea cognita 
"inaidias veritua, quod> qua de causa discederent, non* 
diim perspexerat, exercitum equitatumque castHs continuit 
Prima luce, confirmata re ab ^xploratoribus, omnem equita- 
tum, qui novisaimum agmen moraretur, prsmisit. His 
Quintum Pedium et Lucium Aurunculeium Cottam legates 
praefecit. TitumXabienum legatum cum legionibus tribus 
subsequi jussit Hi^ novissimos adorti, et multa miUia pas- 
suum prosecuti, magnam multitudinem eorum fugientium 
conciderunt, ^cum ab extreme agmine, ad quos ventum erat, 
consisterent, fortiterque impetum nostrorum militum susti- 
nerent; prioresque (quod abesse a periculo yiderentur, 
neque ulla necessitate neque imperio continerentur), exau- 
dito clamore, 'perturbatis ordinibus, omnes in fuga sibi 
presidium ponerent. Ita sine ullo periculo tantam eorum 
multitudinem nostri interfecerunt, 'quantum fidt diei spa* 
tium : sub occasumque solis "destiterunt, seque in castra. 
ut erat imperatum, receperunt. 

12. Postridie ejus diei Cssar, priusquam se hostes ex 
terrore ac fuga reciperent, in fines Suessionum, qui proximi 
Remb erant, exercitum duxit, et, magno itinere confecto, 
ad oppidum Noviodunum cbntendit. Id "ex itinere oppug 
nare conatns, quod vacuum ab defensoribus esse audzebat 
propter latitudinem fosss murique altitndinem, paucis de* 
fendentibufli, expugnare non potuit Castris munitis, ''▼ineas 

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LXBBA .U. CAP. XT. 41 

ag«re» qusque ad oppognandum uaui eiant, compnxan 
copit. Interim omnis ex fiiga Suessionum muldtudo m o^ 
pidiup proxima nocte convenit. Celeriter Tineia ad oppi* 
dum actis, 'aggere jacto, HuiribuBque constitutiSy magnita 
dine 'operum, qua negue yiderant ante Galli neque audia« 
lanty et celeritate Romanorum pennoti, legates ad Cttaarem 
de deditione mittunt, et, petentibus Kemis ut conservaren 
tui, impetrant. 

13. Cesar, obsidibus acceptis, priaxis civitatis atque 
ipsius ^Galbe regis duobus filiis, amdsque ommbus ex op- 
pido traditis, in deditionem Suessiones accepit, exercitum^ 
que in Belloyacos duxit. Qui cum se suaque omnia in op- 
pidum 'Bratuspantium contulissent, atque ab eo oppido 
Cssar cum exercitu circiter millia passuum quinque abes- 
set, omnes ^ajores natu, ex oppido egressi, manus ad 
Cssarem tendere, et voce significare coBperunt, sese in ejus 
fidem ac potestatem renire, neque contra Populum So* 
manum armis contendere. Item, cum ad oppidum acces^ 
sisset, castraque ibi poneret, pueri mulieresque ex muro 
'passis manibus, suo more, pacem ab Romania petierunt 

14. Pro bis Divitiacus (nam post discessum Belgarum 
dimissis iBduorum copiis, ^ad eum reverterat), facit verba : 
" Belloyacos omni tempore % fide atque amicilia ciyitatia 
JBdusB fuisse: impulses a suis principibus, qui dicerent 
£duos, a Caesare in servitutem redactos, omnes indigni 
tates contumeliasque perferre, et ab ^duis defecisse et 
Populo Romano bellum intulisse. *°Qui bujus consilii prin 
cipes fuissent, quod intelligerent quantam calamitatem ciyi 
tati intulissent, in Britanniam profiigisse. Petere "non 
solum Belloyacos, sed etiam pro bis iEduos, ut sua clemen 
lia ac mansuetudine in eos utatnr. Quod si fecerit, Mdno 
mm auctoritatem apud /omnes Belgas amplificaturum 
"quorum auxiliis atque opibus, si qua bella inciderint, sus 
lentare consuerint." 

15. Caesar, *%onoris Divitiaci atque JSduorum causa 

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42 D|S BfiLLO QAhhlCO. 

sese eott in fidem receptunmi, et conseiTatiimm, dixit: 
Bed, quod erat civitas magna inter Belgas auctoritate, atqne 
hominum mnltitudine prsstabat, sexcentoa obsides popos- 
cit. 'His traditis, omnibu^que armis ex oppido collatis, ab 
eo loco in fines Ambianoram pervenii, qui se snaque omnia 
sine mora dediderunt. Eonmi fines Nervii attingebant: 
quorum de natura moribusque Cssar cum qusreret, sic re- 
periebat : ^* Nullum aditum esse ad eos mercatoribus : 'nihil 
pati yini, reliquarumque rerum 'ad luxuriam pertinentium, 
inferrl, quod his rebus relanguescere animos et remitti vir^ 
tutem existimarent : esse homines feros, magnteque virtu- 
tis : *increpitare atque incusare reliquos Belgas, qui se Pop- 
ulo Romano dedidissent, patriamque virtutem projecissent : 
*confirm^re, sese neque legatos missuros, neque ullam con 
ditionem pacis accepturos." 

16. Cum per eorum fines triduum iter fecisset, invenie- 
bat ex captivis, ^abim ilumen ab castris suis non amplius 
millia passuiun decem abesse : trans id fiumen omnes Ner- 
vios consedisse, ^adventumque ibi Romanorum expectare, 
una cum Atrebatibus et Veromanduis, finitimis suis (nam 
his utrisque persuaserant, uti eandem belli fortunam expe- 
rirentur) : expectari etiam ab his Aduatucorum copias, 
atque esse in- itinere : "mulieres, quique per aetatem ad 
pugnam inutiles viderentur, in eum locum conjecisse, quo 
propter paludes exercitui aditus non esset. 

17. His rebus cognitis, exploratores centurionesque pr»- 
nittity qui locum idoneum castris deligant. Cumque ex de- 
iititiis Belgis reliquisque Gallis complures, Csesarem secuti, 
ma iter facerent ; quidam ex his, ut postea ex caj^vis cog- 
oitum est, ^eorum dierum consuetudine itineris nostri exer- 
citus perspecta, nocte ad Nervios pervenenmt, atque iis 
iemonstrarunt, inter singulas legiones impedimentorum 
(nagnum numerum intercedere, *°neque esse quicquam ne- 
gotii, cum prima legio in castra venisset, reliquseque legio- 
aes magnum spatium abessent, "banc sub sarcinis adoriri * 

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^ ^ ^ . c p 

- i ^ ^ i *o^ 

^ -ri ^. - 5 <D 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


qua puisa, impedinientisque direptis, fiiturum, ut reliqutt 
contra consistere noxi auderent. 'Adjuvabat etiam corum 
consilium qui rem deferebant, quod Nervii antiquitus, cum 
equitatu nihil possent (neque enim ad hoc tempus ^ei rei 
student, sed, quicquid possunt, pedestribus valent copiis). 
quo facilius finitimorum equitatum, si prsdandi causa ad 
COS venisset, impedirent, teneris arboribus ^cisis atque in- 
flexis, ^crebris in latitudinem ramis et rubis sentibusque in^ 
terjectis efiecerant, ut instar muri hae sepes munimenta 
praeberent ; quo *non modo intrari, sed ne perspici quidem 
posset. His rebus cum iter agminis nostri impediretur, 
Wn omittendum sibi consilium Nervii aestimaverunt. 

18. Loci natura erat haec, ^quem locum nostri castris de- 
legerant. CoUis, 'ab summo aequaliter declivis, ad flumen 
Sabim, quod supra nominavimus, vergebat. Ab eo»flumine 
pari acclivitate cpllis nascebatur, adversus huic et contra- 
nus, *°passu8 circiter ducentos infima apertus, ab superiore 
parte "silvestris, ut non facile introrsus perspici posset. 
Intra eas silvas hostes in ocbulto sese continebant: '^in 
aperto loco, secundum flumen, paucae stationes equitum 
videbantur. Fluminis erat altitudo pedum circiter trium. 

19. Caesar, equitatu praemisso, subsequebatur omnibu** 
copiis : sed '^atio ordoque agminis aliter se habebat, au 
Belgae ad Nervios detulerant. Nam, quod ad hostes appro- 
pinquabat, consuetudine sua Ossar sex legiones "expeditas 
ducebat : post eas totius exercitus impedimenta coUocarat : 
inde '^duae legiones, quae proximo conscriptae erant, totum 
agmen claudebant, praesidioque impedimentis erant. Equi- 
tcs nostri, cum funditoribus sagittariisque flumen transgress!, 
cum hostium equitatu proelium commiserunt. Cum se illi 
'^identidem in silvas ad suos reciperent, ac rursus ex sUta 
in nostros impetym facerent, neque nostri longius, quam 
'^quem ad finem porrecta ac loca aperta pertinebant, ce- 
dentes msequi auderent : interim legiones sex, quae primae 
renerant, *^opere dimenso, castra munire coeperunt. Ubi 

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'prima impedimenta nostri exercitns ab his, qui in ufiM 
abditi latebant, visa sunt ('quod tempus inter eos cot unit- 
tendi prcelii convenerat), ita, ut intra silvaa aciem ordineS' 
que constituerant, atque ipsi sese confirmaverant, subito 
omnibus copiis provolaverunt impetumque in nostros equites 
fecerunt His facile pulsis ac ^roturbatis, incredibili celer- 
itate ad flumen decucurrerunt, ut psene uno tempore et 2»d 
siliras, et in flumine, et jam ^in manibus nostris hostes vide 
rentur. Eadem autem celeritate ^adverso colle ad nostra 
castra, atque eos, qui in opere occupati erant, contenderunt. 

20. Caesari omnia uno tempore erant agenda : Vexillum 
proponendmn, quod erat insigne, cum ad arma concurri 
oporteret : ^signum tuba dandum : ab opere revocandi mili- 
tes : qui panlo longius 'aggeris petendi causa processerant, 
arcess^idi : acies instruenda, milites cohortandi, 'signum 
dandum : quarum rerum magnam partem temporis brevitas, 
et ^^successus et incursus hostium impediebat. His diffi- 
cultatibus duae res "erant subsidio, scientia atque usus mili- 
turn, quod, superioribus prceliis exercitati, quid fieri opor- 
teret, non minus commode ipsi sibi prsescribere, quam ab 
aliis doceri poterant ; et quod ab opere '*singulisque legi- 
onibus singulos legates Caesar discedere, nisi munitis cas- 
tris, yetuerat. Hi, propter propinquitatem et celeritatem 
hostium, ^^ihil jam Caesaris imperium spectabant, sed per 
se, quae videbantur, administrabant. 

21. Caesar, necessariis rebus imperatis, ad cohortandos 
milites, '^quam in partem fors obtulit, decucurrit, et ad lo- 
gionem decimam devenit. Milites non longiore oratione 
cohdrtatus, quam uti suae pristinae virtutis memoriam reti- 
nerent, neu pertnrbarentur animo, hostiumque impetum for- 
titer sustinerent ; quod non longius hostes aberant, ^^quam 
quo telum adjici posset, proelii committendi signum dedit. 
kique in alteram partem item cohortandi causa profectus, 
*^ugnantibus occurrit. Teinporis tanta fuit "exiguitas, 
hoetiumque tam paratus ad dimicandum animus, ut iioq 

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inodo 'ad insignia acconunodanda, ^sed etiam ad galcas in- 
duendas scutisque ^gumenta detrahenda tempus defuerit 
Quam qnisque in partem ab opere casu devenit, qusque 
prima signa conspexit, *ad hsc constitit, ne, in quaerendo 
8U0S, ^pugnandi tempus dindtteret. 

22. Instructo exercitu, magis ut loci natura, Mejectusque 
collis, et necessitas temporis, quam ut rei militaris ratio 
atque ordo postulabat, cum diversis locis legiones, aliae alia 
m parte, hostibus resisterent, sepibusque densissimis, ut ante 
demonstsavimus, interjectis ''pospectus impediretur ; neque 
certa subsidia coUocari, neque quid in quaque parte opus 
esset provideri, neque ab uno onmia imperia ^administrari 
poterant. Itaque, in tanta rennid iniquitate, fortunse quoque 
eventus varii sequebantur. 

23. ^Legionis nons, et decimse milites, *°ut in sinistra 
parte acie constiterant, pilis emissis, cursu ac lassitudine 
"exanimatos, vulneribusque confectos Atrebates ('^am bis 
ea pars obvenerat), celeriter ex loco superiore in flumen 
compulerunt ; et, transire conantes insecutl gladiis, magnam 
partem eorum '^impeditam interfecerunt. Ipsi transire 
dumen non dubitaverunt ; et, in locum iniquum progressi, 
rursus regressos ac resistentes hostes, redintegrato proelio, 
in fugam dederunt. Item alia in parte '^diversae duae legi- 
ones, undeciina et octava, profiigatis Veromanduis, quibus- 
cum erant congressi, *^ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis 
ripis proeliabantur. '"At tum, totis fere "a fronte, et ab si- 
nistra parte,* nudatis castris, '^cum in dextro comu legio 
duodecima, et non magno ab ea intervaUo septima consti- 
tisset, onmes Nervii confertissimo agmine, duce Boduognato, 
qui sammam imperii tenebat, ad eum locum contenderunt : 
quorum pars '^aperto latere legiones circumvenire, pars 
'^summum castrorum locum petere, ccepit. 

24. Eodem tempore equites nostri, ^'levisque armaturte 
pedites, qui cum iis una fiierant, quos primo hostium im- 
petu pulsos "dixeram, cum se in castra reciperent, adversit 


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hostibus occurrebant, ac rursus 'aliam in partem fugtjn pe 
cbant : et 'caLones, qui ab Mecumana porta, ac summo iugt* 
collis, nostros victores flumen transisse conspexerant, pr»- 
dandi causa egressi, cum respexissent et hostes in nostrit 
castris Versari vidissent, praecipites fugats sese mandabant 
Simd eorum, qui cum impedimentis veniebant, clamor frem 
itusqoe oriebatur, ^aliique aliam in partem perterriti fere* 
bantur. Quibus omnibus rebus permoti equites Treviii. 
^[uorum inter Gallos virtutis opinio est singularis, qui aux 
ilii causa ab civitate missi ad Caesarem venerant, cum mul- 
titudine hostium castra nostra compleri, legiones premi et 
paene circumventas teneri, calones, equites, funditores, 
Numidas, Miversos dissipatosque, in omnes partes fugere 
vidissent, desperatis nostris rebus, domum contenderunt : 
Romanos pulsos superatosque, castris impedimentisque 
eorum hostes potitos, civitati renuhciaverunt. 

25. Cassar, ^ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum 
comu profectus, ubi suos ^urgeri, signisque in unum locum 
collatis duodecimae legionis confertos milites sibi ipsos ad 
pugnam esse impedimento ; quartae cohortis ^^omnibus cen- 
turionibus occisis, signiferoque interfecto, signo amisso, 
reliquarum cohortium omnibus fere centarionibus aut tuI- 
aeratis aut occisis, in his "primopilo, Publio Sextio Baculo, 
fortissimo viro, multis gravibusque vulneribus confecto, '^Ut 
jam se sustinere iion posset; reliquos esse tardiores, et 
nonnullos ab novissimis desertos proslio excedere ac tela 
vitar^ ; hostes neque *^a fronte ex inferiore loco subeuntes 
intermittere, et ab utroque latere instare ; "et rem esse in 
angusto vidit, neque ullum esse subsidium, quod submitti 
posset : scuto *^ab novissimis uni militi detracto (quod ipso 
eo sine scuto venerat), in primam aciem processit, centuri- 
onibusque nominatim appellatis, reliquos cohortatus milites, 
'"signa inferre et manipulos laxare jussit, quo facilius gladiia 
oti possent. "Cujus adventu spe illata militibus, ac redin 
einrato animo, cum "pro se quisque, in conspectu impere 

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tons, et jam in extremis suis rebus, operam Aayaro cupe- 
rent, paulum hostium impetus tardatus est. 

26. Caesar, cum septimam legionem, quae juxta constit 
erat, item urgeri ab host& vidisset, tribunes militum monuit. 
ut paulatim sese 'legiones conjungerent, et conversa signa 
m hostes inferrent. Quo facto, cum alius alii subsidiuin 
fenrent, neque timerent ^e aversi ab boste circumveniren- 
tur, audacias resistere ac fortius pugnare cceperunt. In 
terim milites legionum ^uarum, qusB in novissimo agmine 
praesidi>» impedimentis fuerant, proelio nunciato, 'cursu in 
citato, in summo coUe ab hostibus conspiciebantur. Et 
Titus Labienus, castris hostium potitus, et ex loco superiore, 
quae res in nostris castris gererentur, conspicatus, Mecimam 
legionem subsidio nostris misit. Qui, cum ex equitum et 
calonum fuga, quo in loco res esset, quantoque in periculo 
et castra, et legiones, et imperator *versaretur, cognovissent, 
nihil ad celeritatem sibi reliqui fecerunt. > 

27. Horum adventu tanta rerum commutatio facta est, ut 
nostri, etiam qui vulneribUs confecti •procubuissent, scutis 
innixi, prcelium redintegrarent ; tum calones, perterritos 
hostes conspicati, ''etiam inermes armatis occurrerent ; 
equites vero, ut turpitudinem fugaB virtute delerent, 'omnibus 
in locis pugnae se legionariis militibus praeferrent. At hos- 
tes, etiam in extrema spe salutis, tantam virtutem *praestife- 
runt, ut, cum primi eorum cecidissent, proximi jacentibus 
insisterent, atque ex eorun corporibus pugnarent; his de- 
jectis, et coacervatis cadavt "ibus, qui superessent, *°uti ex 
tumulo, tela in nostros conjicerent, et pila intercepta remit- 
terent : "ut non nequicquam tantao virtutis homines judicar 
deh^ret ausos esse transire ladssimum flumen, ascendere 
alf '4simas ripas, subire iniquissimum locum : quae facilia ex 
du^cillimis animi magnitude J'redegerat. 

28. Hoc proelio facto, et ^'^rope ad intemecionem genie 
ac nomine Nerviorum redacto, majores natu, quos una cum 
pueris mulieribusque in '^stuaria ac paludei^ collectos dix- 

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eiamus, hac pugna nunciata, cum yictoribus 'nihil i^pedi 
lum. victis nihil tutum arbitrarentui, omnium, qui supererant 
consensu legatos ad Csesarem miserunt seqUe ei dediderunt * 
et, in commemoranda civitatis calamitate, ex sexcentis ad 
tres senatores, ex hominum millibos sexaginta vix ad quin* 
gentos, qui anna feire possent, sese redactos esse dixerunt. 
Quos Caesar, ut in miseros ac supplices usus misericordia 
▼ideretur, diligentissime conservavit, "suisque finibus atque 
oppidis uti jussit, et finitimis imperavit, ut ab injuna et ma- 
leficio se suosque prohiberent. 

29. Aduatuci, de quibus supra scripsimus, cum omnibus 
copiis auxilio Nerviis venirent, hac pugna nunciata, ex 
•itinere domum reverterunt ; cunctis oppidis castellisque 
desertis sua omnia in unum ^oppidum, egregie natura muni- 
tum, contnlerunt. 'Quod cum ex omnibus in circuitu par- 
tibus altissimas rupes d«^spectusque haberet, una ex parte 
leniter acclivis aditus, in latitudinem non amplius ducen- 
torum pedum, relinquebatur : quern locum duplici altissimo 
muro munierant; tum magni ponderis saxa et praeacutas 
Irabes in muro coUocarant. ^Ipsi erant ex Cimbris Teuto- 
nisque prognati ; qui, cum iter in provinciam nostram atque 
Italiam facerent, iis impedimentis, quae secum agere ac 
portare non poterant, citra flumen Rhenum depositis cus- 
todiae ex suis ac praesidio sex millia liominum retiquerunt 
Hi, ^ost eorum obitum, multos annos a finitimis exagitati 
*cum alias bellum inferrent, alias illatum defenderent, con 
sensu eorum omnium pace far .a, hunc sibi domicilio locum 

80. Ae prime adventu exercitus nostri crebras ex oppido 
''^excursiones faciebant, parvulisque preeliis cum nostris con 
tendebant : postea, Tallo "pedum duodecim, in circuitu quin 
decim millium, crebrisque castellis circummuniti, oppidc 
se83 continebant. Ubi, vineis actis, aggere exstructo, ""tur 
rim procul constitui viderunt, primum irridere ex miuo, 
atone increpitare Tocibus, *°quo tanta machinatio ab tantc 

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•patio msii&eretur ? quibusnaoi manibus, aut quibus viribcw, 
prssertim homines tantulae staturae (nam plerumque homin* 
ibus Gallis, ^prse magnitudine corporum suorum. breyitas 
nostra contemtui est), tanti oneris turrim in muros sese col 
locare confiderent 1 • 

31. Ubi vero !moyeri, et appropinquare moenibus vide 
runt, nova atque inusitata specie conunoti, legatos ad C» 
sarem de pace miserunt, qui, ad hunc modum locuti 
'^'Non se existimare Romanos sine ope divina bellum 
gerere, qui tantaB altitudinis machinationes tanta celeritate 
promovere, ^et ex propinquitate pugnare, possent : se sua- 
que omnia eonim potestati permittere," dixerunt. *" Unum 
petere ac d^precari : si forte, pro sua dementia ac man- 
suetudine, quam ipsi ab aliis audirent, statuisset, Aduatucos 
esse conservandos, jie se armis despoliaret : sibi omnes 
fere finitimos esse inimicos, ac suse virtuti invidere ; a qui- 
bus se defendere, traditis armis, non poss0nt. ^Sibi prs- 
stare, si in emn casum deducerentur, quamvis fortunam a 
Populo Romano pati, quam ab his ^per cruciatum interfici, 
inter quoff dominari consuessent." 

32. Ad haec Caesar respondit : " Se hnagis consuetu- 
dine sua, quam merito eorum, civitatem conservaturum, si 
prius, quam murum aries attigisset, se dedidissent : sed 
deditionis nuUam esse conditionem, nisi armis traditis : se 
id, quod "in Nendis fecisset, facturum, finitimisque impera- 
turum, ne quam dedititiis Populi Romani injuriam inferrent.** 
Re nunciata ad suos, "quae imperarentur, *°facere" dixe- 
runt. Armorum magna multitudine de muro in fossam, quae 
erat ante oppidum, jacta, sic ut prope summam "mun ag- 
gerisque altitudinem acervi armorum adaequarent ; et tamen 
circiter parte tertia, ut postea perspectum est, celata atque 
in of^ido retenta, portis patefactis, eo die pace sunt usi. 

33. ^Sub vesperum Caesar portas claudi militesque ex 
oppido exire jussit, ne.quam noctu oppidani ab militibas in- 
foriam acciperent. Illi, ante inito, ut intellectum est, con- 

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ailio, quod, deditione facta, nostros ^prssidia deductuios, aai 
denique indiligentius servaturos, crediderant, partim cum 
his, quffi retinuerant et celayerant, armis, partim scutis ex 
cortice factis aut viminibus intextis, quae subito (ut tempo- 
lis exiguitas postulabat), 'pellibus indoxerant, tertia vigilia, 
qua minime arduus ad nostras munitiones ascensus vide- 
batur, omnibus copiis repente ex oppido eruptionem fece- 
runt. Celeriter, ut ante Caesar imperarat, "ignibus signifi- 
catione facta, ex proximis castellis eo concursum est, pug- 
natumque ab bostibus ^ta acriter, ut a viris fortibus, in ex- 
trema spe salutis, iniquo loco, contra eos, qui ex vallo tur- 
ribusque tela jacerent, pugnari debuit, cum in una virtute 
omnis spes salutis consisteret. ^Occisis ad hominum milli- 
bus quatuor, reliqui in oppidum rejecti sunt. Postridie ejus 
diei, ^efractis portis, cum jam defenderet nemo, atque in- 
tromissis militibus nostris, ^sectionem ejus oppidi universam 
Caesar vendidit. *Ab bis, qui emerant, capitum numerus ad 
eum relatus est millium quinquaginta trium. 

34. Eodem tempore a Publio Crasso, quem cum legione 
una miserat ad Venetos, Unellos, Osismios, Curiosolitas, 
Sesuvios, Aulercos, Rhedones, quae sunt maritimae civitates 
'Oceanumque attingunt, certior factus est, omnes eas civi- 
tates in ditionem potestatemque Populi Romani esse re- 

35. His rebus gestis, omni Gallia pacata, tanta hujug 
belli ad barbaros opinio perlata est, uti ab his nationibus, 
quae trans Rhenum incolerent, mitterentiir legati ad Caesa- 
rem, quae se obsides daturas, imperata facturas, pollic6ren- 
lur : quas legationes Caesar, quod in Italiam *°Illyricumque 
properabat, inita proxima aestate ad se reverti jussit. Ipse 
in C<» mutes, Andes, Tilrone3que, quae civitates propinquae 
his locis erant, ubi bellum gesseral, legionibus in hiberna 
d/?ductis, in Italiam profectus est, ob easque res, ex Uteris 
Caesaris. "dies quindecim suppUcatio decreta est, quod auto 
id tempus accidit nulli. 

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BOOK in. 


t War with some of the Alpinb Communitibs. 
Cbap. 1. Galba, Gsesar's lieutenant, sent againist the Nantnates, V» 
ragri, and Seduni. After some successful battles he brings them to 
terms, and* establishes his winter quarters among them. 2. Secret 
movement of the Gauls. 3-6. They attack the Roman quarters, but 
are defeated in a sally. Galba draws ofif his troops into the province, 
and winters there. 

CI. War with the Vbneti. 
Chap. 7, 8. The Veneti, and other stated bordering upon the ocean, 
break out into sudden revolt. 9-11. Preparations for the war on the 
part of Caesar. 12, 13. The maritime power of the Veneti, t^eir ad- 
vantages of situation, and a description of their vessels. 14-16. 
Caesar, finding it in vain to attack them by land, comes to a naval en- 
gagement with them. The Yeneti are defeated, and submit. They 
are treated with great rigour. 

31. War with the Unblli. 
Chap. 17. Q. Titurius Sabinus is sent, during the progress of th« 
war with the Veneti, into the country of the Unelli. Viridovix, lead^ 
of the revolted Gauls, offers battle to Sabinus, who declines an ei> 
gage^nt. Reasons of the latter for this course. 18, 19. The Gauls, 
urged on by the apparent cowardice of Sabinus, attack the Roman 
r>amp, but are defeated with great slaughter. 

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tV. EznDiTiQN or Crassvs iflro Aquitania. 
Chap. 20^22. The Sotiates defeated by Craaaas and coinpeller «• 
sobmit. An account of the Soldurii. 23-27. The greater pail nf 
Aqnitania surrenders, after some farther fighting, to Crassus. 

V. Expedition of C^bsar against the Morini and Menapii. 
Chap. 28. Casar inarches agamst the Morini and Menapii. They n 
tack him as he is encamping, but are repulsed. 29. Cssar is pt^ 
Tented from completely subjugating them hy violent storms, wheio 
upon he leads his army into winter quarters. 

1. Cum in Italiam proficisceretur Caesar, Servium 6ai- 
bam cum legione duodecima, et parte equitatus, in Nantua<- 
tes, Yeragros, Sedunosque misit, qui ab finibus Allobrogum, 
et lacu Lemanno, et flumine Rhodano, ad summas Alpes 
pertinent. Causa mittendi fuit, quod iter per Alpes, *quo, 
n^gno cum periculo magnisque cum portoriis, mercatores 
ire consuerant, patefieri volebat. Huic permisit, si opus 
esse arbitraretur, uti in eis locis kgionem hiemandi causa 
collocaret. Galba, secundis aliquot prceliis factis, castel- 
lisque compluribus eorum expugnatis, missis ad eum undi* 
que legatis, obsidibusque datis, et pace facta, constituit, co- 
hortes duas in Nantuatibu? collocare, et ipse cum reliquia 
ejus legionis cohortibus in vico Veragrorum, qui appellatui 
Octodurus, hiemare : qui vicus, positus in valle, non magna 
adjecta planitie, altissimis montibus undique continetur. 
Cum liic in duas partes flumine diyideretur, alteram partem 
ejus vici Gallis concessit, alteram, vacuam ab illis relictam, 
cohortibus ad biemandum attribuit. ^Eum locum yallo fos- 
saque munivit. 

2. Cum dies %ibemorum complures transissent, frumen 
tnmque eo comportari jussisset, subito per^ zploratores cer- 
tior factus est, ex ea parte vici, quam Gallis concesserat, 
omnes noctu discessisse, montesque, qui impenderent. a 
maxima multitudine Sedunorum et Veragrorum teneri. ^Id 
aliquot de causis acciderat, ut subito Galli belli renovandi 
Isgionitque opprimend» consilium caperent : primum, quod 

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LIBER ill. CAP. 1 • 53 

legionem, 'neque earn plenissimam, detractis coLortlbus 
duabus, et compluribus 'singillatim, qui commeatus petendi 
causa missi erant, absentibus, propter paucitatem despicie- 
bant : turn etiam, quod, propter iniquitatem loci, cum ipsi ex 
montibus in vallem 'decurrerent, et tela conjicerent, ne pri- 
mum quidem posse impetum sustinere existimabant. ^Ac- 
cedebat, quod suos ab se liberos abstractos obsidum nomine 
dolebant : et Romanos non solum itinerum causa, sed etiam 
peipetuae possessionis, culmina Alpium occupare conari, et 
ea loca finitimse provincise adjungere, ^sibi persuasum ba- 

3. His nuntiis acceptis, Galba, ^cum neque opus bibemo- 
rum, munitionesque plene essent perfectse, ''neque de fru- 
mento reliquoque commeatu satis esset provisum; quod, de- 
ditione facta, obsidibusque acceptisj nibil de bello timendum 
existimaYer#, consilio celeriter convocato, sententias ex- 
quirere coepit. Quo in consilio, cum tantum repentini peri 
culi preeter opinionem accidisset, ac jam^ omnia fere super- 
iora 4oca multitudine armatorum eompleta conspicerentur^ 
"neque subsidio yeniri, neque. commeatus supportari inter- 
clusis itineribus possent, prope jam desperata salute, non- 
nullse hujusmodi sententiae dicebantur, ut, impedimentis re- 
lictis, eruptione facta, iisdem itineribus, quibus eo perve- 
nissent, ^ad salutem contenderent. Majori tamen parti 
placuit, '°hoc reservato ad extremum consilio, interim "rei 
eventum experiri et castra defendere. 

4. Brevi spatio interjecto, vix ut his rebus, quas constit 
oissent, ^^collocandis atque administrandis tempus daretur, 
hostes ex omnibus partibus, signo dato, decurrere, lapides 
^g»saque in vallum conjicere : nostri primo "integris viri 
bus fortiter repugnare, neque ullum fru^era telum ex loco 
auperiore mittere : ut quaeque pars caslrorum nudata defen- 
goribus premi videbatiu:, *®eo occurreie, #t auxilium ferre : 
''sed hoc superari, ^Iquod diutumitate pugns hostes defead 
priBlio excedebant, alii integris riribus succedebant: qoa* 


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54 t>£ BELLO 6ALLICO. 

rum rerum a nostris propter *paucitatem fieri nihil poterat , 
ac non modo defesso ex pugna excedendi, sed ne saucio 
quidem ejus loci, ubi constiterat, relinquendi, ac sui recipi- 
endi, facultas dabatur. 

5. Cum jam amplius horis sex continenter pugnaretui, 
ac non solum vires, sed etiam tela, nostris Meficerent, atque 
hostes acrius instarent, languididribusque nostris vallum 
Bcindere, et fossas complere, coepissent, resque esset jam 
•ad extremum perducta easum, Publius Sextius Baculus, 
*primi pili centurio, ouem Nervico proelio compluribus cOn- 
fectum vulneribus ^dixiflius, et item Caius Volusenus, tri- 
bunus militum, vir et consilii magni et virtutis, ad Galbam 
accumint, atque *unam esse spem salutis docent, si erup- 
tione facta, extremum auxiUum experirentur. Itaque, ^con- 
vocatis centurionibus, celeriter milites certiores facit, pau- 
li»per intermitterent proelium, ac taiitummo^ tela missa 
"exciperent, seque ex labore reficerent ; post, dato signo, ex 
castris erumperent, atque omnem spem salutis in virtu^te 

6. Quod jussi sunt, faciunt ; ac, subito ^omnibus portis 
erupt ione facta, *°neque cOgnoscendi, quid fieret, neque sui 
coUigendi, hostibus facultatem relinquunt.- Ita commutata 
fortuna, eos, qui "in spem potiundorum castrorum venerant, 
undique circumventos interiiciunt, et, ex hominum millibus 
amplius triginta, quem numerum barbarorum ad castra ve- 
nisse constabat, *^lus tertia parte interfecta, reliquos per- 
territos in fugam conjiciunt, ac re in locis quidem superi- 
oribus consistere patiuntur Sic, omnibus hostium copiis 
"^usis, armisque exutis, se in castra munitionesque suas re- 
cipiunt. Quo prcelio facto, quod saepius fortunam tentare 
Galba nolebat, atque *^alio sese in hibema consilio venisse 
meminerat, aliis occurrisse rebus viderat, maxime frumenti 
commeatusque iifopia permotus, postero die omnibus eju* 
vici sdificiis incensis, in Provinciam reverti contendit ; ac, 
null 3 hoste prohibente aut iter demorante, incolumem \egi« 

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onem in Nantuates, inde in Allobrogas, perduxit, ibique 

7. His rebus gestis, cum ^omnibus de causis Caesar pa 
catam Galliam existimaret, superatis Belgis, expulsie Ger- 
manis, victis in Alpibus Sedunis, *atque ita, inita Hieme, in 
Dlyricum profectus esset, quod eas quoque nationes adire, 
ct regiones cognoscere, volebat, subitum bellum in Gallia 
coortmn est. Ejus belli haec fuit causa. Publius Crassua 
adolescens cum legione septima proximus ^are Oceanun. 
ia Andibus hiemarat. Is, quod in hi? locis inopia frumenti 
erat, *praefectos tribunosque militum complures in finitimas 
civitates, frumenti commeatusque petendi causa, *dimisit: 
quo in numero erat Titus Terrasidius, missus in Esubios ; 
Marcus Trebius Gallus in Curiosolitas ; Quintus Velanius, 
cum Tito Silio, in Venetos. 

8. Hujus est civitatis longe amplissima auctpritas omnis 
orae maritimae regionum earum ; quod et naves habent Ve- 
neti plurimas, quibus in Britanniam navigare consuerunt, 
et •'scientia atque usu nauticarum rerum teliquos antecedunt, 
et, in magno impetu maris atque aperto, paucis portubus in 
teijectis, quos tenent 'ipsi, omnes fere, qui eo mari uti con- 
Buerant, habent vectigales. Ab iis fit initium retinendi Silii 
atque Velanii, quod per eos suos se obsides, quos Crasso 
dedissent, recuperaturos existimabant. Horum auctoritate 
Bnitimi adducti {^nt sunt Gallorum subita et repentina con- 
silia), eadem de causa Trebium Terrasidiumque retinent, 
et, celeriter missis legatis, per suos principes inter se con- 
jurant, nihil nisi conununi consilio actuios, eundemque 
•omnis fortunae exitum esse laturos; reliquasque civitates 
Bolicitant, ut in ea libertate, quam a majoribus acceperant, 
permanere, quam Romanorum servitutem perferre, '^mallent 
Omni ora maritima celeriter ad suam sententiam perducta, 
communem legationem ad Publium Crassum mittunt, "gi 
relit "suos recipere, obsides sibi remittat." 

9. Quibus de rebus Caesar ab Crasso certior factus. 

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'quod ipse aberat longiiu, "naves interim longas edifican in 
flumine Ligeri, quod influit in Oceanum, *remiges ex Pro- 
nncia institui, nautas grubematoresque comparari jubet. 
His rebus celeriter administratis, ipse, cum primum per 
anni tempus potuit, ad exercitum contendit. Yeneti, reli- 
quieque item civitates, cognito Caesaris adventu, simul quod, 
Vjuantum in se facinus admisissent, intelligebant (legates. 
*quod nomen apud omnes nationes sanctum inviolatumque 
semper fiusset, retentos ab se et in vincula conjectos), ^ro 
magnitudine periculi bellum parare, et maxime ea, quae ad 
usum navium pertinent, providere instituunt ; hoc majore 
spe, quod multum natura loci confidebant. ''Pedesiria esse 
itinera concisa aestuariis, navigationep impeditam propter 
inscientiam locorum paucitatemque portuum sciebant : "ne- 
que nostros exercitus propter frumenti inopiam diutius apud 
se morari posse, confidebant : ac jam, ut omnia contra opi- 
nionem acciderent, tamen se plurimum navibus posse: 
Romanos neque ullam facultaiem habere navium, neque 
eorum locorum, ubi bellum gesturi essent, vada, portus, in- 
sulas novisse : 'ac longe aliam esse navigationem in con 
cluso mari, atque in vastissimo atque apertissimo Oceano, 
perspiciebant. His initis consiliis, oppida muniunt, fru- 
menta ex agris in oppida comportant, naves '^n Venetiam, 
ubi Caesarem primum' bellum gesturum constabat, quam 
plurimas possunt, cogunt. Socios sibi ad id bellum Osis- 
mios, Lexovios, Nannetes, Ambiliatos, Morinos, Diablintes, 
Menapios adsciscunt : auxilia ex Britannia, quae contra eas 
egiones posita est, arcessimt. 

10. "Erant hae difficultates belli gerendi, quas supra os- 
tendimus ; sed multa Caesarem tamen ad id bellum incita 
bant : **injuriae retentorum equitum Romanorum ; rebellic 
facta post deditionem ; ''defectio datis obsidibus ; tot ci cita- 
tum conjuratio ; in primis, ne, "hac parte neglecta, reliquaj 
nationes idem sibi licere arbitrarentur. Itaque cum Intel- 
igeret, omnes fere Gallos *^ovis rebus studere, et ad bel 

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lum mobiliter celeriter^ue excitari, omnes autem hominei 
natura libertati studere, et conditionem servitutib odidse ; 
priusquam plures civitates conspirarent, pardq^dum tub! ac 
latins distribuendum eyrcitum putavit. 

11. Itaque Titum Labieniun legatum in Treviros, <|U] 
proximi Rheno flumini sum, cum equitatu mittit. Huic 
maT.dat, Remos reliquosque Belgas adeat, atque in officio 
contineat ; Germanosque, qui ^auxilio a Belgis arcessiti di- 
cebantur, si per vim navibus flumen transire conentur, pro- 
hibeat. Publium Crassum *cum cohortibus legionariis duo- 
decim, et magno numero equitatus, in Aquitaniam proficisci 
iubet, ne ex his nationibus auxilia in 'Galliam mittantur, ac 
tantffi nationes conjungantur. Quintum Titurium Sabinum 
legatum cum legionibus thbus in Unellos, Guriosolitas, 
Lexoviosque mittit, ^qui eam manum distinendam curet. 
*Decimum Brutum adolescentem classi, Gallicisque navibus, 
quas ex Pictonibus et Santonis reliquisque pacatis regioni- 
bus conyenire jusserat, prgeficit, et, cum primum possit, in 
Venetos proficisci jubet. Ipse eo pedestribus copiis con- 

12. Erant ejusmodi fere ^situs oppidorum, ut, posita in 
extremis lingulis promontonisque, neque pedibus aditum 
haberent, 'cum ex alto se x«)tu*i incitavisset, quod bis acci- 
dit semper horarum viginti quaVor spatio, neque navibus, 
'quod, rursus minuente aestu, nav«is in vadis afflictarentur. 
Ita •utraque re oppidorum oppugna*vo impediebatur ; ac, si 
quando *°magnitudine operis forte saperati, "extruso mari 
aggere ac molibus, **atque his ferme oppidi mcsnibus adae- 
qiiatis, suis fortunis desperare coeperant, magno numero na 
dum ^^appulso, cujus rei summam facultatem habebant, sua 
doportabant omnia, seque in proxima oppiJa recipiebant 
Ibi se rursus iisdem opportunitatibus loci ^efendebant 
Haec 60 fucilius magnam partem aestatis facieH:^(, quod 
ttdstrae naves tempestatibus detinebantur ; summaqu^ eral 
vasto atque aperto mari, ^^agnis sestibus, raris ac yvf^ 
nullis portubus, difficultas navigandi. 

F ? 

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13. Namque ipsorum navbtt ad hunc modum -facts ur 
mataeque erant. 'CarinjBe aliquanto planiores, quam nos- 
tra! um navium, quo facilius vada ac decessum aestus excip- 
ere posseut: prorae admodum erec^, atque item puppes, 
ad magnitudinem fluctuum tempestatumque accommodate : 
naves totae factae ex robore, ^ad quamvis vim et contmneliam 
perferendam : transtra pedalibus in latitudinem trabibus 
confixa clavis ferreis, digiti pollicis crassitudine : anchorae, 
pro funibus, ferreis catenis revinctqp : Relies pro velis, alu- 
taeque tenuiter confectae, sive propter *lini inopiam atque 
ejus usus inscientiam, sive eo, quod est magis verisimile, 
quod tantas tempestates Oceani tantosque impetus ventorum 
sustineri, ac Hanta onera navium regi velis non satis com- 
mode, arbitrabantur. "^Cum his navibus nostrae classi ejus- 
modi congressus erat, ut una celeritate et pulsu remorum 
praestaret, 'reliqua, pro loci natura, pro vi tempestatum, illis 
essent aptiora et accommodatiora : neque enim his nostrae 
•rostro nocere poterant ; tanta in eis erat firmitudo : n6que 
propter altitudinem '°facile telum adjiciebatur ; et eadem de 
causa "minus commode copulis continebantur. Accedebat, 
ut, cum saevire ventus coepisset *^et se vento dedissent, et 
tempestatem ferrent facilius, et '*in vadis consisterent tu- 
tius, et, ab aestu derelictae, nihil sax a et cautes timerent: 
quarum rerum omnium nostris navibus "casus erant extim- 
escendi. * 

14. Compluribus expugnatis oppidis, Caesar, ubi intel- 
iexit, frustra tantum laborem sumi, neque hostium fu£;am 
captis oppidis reprimi, **neque his noceri posse, statuit ex- 
pectandum classem. Quae ubi convenit, ac primum ab hos- 
tibus visa est, circiter ducentae et viginti naves eorum '^a- 
ratissimae, atque omni genere armorum omatissimae, pro- 
fectae ex portu, nostris adversae constiterunt : neque satis 
Bruto, qui classi praeerat, vel tribunis militum centurioni 
busque, quibus singulae naves erant attributae, constabat,' 
qiiid-agerenty aut "quam rationem pugnss insist erent. Ho** 

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trc enim noceri non posse cognoverant; tuiribus autem 
excitatb, tamen has altitudo puppium ex barbaris navibua 
superabat, ut neque ex Inferiore loco ^satis commode tela 
adjici possent, et missa ab Gallis graviua acciderent. Una 
erat magno usui res praeparata a nostris Calces praeacutse, 
iiisertae affixasque bnguriis, non absimili forma ^uralium 
falcium. His cum fimes, qui antennas ad malos destina- 
bant, ^comprehensi adductique erant, navigio remis incitaio 
praerumpebantur. Quibus abscissis, antennae necessario 
concidebant, ut, cimi omnis Gallicis navibus spes in yelis 
•'armamentisque consisteret, his ereptis, omnis usus navium 
uno tempore eriperetur. ^Reliquum erat certamen positum 
in yirtute, qua nostri milites facile superabant, atque eo 
magis, quod -^n conspectu Caesaris atque omnis exercitus 
res gerebatur, \it nullum paulo fortius factum latere posset : 
olnnes enim colles ac loca superiora, unde erat propinquua 
despectus in mare, ab exercitu tenebantur. 

15. ^Dejectis, ut diximus, antennis, *°cum singulas biuae 
ac temsB naves circumsteterant, milites summa vi "tran- 
scendere in hostium naves contend^bant. Quod postquam 
barbari fieri animadverterunt, expugnatis compluribus navi* 
bus, cum ei rei nullum reperiretur auxilium, fuga salutem 
petere contenderunt : ac, jam conversis in earn partem na- 
vibus, **quo ventus ferebat, tanta subito malacia ac tranquil- 
litas extitit, ut se ex loco movere non possent. Quae quid- 
em res ad negotium conficiendum maxime fuit opportuna : 
nam ^singulas nostri consectati expugnaverunt, ut perpaucas 
*ex omni numero, noctis interventu, ad terram pervenerint, 

cum ab hora fere quarta usque ad solis occasum pugnaretur 

16. Quo proelio bellum Venetorum totiusque orae maxitimaB 
confectum est. Nam, cum omnis juventus, omnes etiaro 
*^gravioris a&tatis, in quibus aliquid consilii aut dignitatis 
ftiit, eo convenerant ; turn, navium quod ubique fuerat, unura 
in locum poegerant : quibus amissis, reliqui, neque quo 8« 
nn^iperen^ neque quemadmodum oppida defenderent* hab« 

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bant. Itaque Be luaque omnia Caesari dedideruut. in 
quo8 eo gravius Cassax Tindicandum statuit, quo diligentiui 
in reliquum tempus a barbaris jus legatorum conservaretor. 
Itaque, onmi senatu necato, reliquos 'sub corona Tendi^t. 

17. Dum haeo in Venetis geruntur, 'Quintus Titurios Sa» 
binus cum iis copiis, quae a Csssare acceperat, in finet 
Unellorum pervenit. His prsBerat Viridovix, ac summam 
imperii tenebat earum omnium civitatum, qua defecerant, 
ex quibus exercitum magnasque copias co^gerat. ^Atque 
his paucis diebus Aulerci Eburovices, Lexoyiique, senatu 
Buo interfecto, quod auctores belli esse nolebant, portas 
clauserunt seque cum Viridovice coujunxerunt : magnaque 
praeterea multitude undique ex Gallia ^erditorum hominum 
latronumque convenerant, quos spes praedandi^ jstudiumqne 
bellandi, ab agricultura et quotidiano labore revocabat. 
Sabinus 4doneo omnibus rebus loco castris sese tenebat, 
cum Viridovix contra eum ^duum miilium spatio conse- 
disset, quotidieque productis cupiis pugnandi potestatem fa- 
ceret ; ut jam non solum hostibus in contemtionem Sabinus 
veniret, sed etiam nostrorum militum vocibus Wnnihil car- 
peretur : tantamque opinionem timoris praebuit, ut jam ad 
vallum castrorum hostes accedere auderent. Id ea de causa 
faciebat, quod cum tanta multitudine hostium, praesertim 'eo 
absente, qui summam imperii teneret, nisi aequo loco, aut op- 
portunitate aliqua data, legato dimicandum non existimabat 

18. *°Hac confirmata opinione timoris, idoneum quondam 
hominem et callidimi delegit, Galium, ex his, quos auxilii 
causa secum habebat. Huic magnis praemiis pollicitationi** 
buaque persuadet, uti ad hostes transeat ; et, quid fieri velit, 
edocet. Qui, ubi pro perfiiga ad eos venit, timorem Ro- 
manorum ^^proponit: "quibus angustiis ipso Caesar a Ve- 
netis prematur," docet : " neque longius abesse, quin prox 
ima nocte Sabinus clam ex castris exercitum educat, et ad 
Caesarem auxilii ferendi causa proficiscatur." Quod ubi 
suditum est, conclamant omnes, occasioned negotii bens 

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I.IBB& lil. CAP. XX 6J 

gerendi amittendam non esse, ad castra izi oportere. 
'Mult® res ad hoc consilium Gallos hortabantur : superio- 
rum dierum Sabini cunctatio, "perfugae confirmado, inopif» 
cibariorum, cui rei parum diligenter ab iis erat provisum, 
%pes Venetici belli, et quod fere libenter homines id, quod 
▼olunt, credunt. His rebus adducti, ^on prius ViridoTicem 
reiiquosque duces ex concilio dimittont, quam ab his sit 
concessum, arma uti capiant et ad castra contendant. Qua 
re concessa, Isti, ut explorata victoria; sarmentis virgultis 
que Gollectis, quibus fossas Romanorum compleant, ad cas 
tra pergunt. 

19. Locus erat castrorum editus, et paulatim ab imo ac 
.cliyis 'circiter passus miUe Hue magno cursu contende- 
runt, ut quam minimum spatii ad se coUigendos armandos- 
que Romanis daretur, 'exanimatique pervenerunt. Sabinus, 
suos hortatus, cupientibus signum dat. Impeditis hostibus 
propter ea, qus ferebant, onera, subito duabus portis erup- 
tionem fieri jubet. Factum est opportunitate loci, hostium 
inscientia ac defatigatione, virtute militum, superiorum pug 
narum exercitadone, ut ne unum quidem nostrorum impe- 
turn terrent, ac statim terga verterent. Quos impeditos ^in 
tegris viribus milites nostri consecuti, magnum numerum 
eorum occiderunt ; reliquos equites consectati, paucos, qui 
ex fiiga evaserant, reliquerunt. Sic, uno tempore, et de 
navali pugna ^Sabinus, et de Sabini victoria Gssar certior 
factus ; civitatesque omnes se statim Titurio dedidenmt. 
"Nam, ut ad bella suscipienda GaUorum alacer ac promtus 
est animus, sic mollis ac '°minime resistens ad calamitates 
perferendas mens iwrum est. 

20. Eodem fere tempore, Publius Grassus, cum in Aqui- 
tamam pervenisset, quae pars, ut ante dictum est, et regio- 
num latitudine, et multitudine hominum, '*ex tertia parte 
Galliae est aestimanda, cum intelligeret in his locis sibi hel- 
ium gerendum, ubi ^^ucis ante annis Lucius Valerius Pr» 
eanimis, Jegatus, exercitu pulso, interfectus esset, atqii« 

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onde Lucius Munilius, proconsul, impedimentis amissis 
profugisset, non mediocrem sibi diligentiam adkibendam 
inteliigebat. Itaque re frumentaria provisa, auxiliis equi-_ 
tatuque comparato, multis praeterea viris forlibus Tolosa, 
Carc%ione, et Narbone, 'quae sunt civitates Galliae Provin- 
ciae, fmitimae his regionibus, nominatim evocatis, in Sotiatuni 
ines exercitum intxoduxit. Cujus adventu cognito, Sotiates 
magnis copiis coactis, equitatuque, ^quo plurimum valeban., 
in itinere agmen nostrum adorti, primunv equestre proslium 
Tommiserunt : deinde, equitatu suo pulso, atque insequen- 
tibus nostris, subito pedestres copias, quas in convalle is. 
insidiis coUocaverant, ostenderunt. Hi, nostros disjectos 
adorti, proBlium renovarunt. 

21. Pugnatum est diu atque acriter, cum Sotiates, super 
Loribus yictoriis freti, in sua virtute totius Aquitaniae salu 
tem positam putarent; nostri autem, quid sine imperatore,, 
et sine reliquis legionibus, adolescentulo duce, efficere pos- 
sent, perspici cuperent. 'Tandem, confecti vulneribus, 
hostes terga vertere. Quorum magno numero interfecto, 
Crassus ex itinere oppidum Sotiatum oppugnare coepit. 
Quibus fortiter resistentibus, vineas turresque egit. llli, 
alias eruptione tentata, alias ^cuniculis ad aggerem vineas- 
que actis {®cujus rei sunt longe peritissimi Aquitani, prop- 
terea quod multis locis apud eos aerariae secturse sunt), ubi 
diligentia nostrorum ^'niliil his rebus profici posse intellexe- 
runt, legatos ad Crassum mittunt, seque in deditionem ut re- 
cipiat petunt. Qua re impetrata, arma tradere jussi, faciunt. 

22. Atque, ^in ea re omnium nostrorum intentis animis, 
alia ex parte oppidi Adcantuannus, qui summam imperii 
tenebat, ^cum sexcentis devotis, quos illi soldurios appellant 
('quorum haec est conditio, uti omnibus in vita commodis 
una cum his fruantur, quorum se amicitias dediderint; si 
quid lis per vim accidat, aut eundem casum una fevajity ^^aut 
«ibi mortem consciscant : neque adhuc hominum memcnrla 
tepertus est quisquam, qui, eo interfecto, cujus se amicitias 

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devovissent, mortem recusaret^,* 'cum lis Adcantuannus, 
eruptionem facere conatus, clamore ab ea parte munitionia 
sublato, cum ad arma milites concurrissent, vehementerque 
ibi pugnatum esset, repulsus in oppidum, ^men uti eadeis 
deditionis conditione uteretur, ab Cras^o impetravit. 

23. Armis obsidibusque acceptis, Crassus in fines Voca- 
tium et Tarusatinm profectus est. Tum vero %arbari com- 
moti, quod oppidum, et natura loci et manu mhnitum, ^paucis 
diebus, quibus eo ventum erat, expugnatum cognoverant, le- 
gators quoquoversus dimittere, conjurare, obsides inter se 
dare, copias parare coBperunt. Mittuntur etiam ad eas ci- 
vitates legati, quae sunt ^citerioris Hispanias, finitimae Aqm- 
taniae : inde auxilia ducesque arcessimtur. Quorum ad- 
ventu ^magna cum auctoritate, et magna cwa bominum mul- 
titudine, bellum gerere conantur. Duces vero ii deliguntur, 
qui una cum ^Quinto Sertorio omnes annos fuerant, siun 
jnamquo scientiam rei militaris habere existimabantur. Hi 
"consuetudine Populi Romani loca capere, castra munire, 
commeatibus nostros intercludere instituunt. Quod ubi 
Crassus animadvertit, suas copias propter exiguitatem non 
•facile diduci, *°hostem et vagari et vias obsidere et castris 
satis praesidii relinquere ; ob eam causam minus commode 
frumentum commeatumque sibi supportari ; in dies hostium 
numerum augeri ; non cunctandum existimavit, quin pugna 
decertaret. Hac re ad consilium delata, ubi omnes idem 
sentire intellexit, posteruip'diem pugnae constituit. 

24. Prima luce, productis omnibus copiis, "duplici acie 
instituta, ^'auxiliis in mediam aciem conjectis, quid hostes 
consilii caperent expectabat. Eli, etsi propter multitudi- 
nem, et veterem belli gloriam, paucitatemque nostrorum, se 
tuto dimicaturos existimabant, tamez^ tutius esse arbitraban- 
tur, obsessis viis, commeatu intercluso, sine ullo vulnere 
fdctoria potiri : et, si propter inopiam rei frumentaria? Ro- 
ihani sese recipere ccepissent, impeditos in agmine et ''sub 
•arcinis, inferiores animo, adorirJ cogitabant. Hoc conailio 

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probato ab ducibiu, prodactis Romanorum copiis, sese caa- 
tris tenebant. Hac re perspecta, Grassus, *cum sua cunc- 
tatione atque opinione timoris hostes nostros milites ala- 
criores ad pugnandum efTecissent ; atque omnium voces 
audirentur, expectari diutius non oportere, quin ad castia 
iretur; cohortatus suos, omnibus cupientibus, ad hijstium 
castra contendit 

25. Ibi cum alii fossas complerent, alii, multis telis con- 
jectis, defensores vallo munitionibusque depellerent, auidli- 
aresque, 'quibus ad pugnam non multum Grassus confidebat, 
lapidibus telisque subministrandis, et ad aggerem cespitibua 
comportandis, speciem atque opinionem pugnantium prae- 
berent; cum item ab hostibus 'constanter ac non timide 
pugnaretur, telaque ex loco superiore missa ^on frustra ac- 
ciderent ; equites, circumitis hostium castris, Grasso renun- 
ciaverunt, non eadem esse diligentia ab decumana porta 
castra munita, facilemque aditum habere. 

26. Grassus, equitum praefectos cohortatus, ut magnis 
prsemiis pollicitatiombusque sUos excitarent, quid fieri velit 
ostendit. lUi, ut erat imperatum, eductis quatuor cohorti 
bus, quae, praesidio castris relictae, ^intritae ab -labore erant, 
et longiore itinere. circumductis, ne ex hostium castris con 
spici possent, omnium oculis mentibusque ad pugnam in 
tentis, celeriter 'ad eas, quas diximus, munitiones pervene 
runt, atque, liis prorutis, prius in hostium castris constite- 
runt, quam ^lane ab iis videri, aut, quid rei gereretur, cog- 
nosci posset. Tum vero, clamore ab ea parte audito, nostri 
redintegratis viribus, quod plerumque in spe victoriae accid- 
ere consuevit, acrius impugnare coeperunt. Hostes undi- 
qUe circumventi, desperatis omnibus rebus, se per muniti- 
ones dejicere et fuga salutem petere 'intenderunt. Quo* 
eqmtatus apertissimis campis consectatus, ex millium quin- 
quaginta numero, quae ex Aquitainia Gantabrisque convenissii 
constabat. vix quarta parte relicta, ^^multa nocte se in castra 

27 Hac audita pugna. magna Dars Aquitaniae sese 

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Ciasso dedidit, obsidesque ultro* misit : quo in numero fue- 
runt Tarbelli, Bigerriones, Preciani, Vocates, Tarusa^^, 
Elusates, Garites, Ausci, Garunmi, Sibuzates, Cocosates. 
Paucs ultims nationes, anni tempore confisie, quod hiems 
auberat, hoc facere neglexenmt. 

28. Eodem fere tempore Caesar, . etsi prope exacta jam 
sstas erat, tamen, quod, omni Gallia pacata, Morini Mena- 
piique 'supererant, qui in aiinis €«sent neque ad eum un* 
qoam legatos de pace misissent, arbitratus, id bellum celer- 
iter coiifici posse, eo exercitum adduzit : 'qui longe alia 
ratione, ac reliqui Galli, boUum agere instituerunt. Nam 
quod intelligebant, maximas nationes, qus prcelio conten- 
dissent, pulsas superatasque esse, 'continentesque silras ac 
paludes habebant, eo se suaque omnia contulerunt. Ad 
quarum initium silvarum cum Caesar pervenisset, castraque 
munire instituisset, neque hostis interim visus esset, dis- 
persis in opere nostris, subito ex omnibus partibus silvae 
evolaverunt et in nostros impetum fecerunt. Noroi celer- 
iter arma cepenmt, eosque in silras repulermit, et, com- 
pluribus interfectis, ^ongius impeditioribus locis secuti^ 
paucos ex suis deperdiderunt. 

29. Reliquis deinceps diebus Q^sar silvas caedere instit- 
uit, et, ne quis ^ermibus imprudentibusque militibus ab 
latere impetus fieri posset, omnem eam ^ateriam, quae erat 
caesa, ^conversam ad ho9tem collocabat, et pro vallo ad 
utnimque latus exstruebat. Ihcredibili celeritate "magno 

. spatio paucis diebus confecto, cum jam pecus atque 'ex- 
trema impedimenta ab nostris tenerentur, ipsi densiores 
silvas peterent ; ejusmodi sunt tempestates consecutae, uti 
opus necessario intermitteretur, et, continuatione imbrium 
diutius '^sub pellibus milites contineri non possent. Itaque 
Tastatis omnibus eorum agris, Ticis aedificiisque incensis, 
Caesar exercitum reduxit, et in Aulercis, Lexoyiisque, reli- 
quis item civitatibus, "quae proximo bellum fecerant, in hi- 
bemis coUocavit. 


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Chap. 1-3. The Us^tes and Tenchthen, two Gennan natioiia, be 
mg eipeOed by tha Bumif {muh ofer into G«q1. A dMaiption v 
giTon of the minnen of the Snevi, and their mode of Ufe. 4. The 
Ua^Mtes and Teochtfaeri dnre oat the Menafiii fimm their habitatlona 
6, 6. Caaar reaolTaa to make war upon the Uaipetea and Tenchtheii 
7-8. Embaaay of the Geimana to Csaar, and hia reply. 10. De- 
aeription of the Meoae and Bhine. 11-16. Perfidy pf the Gennana» 
their oreithroW) and flight. 
n. C^iaAm'a bbidos dm. tub RRim, akd ma cBoaanro nrro Gsb- 


Chap. 16. Gaaar'a leaaooB for croaaiDg the Rhine. 17. BoiUa a 
bridge ovec that liyer. Deacrption of it 18. Croaaea ofer into the 
temtoiy of the Sicambri. 19. Paaaea into the ooontiy of the UbiL 
Reeenrea from them information reapeeting the SnerL* Retuna inlo 

in. Ombam, PAaasa imto Bbitaik. 
Chap. SO. Caaar'a leaaona for peaaing oirer into Britain. 31. Do 

* apatehea C. Vohiaeiiiia, in a Teaael, to reconnoiter. Ambaaaadon 
come firom Britam. 2S» 83. Csaar'a paaaage acroaa. 34-86. Dia- 
embaication. Battle. Fli^t of the Bxitona. 87. ThaBritonaaeiid 
ambaaaadora to Catar, with offers of anoender. 88,89 Hie Roman 

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UB£ll IV. CAP. II. 67 

fleet snffon by a lerero teo^test. 30-36. Reiolt of the Bntom. 
A deacription of their mode of fighting from chaiiots. They are sab- 
dned. GflBsar returns to OauL 
IV. Wab with the Morini and Msnafii. 
Chap. 37. Revolt of the Morini. 88. Labiemie is sent sgainst them 
Their subjngation. Teiritory of the Meoapii xwtgod hf Tituriuv 
■nd Cotta. ThaoksgiTing at Rome. 

1. Ea, qusB secuta est, hieme, qui fuit annus 'Cneio 
Pompeioy Marco Crasso consulibus, Usipotes Gemumi, et 
item Tenchtheri, magna cmn multitudine hominum, flumer 
Rhenum transienmt, non longe a man, 'quo Rhenus influit 
Causa transeundi fuit, quod, ab Suevis c<nnplure8 annoi 
exagitati, bello premebantur et agricultura prohibebantur. 
Suevorum gens est longe maxima et bellicosissima Genna- 
norum onuiium. Hi 'centum pagos habere dieuntur, ex 
quibus quotaiinis singula millia annatorum bellaadi causa 
ex finibus educunt. Reliqui, qui domi manserint, se atque 
illos alunt. Hi rursus invicem anno post in armis sunt ; 
illi domi reiaanent. ^Sic neque ag^cultura, nee ratio atque 
usus belli, intermittitur. Sed ^rivad ac separati agri ^ud 
eps nihil est ; neque longius anno remanere uno in loco in- 
colendi causa licet. Neque midtum frumento, sed ^naxi- 
mam partem lacte atque pecore yivunt, multumque sunt in 
renationibus ; qum res et cibi genere, et quotidiana exerci- 
tatione, et libertate vits (quod, a pueris ^nuUo officio aut 
discifdina assuefacti, nihil omnino contra yoluntatem faci- 
ant), et vires alit, et immani corporum magnitudine homines 
efficit. Atque in earn se consuetudinem adduxerunt, ut 
^ocis frigidissimis, neque vestitus, prseter pelles, habeant 
quicquam (quarum propter exiguitatem magna est corp^ds 
pars aperta), et laventur in fluminibus. 

2l JVIercatoribus est ad eos aditns magis eo, ut, 'queo 
bello ceperint, quibus vendant, habeant, quam quo ullan 
rem ad se importari desiderent : '^quinetiam jiunentis, qui* 
bus maxime Gallia delectatur, quseque impenso paran* 

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pretio, Germaii importatitiis ncm utimtm 'sed quae flEimt 
apad eos nata, 'parva atque defonnia, haec qaoddiana exer- 
citatione, suiniiii ut sint laboris, efficiunt. Equeatribua 
prcsliis ssepe ex equis deailiunt, ac pedibus proeliantui; 
eqaosque eodem remanere vestigio assuefaciunt ; ad quos 
se celeriter, cum usua est, recipiunt : neque eorum moribus 
Huipius quicquam aut inertins habetur, qoam ephippiis utl. 
9taqu6 ad quemvis nmnerum epbippiatorum equitum, quam- 
vis pauci, adire audent Yinum ad se omnino 'importaii 
Bon sinunt, quod ea re ad laborem ferendum remollescere 
homines, atque effoeminari, arbitrantur. 

3. *Publice4naximam putant esse laudem, quam latissime 
a suis finibus yacare agros: hac re siguificari, magnum 
nmnerum ^civitatium suam vim Susdnere non posse. Ita- 
que, una ex parte, a Suotis, circiter millia passuum sex- 
centa agri vacare dicuntur. 'Ad alteram partem succedunt 
Ubii ('quorum fuit civitas ampla atque fiorens, utest captus 
Germanorum), ''^et paulo quam sunt ejusdem generis ceteri 
humaniores ; propterea quod Rhenum attinguntj^multumque 
ad eos mercatores yentitant, et ipsi propter propinquitatem 
Gallicis sunt moribus assuefacti. Hos cum Suevi, multis 
ssepe bellis experti, propter "amplitudinem gravitatemque 
civitatis, finibus expellere non potuissent, tamen rectigales 
sibi fecerunt, ac multo '^umiliores infirmioresque redege*- 

4. ''In eadem causa fuerunt Usipetes et Tenchtheri, quos 
supra diximus, qui complures annos Suevorum vim sustin- 
uerunt ; ad extremum tamen, agris expulsi, et multis Ger* 
maniae locis trienniom Tagati, ad Rhenum perrenerunt : 
'^uas regiones Menapii incolebant, et ad utr^mque ripom 
fluminis agros, ledificia, vicosque habebant ; sed tantae mul- 
titudinis aditu perterriti, ex his sdificiis, quae trans flumen 
habuerant, "demigraverant, et, cis Rhenum dispositb prae- 
sidiis, Germanos transire prohibebant. Illi, omnia experti, 
cum neque vi contendere propter inopiam navium, neque 

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clam transire propter custodias MenApionmi, posseut, re- 
Terti se in suas sedes regionesque fimulayenmt ; et, tridoi 
viam progress!, *rursus revertemnt, atque, omni hoc itinere 
una nocte equitatu confecto, inscios iwyinantesgne Mena- 
pios oj^resserunt, qui, de Gennanorum diacesau per ex« 
ploratbres certiores facti, sine metn trans Rhennm in sues 
tIcos remigraverant- His interfectis, navibiisque eonim 
occupatis, priiisqnam ea pars Menapiorum, qine citra Rbe* 
pum ^quieta in suis sedibus erat, certior fieret, flumen tran- 
■ dierunt, atque, omnibus eorum sdificiis occupatis, *reliquam 
partem hiemis se eorum copiis aluerunt. 

5. His de rebus Cssar certior factus, et %ifirmitateai 
Gallorum yeritus, quod sunt in consiliis capiendis mobiles, 
et novis plerumque rebus student, nihil his committendum 
existimavit. 'Est autem hoc Gallics consuetudinis, nti et 
viatores, etiam invitos, consistere cogant, et, quod quisque 
eorum de quaque re audierit aut cognoverit^ quserant; et 
mercatores in oppidis *vulgus circumsistat, quibusque ex 
regionibus yeniant,quasque ibi res cognoyerint, pronunciare 

ogant. ^His rumoribus atque auditi<mibus permoti, de 
nmmis saepe rebus consilia ineunt, quorum eos e yestigio 
pcenitere necesse est, ^cum incertis rumoribus seryiant, et^ 
plerique ad yoluntatem eorum ficta respondeant. 

6. Qua consuetudine cognita, Cesar, "ne grayiori bello 
occurreret, maturius quam consuerat ad exefcitum jHroficis- 
citur. £o cum yenisset, ea, qu» fore suspieatus eiat, ^aota 
cogiK)yit ; missas legationes a nonnullis ciyitatibus, ^*ad 
Grermanos, inyitatosque eos, uti ab Rheno discederent; 
omniaxjue quae postulassent, ab se' fore paiata. Qua spe 
adducti German! latius jam yagabantur, et in fines Eburo^ 
num et Condrusorum, qui sunt Treyirorum clientes, porye* 
nerant. Principibus Gallias eyocatis, Cssar ea quae cog- 
noyerat '^dissimulanda sibi existimayit, eorumque animis 
p^mulsis et confirmatis, equitatuque imperato, bellum cum 
Germanis ferere constituit. 


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70 DS BltlO eAlLIC6. 

7. Re frumentaria compftrata, equitibusquc delectis, iter 
in ea loca facere copit, quibua in locis esse Germanos au- 
diebat A qnibna cum pauc'orum dierum iter abesset, legad 
ab hia Tenerunt, quonun hflse fuit oratio : ^ Gennanos neque 
iniorea Populo Romano bellmn inferre, neque tamen recu« 
aare, si lacessantur, quin armia contendant ; quod Germa 
norom consuetudo hmc sit a majoribus tradita, quicumque 
bellmn inferant, 'rosistere, neque deprecari : h»c tamen 
dicere, yenisse invitos, ejectos domo. Si Suam gratiam 
Roman! yelint, posae eis utiles esse amicos : vel sibi agros 
attribuant, vel patiantur 'eos tenere quos annis possederint 
Sese unis Suevis ^concedere, quibus ne Dii quidem immor- 
talea pares esse possint : reliquum quidem in terris esse 
neminem, qnem non superare possint." 

8. Ad hmc Gflssar, quse visum est, respondit ; sed 'exitus 
fmi oratipnis : " Sibi nullam cvan his amicitiam esse posse, 
si in Gallia icemanerent : neque verum esse, qui suos fines 
tueri non potuennt, alienos occupare : 'neque ullos in Gallia 
vacare agros qui dari, tant» prssertim multitudini, sine in- 
hnia possint. Sed licere, si yelint, in Ubiorum finibus con- 
siders, quorum sifit legati apud se, et de Suevorum injuriis 
querantur, et a se auxilium petant : . hoc se ^ab iis impetra^ 

9. Legati haec se ad suos relaturos dixerunt, et, re delib- 
erata, post diem tertium ad Cssarem reyersuros : interea 
ne propius se castra moyeret, petierunt. Ne id quidem 
Cesar ab se impetrari posse dixit : cognoyerat enim, mag-^ 
nam partem equitatus ab iis aliquot diebus ante pnedandi 
frumentandique causa ad Ambiyaretostrans Mosam m^ssam. 
"Hos expectari equites, atque ejus rei causa moram inter- 
poni, arbitrabatur. 

10. Mosa profluit ex monte 'Vosego, qui est in finibus 
lingonum, '®et, parte quadam ex Rbeno recepta, quffi ap- 
pellatur Yahalis, insulam efiicit Batayorum, neque longius 
ab eo millibus passuum octoginta in Oceanum transit 

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UBltE IT- 6aF. Xll. 7 

jRImiiu autem oritur ex Lepontus, qui Alpes incolunt, ei 
longo spatio per fines Nantoatiimi, Helretionmi, SeqoaiM^ 
mm, Mediomatricomm, Tiiboconnny Trevirorum 'citatua 
fertar ; et, ubi Oceano appropinquot, ^ phires diffluit par 
tea, multiB ingentiblisqae insalis effecds, quanmi pars magna 
a feris barbarisqae nationibiis incolitur (ex qnibus simt, ^ui 
piscibns atque ovis avium virere existimantur), multiBque 
capitibus in Oceanum influit. 

11. Cssar cum ab hoste non amplius passuum duodecim 
millibus abesset, ^t erat constitutiun, ad eum legati rerer- 
tuntur : qui, in itinera congressi, magnopere, ne longiua 
progrederetur, orabant. Cum id non impetrassent, pete- 
bant, uti ad eos equites, qui agmen antecessissent, prssmit- 
teret, eosque pugna probiberet ; sibique uti potestatem fa- 
ceret, in Ubios legatos mittendi : quorum si Principes ac 
aenattts "aibi jurejurando fidem fecissent, ea oonditione, qu» 
a Ceaare ferretur, se usuros ostendebant : ad has res con- 
ficiendas sibi tridui spatium daret.. Hec omnia Cssar 
*eodem illo pertinere arbitrabatur, ut, tridui mora interpos- 
ita, equites eonun, qui abesaent, reverterentur : tamen ^se 
non longius millibus passuum quatuor aquadonis causa pro- 
cessurum eo die dixit : hue postero die quam frequentissimi 
convenirent, ut de eorum postulatis cognosceret Interim 
ad 'prsfectos, qui cum omni equitatu antecesserant, mittit, 
qui nunciarent, ne hostes proelio lacesserent, et, si ipsi la- 
cesserentur, H^ustinerent, quoad ipse cum exercitu propius 

12. At hostes, ubi primum nostros equites conspexerunt, 
quorum erat quinque millium numerus, cum ipsi *n<m am« 
pfius octingentos equites haberent, quod ii, qui frumentandi 
causa ierant trans Mosam, nondum redierant, nihil timend- 
bus nostris, quod legati '^eorum paulo ante a Cssare dia- 
cesserant, atque is dies induciis erat ab eis petitos, impetu 

•facto, celeriter nostros perturbaverunt 'Sursus reaisten* 
tibus jjpyostria, consuetudine sua ad pedes desiluerunt, sub- 

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fossiaqoe eqau, comploribiuqae itostris dejeetifl, reliqnos ib 
fbgam conjecenmt, atque 4ta perterritos egenmt, ut non 
prius fiiga desisterenty quam in conspectu agminis nostri 
yeaissent In eo proelio ex equitibuB nostris interficiuntur 
quatuor et septoaginta, in his vir fortissimiw, Piso, Aqui- 
tanus, amplissimo genere natus,, cujus ayus in civitate sua 
legniun obtinuerat, amicus ab Senatu nostro aj^llatua. 
Hie cum fratri 'intercluso ab hostibus auzilium ferret, ilium 
ex periculo eripuit: ipse, equo yulnerato dejectns, quoad 
potuit, fortissime restitit. Cum circumventus, multis tuI- 
neribus acceptis, cecidisset, atque id frater, qui jam proelio 
excesserat, procul 'animum advertisset, incitato equo se 
bostibus obtulit atque interfectus est. 

13. Hoc facto proelio, Ctesar neque jam sibi legatos au- 
diendos, neque conditiones accipiendas arbitrabatur ab his, 
qui ^er dolum atque insidias, petita pace, ultro bellum in- 
tulissent : expectate vero, dum hostium copiae augerentur, 
equitatusque reverteretur, summae dementiae esse judicabat ; 
et, cognita Gallomm %[ifinnitate, quantum jam apud eos hos- 
tes uno proelio auctoritatis essent consecuti, sendebat : qui- 
bus ad. consilia capienda nihil spatii dandum existimabat. 
His constitutis rebus, et consilio cum legatis et quss^ 
ore communicato, ^ne quem^^em pugnae .praetermitterei, 
opportunissima res accidit, quod p<Mstridie ejus diei mane, 
eadem et perfidia et simulatione usi Germani, frequentes, 
'omnibus principibus majoribusque natu adhibitis, ad eum 
in castra venerunt ; simul, ut dicebatur, 'sui purgandi causa, 
quod contra atque esset dictum, et ipsi petissent, proeliun 
piidie commisissent ; simul ut, si quid possei^t, '°de in 
duciis faUendo impetrarent. Quos sibi Caesar oblatos "ga 
yisus, illico retineri jussit ; ipse omnes copias castris eduxit. 
equitatumque, quod recenti proelio perterritum esse existi- 
mabat, agmen subsequi jussit. 

14. Acie triplici instituta, et celeriter octomilUumitineTe 
ccmfecto, prius ad hostium castra pervenit, quam, qr^fi a^e* 

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retur, Germaid sentire possent. Qui, omnibus rebus subito 
perterriti, et celeritate adventus nostri, et 'discessu suorum, 
neque jconsilii habendi neque arma capiendi spatio dato, 
perturbantur, copiasne adversus-hostem educere, an castra 
defendere, an fuga salutem petere, praestaret Quorum 
timor cum iremitu et concursu significaretur, milites nostri, 
'pristpi diei perfidia incitati, in Castra irruperunt. Quorum 
qui celeriter arma capere potuerunt, paulisper nostris 
restiterunt, atque inter carros impedimentaque proclium 
commiserunt : at reliqua multitudo puerorum mulierumque 
(nam cum omnibus suis domo excesserant • Rhenumque 
transierant), pass|m fugere coepit; 'ad quos consectandos 
Gssar equitatum misit. 

15. Germani, ^st tergum clamore audito, cum suos in 
terfici viderent, armis abjectis, signisque ^kiilitaribus relictis, ^ 
se ex castris ejecerunt : et, cum ^ad confluentem Moss et 
Rheni pervenissent, Reliqua fuga desperata, magno numero 
interfecto, reliqui se in flumen piKcipitaverunt, atque ibi 
timore, lassitudine, vi fluminis oppressi, perierunt. Nostri 
ad unum omnes incolumes, perpaucis vulneratis, ''ex tanti 
belli timore, cum hostium numeru^ capitum quadringento- 
rum et triginta millium fuisset, se m castra receperunt. 
Cassar his, quos in castris retinuerat, discedendi potestatem 
fecit : illi supplicia cruciatusque Gallorum veriti, quorum 
agros vexaverant, remanere se apud eum velle dixerunt 
His Caesar libertatem concessit. 

16. Germanico bello confecto, *multis de causis Csesai 
statuit, sibi Rbenum esse transeundum: quarum ilia fuit 
fustissima, quod, cum videret, Germanos tam facile impelli, 
at in Galliam venirent, *suis quoque rebus eos timere volnit, 
cum inteliigerent, et posse et au^ere Populi Romani exer^ 
citum Rhenum transire. ^^Accessit etiam, quod ^la pars 
equitatus Usipetum et Tencbtherorum, quam supra commem- 
oravi, praedandi frumentandique causa Mosam transisse, 
neqne pr(p1io interfuisse, post fugam suorum se tr^ns Rhe- 

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num in fines Sigambromm receperataeqtie cum lis conjunx 
erat. 'Ad quos cum Cesar nuncios misisset, qui postu- 
larent, eos, qui sibi Galliaeque bellum intulissent, sibi dede- 
rent, responderunt : " Populi Romani imperium Rhenum 
finire: si, se invito Germanos in Galliam transire non 
lequum existimaret, 'cur sui quicquam esse imperii aut pot^ 
estalis trans Rhenum postularet ?" Ubii autem, qui uni ex 
Transrbenanis ad Cssarem legatos miserant, amicitiam' 
fecerant, obsides dederant, magnopere orabant, "ut sibi 
auxilium ferret, quod graviter ab Suevis premerentur ; vel, 
si id facere 'occupationibus reipublicee prohiberetur, exer- 
citum modo Rhenum transportaret : id sibi ad auxilium 
spemque reliqni temporis satis futurum : tantum esse ^o- 
men atque opinionem ejus exercitus, Ariovisto pulso, et hoc 
novissimo prceliorfacto, etiam ad ultimas Germanorum nati- 
ones, uti opinione et amicitia Populi Romani tuti esse pos- 
sint. Nayium magnam copiam ad transportandum exerci* 
tum pollicebantur." 

17. Caesar his de causis, quas commemoravi, Rhenum 
transire decreverat ; sed navibus transire, neque satis tuium 
esse arbitrabatur, hieque suae neque Populi Romani dignitatis 
esse statuebat. It^ue, etsi summa difficultas jfaciendi pon- 
tis ^roponebatur, propter latitudinem, rapiditatem, altitudi- 
nemque fluminis, tamen id sibi contendendum, aut alitei 
non transducendum exercitum, existimabat. ''Rationem 
pontis hanc instituit. Tigna bina sesquipedalia, paulum ab 
imo praeacuta, "dimensa ad altitudiiiem fiuminis, intervallo 
pedum duorum inter se jungebat. Hsec cum machinationi- 
bus immissa in fiumen defixerat, ^fistucisque adegerat, ''^on 
sublicae modo directa ad perpendiculum, ^d prona ac fasti- 
gata, ut secundum naturam fluminis procumberent ; iis item 
contraria bina, ad eundem modmn juncta, intervallo pedum 
quadragenum, '^ab inferiore parte, coi^tTa vim atque im 
petum fluminis conversa statuebat. '^Hsee utraque insupei 
bipedalibus trabibus immissis ^^quantum eorum tignorpir 

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A. Two piles, aaeh a fool and a liair tliiek. Joined tofBther at tbe dUtanee of abov 
two feet. B. Two opposite piles similarly joined together. C. Large beam extendec 
Between tbem. D. Braces. B. Timbers laid across. P. Stakes smik in the riyer 
as bnttressos. G. Fences against trunks of trees, dee. sent down tbe riTer. H Form 
ef tbe beams a foot and a half thick. I. Form of tbe beam extended between tbem 
K. Figure of the two piles braced together. 1*. Braces. M. A detached hrace II 
Ulnars ih^ athwart O. Hurdles 

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iunctuia distabat, biniii utrimque fibulis ab extrema pane, 
distinebantur : 'quibua disclosis atque in contrariam partem 
rerinctis, "tanta erat opens firmitudo, atque ea rerum natuta, 
ut, quo major vis aquae se incitavisset, hoc arctius illigata 
tenerentur. 'Hsc directa materie injecta contexebantur, 
et ^longuriis cratibusque constemebantur : 'ac nihilo seciiui 
sublicae et ad inferiorem partem fluminis oblique agebantui, 
qu», "pro pariete subjectSB, et cum omni opere conjuncts 
vim fluminis ezciperent : ^et aliie item supra pontem me- 
diocri spatio, ut, siarborum trunci, sive naves 'dejiciendi 
operis essent a barbaris missse, his defensoribus earum rerum 
vis minueretur, neu ponti nocerent. 

18. Diebus decern, 'quibus materia coepta erat comport 
tari, omni opere effecto, exercitus transducitur. Cssar, 
*°ad utramque partem pontis flrmo praesidio relicto, in fine» 
Sigambrorum contendit. Interim a compluribus civitatibns 
ad eum legati veniunt, quibus pacem atque amicitiam pe- 
tontibuB liberaliter respondit, obsidesque ad se adduci jubet 
At Sigambri, ex eo tempore quo pons institui coBptus est, 
fuga comparata, "hortantibus iis quos ex Tenchtheris atque 
Usipetibus apud se habebant; finibus suis excesserant, sua- 
que omnia exportaverant, seque '"in soliQidinem ac silvas 

19. Cesar, paucos dies in eorum finibus moratus, omni* 
bus vicis sdificiisque incensis, frumentisque succisis, se in 
fines Ubiorum recepit ; atque iis auxilium suum poUicitus, 
si ab Suevis premerentur, hec ab iis cognovit : Suevos, pos- 
teaquam per exploratores pontem fieri comperissent, more 
suo concUio habito, nuncios in omnes partes dimisisse, uti 
de oppidis demigrarent, liberos, uxores, suaque omnia **in 
silvas deponerent, atque omnes qui arma ferre possent unum 
in locum convanirent : ^hunc esse delectum medium fere 
regionum earum quas Suevi obtinerent: hie Romanorum 
adventum expectare atque ibi decertare constituisse. Quod 
obi Cssar comperit, omnibus his rebus confectis, quarum 

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ronun causa transdacere exercitum constituerat, nt Qentia* 
nis metom injiceret; ut Sigambros 'ulcisceretor, ut Ubioa. 
obaidione liberaret, diebus onmino d^m et octo tram 
Rbenum consumtis, 'satis et ad laudem et ad utilitatem pro* 
fectum arbitratus, "se in Galliam recepit, pontemque rescidit 

20. Exigua parte sstads reliqua, Caesar, etsi in his locis^ 
quod omnis Gallia ad septentriones vergit, ^maturfle sunt 
hiemes, tamen Hn Britanniam proficisci contendit, quod, 
omnibus fere Gallicis bellis, hostibus nostris 'inde subminis* 
trata auxilia inteUigebat : et, si tempus anni ad bellum ge- 
rendum deficeret, tamen magno sibi usui fore arbitrabatur, 
si modo insulam adisset, genus hominum perspexisset, 
loca, portus, aditus cognovisset: quae omnia fere Gallis 
erant incognita. Neque enim ^temere prster merca^es 
illo adit quisquam, neque iis ipsis quicquam, pneter o^am 
maritimam atque eas regiones quae sunt contra Gallias, 
notum est. Itaque, evocatis ad se undique mercatoribus, 
neque quanta esset insulae magnitudo, neque quae aut quants 
nationes incolerent, neque 'quern usum belli haberent, aut 
quibus institutis uterentur, neque qui essent ad majorum 
navium multitudinem idonei portus, reperire poterat. 

21. Ad baec cognosceAda, priusquam periculum faceret, 
idoneum esse arbitratus 'Caium Yolusenum, cum navi 
longa ^^raemittit. Huic mandat, uti, expioratis omnibus 
rebus, ad se quamprimum revertatur: ipse cum omnibus 
copiis in Morinos .proficiscitur, quod inde erat brevissimus 
in Britanniam transjectus. Hue naves undique ex finitimis 
regionibus et, quam superiore aestate ad Veneticum bellum 
fecerat, classem jubet conyenire. Interim, consilio ejus 
eognito et per mercatoces perlato ad Britaanos, a compluri- 
bus ejus insulae civitatibus ad eum legati veniunt, qui pol* 
liceantur obsides "dare, atque imperio Populi Rmnani oIh 
temperare. Quibus auditis, liberaliter pollicitus, kortatnsque 
^ in ea sententia peitnanerent, eos domum remittit, et cum 
bis una Commium, quern ipse, Atrebadbus supersiis, regem 

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ibi Gonadtuerat, cujus et Tirtutem et consiliain probabal, ei 
. qaom sibi fidelem arbitrabatur, cujusque auctoritas in iis 
regionibiis 'magi^babebator, mittit. Huic imperat, quas 
poasit adeat civitSes, horteturque Hit Populi Romani Mem 
sequantur ; seque celeriter eo venturvimiiunciet. Yolusenus, 
perspectis regionibiis, ^quantum ei facultatis dari potiiit, qui 
navi egredi ac se barbaris committere non auderet, quinto 
die ad Csesarem reverdtur; qu»que ibi perspeziaset re- 

22. Dum in bis locis Cssar naviiun parandarum causa 
moratur, ez magna parte Morinorum ad eum legati venerunt, 
qui se Me superioiis temporis consilio ezcusaient, quod 
bomines barbari, et 'nostra consuetudinis imperiti, bellum 
Pcpulo Romano fecissent, seque ea, quae imperasset, fac 
turos poUicerentur. Hoc sibi satis opportune Cssar acci- 
disse arbitratus, quod neque post tergum bostem relinquere • 
volebat, neque belli gerendi, propter anni tempus, facultatem 
habebat, neque ^has tantularum rerum, occupationes sibi 
Britannise anteponendas judicabat, magnum bis obsidum 
numerum imperat. Quibus adductis, eos in fidem recepit. 
^Navibus circiter octoginta onerariis coactis contractisque^ 
quot satis esse ad duas transportandas legiones existimabat, 
quicquid praeterea navium longarum babebat, quaestori, le- 
gatis, prasfectisque distribuit. Hue accedebant octodecim 
onerariae na^as, quae ex eo loco ab millibus passuum octo 
vento tenebantur, quo minus in eundem portum pervenire 
possent. Has equitibus distribuit ; reliquum exercituir 
Quinto Titurio Babinc et Lucio Aurunculeio Cottae, legatis, 
in Menapios atque ir eos pagos Morinorum, ab quibus ad 
eum legati non venerant, deducondum dedit. Publium 
Sulpitium Rufiim, legatum, cum eo praesidio quod satis esse 
arbitrabatur, portum tenere jussit. 

33. His constitutis rebus, nactus idoneam ad navigandum 
tempestatem, *tertia fere vigilia '^solvit, equUesque in "ult^ 
iorem portum progredi, et naves consce^idere, et se sequi 

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joant : a quibiia cum id paulo tardios esset administnlnii^ 
ipse ^ra dier circiter quarta cum primis navibus 'BhtaQ* 
niam attigit, atque ibi in omnibus collibus 'expositas hostiutt 
copias armatas conspexit. Cujus loci htec erat natura: 
^eo montibus angustis mare continebatur, uti ex locif 
luperioribus in littus telum adjici posset. Hunc 'ad egre* 
dieadum nequaquam idoneum arbitratus locum, dum reliqu» 
naves eo'convenirent, 'adhoram nonam in anchoris expec- 
tavit Interim legatis tribunisque militum convocatis, et 
quae ex Voluseno cognosset, et quae fieri vellet, ostendit, 
^monuitque (ut rei militaris ratio, maadme ut maritimae res 
postularent, ut que celerem atque instabilem motum habe- 
rent), ad nutum et ad tempus omnes res ab iis administra- 
rentur. His dimissis, et ventum et sestum uno tempore 
nacttts secundum, dato signo, et 'sublatis anclioris, circiter 
miUia passuum septem ab eo loco progressus, aperto ac 
piano littore naves constituit. 

24. At barbari, consilio Romanorum cognito, prsemisso 
equitatu, 'et essedariis, quo plerumque genere in proeliis uti 
consuerunt, reliqui3 copiis subsecuti, nostros navibus egredi 

. probibebant. Erat ob has causas summa difficultas, quod 
naves, propter magnitudinem, nisi in alto, '^constitui non 
poterant ; militibus autem, ignotis locis, impeditis manibus, 
magno et gravi armorum onere oppressis, simul et de na- 
vibus desiliendum, "et in flnctibus consistendum, et cum 
hostibus erat pugnandum : cum ill? aut ex arido, aut paulu- 
lum in aquam progressi, ''omnibus membris expediti, no- 
tissimis locis, audacter tela conjicerent, *'et equoij insue- 
factos incitarent. Quibus rebus nostri pcrterriti, atque 
bujus omnino generis pugnoe imperiti, non eadem alacritate 
ac studio, quo in pedestribus uti prceliis consueverant, nte 

25. Quod ubi Caesar animum advertit, naves .ongas 
^'quarum et species erat barbaris iniisitatior, et motus ad 
jsum expeditior, paulum removeri ab ^onerariis navibus, et 


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.80 DB BJ9LL0 OALciCO. 

remifl mcitari, et ad latns ^pertlim hostinm consthui, atqu9 
inde 'fundis, sagittis, tormentis, hostes propelli ac 4subnio- 
Teri jdssit: 'quae res magno usui noBtris fuit. Nam, el 
navium figara, et remonim motu, et inusitato genere tor- 
mentoraxn permoti, barbari constiterunt, ac paulum modo 
pedem retuldrunt. Atque, nostril militibus cunctantibus, 
maxixne propter altitudinem maris, 'qui decimae legioni* 
aquilam ferebat, contestatus Deos, ut *ea res le^oni feli- 
citer eveniret : " Desilite,'' inquit, << commilitones, nisi vultis 
aquilam hostibus prodere : ego certe meum reipublicae atque 
imperatori officium 'prsestitero." Hoc cum magna voce 
dixisset, ex navi se projecit, atque in hostes aquilam ferre 
cGBpit. Tum nostri, cohortati inter se, ne 'tantum dedocns 
admitteretur, universi ex navi desimerunt : bos item 'e:z 
proximis navibus 'cum conspexissent, subsecuti hostibus 

26. Pugnatum est ab utrisque acriter: nostri tamen, 
qiiod neque ordines servare, 'neque firmiter insistere, neque 
signa subsequi poterant, atque alius alia ex nayi, quibus- 
cumque signis occurrerat, se aggregabat^ magno opere per- 
nirbabantur. Hostes rero, notis omnibus radis, ubi ex lit* 
tore aliqaos ^'singulares ex navi egredientes conspexerant, 
\ncitatis equis impeditos adoriebantur : plures paucos cir- 
cumsistebant : alii ab latere aperto in universos tela conji. 
ciebant. "Quod cum animum advertisset Ciesar, "scaphas 
longarum navium, item speculatoria navigia militibus com- 
pleri jussit, et, quos laborantes conspexerat, iis subsidia 
Bubmittebat. Nostri, "simal in arido constiterunt, suis om- 
nibus consecutis, in hostes impetum fecerunt, atque eos in 
fugam dederunt, neque longius prosequi potuerunt, quod 
^Vquites cursum tenere atque insulam capere non potuerant 
Hoc unum ad pristinam fortunam Caesari defuit. 

27. Hostes proelio superati, simul atque se ex fuga rece- 
perunt, statim ad Caesarem ^tlegatos de pace miserunt: 
obsides datnros, quaeque imperasset sese facturos, polliciti 

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Bunt Una cum Ids legatis Gommius Atrebas venit, qiera 
'supra demonstraTeram a Cssare in Britanniam prsmissunL 
Hunc illi e navi egressum, cum ad eos 'oratoris modo im- 
peratoris mandata perferret, comprehenderant atque in rin- 
cula conjecerant: turn, proelio facto, ^remiserunt et in,pe- 
tenda pace ejus rei culpam in multitudinem contulerunt, et 
propter imprudentiam ut ignosceretur, petiverunt. Caesar 
questus, quod, cum ultro in ^cpntinentem legAs missis 
pacem ab se petissent, bellum sine causa intnlissent, ignos- 
cere imprudentiae dixit, obsidesque imperavit: quorum illi 
partem statim. dederunt, partem, ex longinquioribus locia 
*arcessitam, paucis diebus sese daturos dixerunt. Interea 
•uos remigrare in agros jusserunt, principesque undique 
convenire et se civitatesoue suas Gaesari commendare 

28. His rebus pace confirmata, 'post diem quartum, quam 
est in Britanniam ventum, naves octodecim, de quibus supra 
demonstr^m est, quae equites sustulerant, ex superiore 
portu lem yento solverunt. Quae cum appropinquarent Bri- 
tanniae, et ex castris viderentur, tanta tempestas subito 
coorta est, ut nulla earum ''cursum tenere posset, sed aliae 
eodem, unde efant profectae, referrentur ; aliae ad inferiorem 
partem insulae, 'quae est propius solis occasum, magno sui 
dum periculo dejicerentur : quae tamen, anchoris jactis 'cum 
fluctibus complerentur, necessario adversa nocte in altum 
provectae, continentem petierunt. 

29. Eadem nqcte accidit, ut esset luna plena, ''qui dies 
maritimos aestus maximos in Oceano efficere consuevit ; 
'hiostrisquo id erat incognitum. Ita uno tempore et iongas 
naves, quibus Caesar exercitum transportandum curaverat, 
qaasque in aridum subduxerat, aestus complebat ; et onera- 
rias, quae ad ancboras erant deligatae, tempestas ''afflictabat ; 
neque uUa nostris facultas aut administrandi, aut auxiliandi, 
dabatur. Compluribus navibus fractis, reliquae cum essent, 
lunibus, ancboris, reliquisque armamentis amissis, ad navi 

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gandum inutiles, magna, id quod necesse erat accidere^ 
'totius exercitus perturbatio facta est : neque enim naves 
6raiit ali», qiiibus reportari possent ; et omnia deerant, qua 
ad reficiendas eas usui sunt, et, 'quod omnibus constaba^ 
tuemari in Gallia oportere, frumentum his in locis in hiemen 
proVisum non erat. 

30. Quibus rebus cognitis, principes Britanniae, qui pos. 
proelium Ikctum ad ea, quae jusserat Caesar, facienda con 
venerant, inter se collocuti, cum equites et naves et fru 
raentum Romanis deesse intelligerent, et paucitatem militum 
ex castrorum 'exiguitate cognoscerent, quae hoc erant etiam 
angustiora, quod sine impedimentis Caesar legiones trans- 
portaverat, optimum factu esse duxerunt, rebellione facta, 
frumento commeatuque nostros prohibere, et ^em in hiemem 
producere, quod, iis superatis, aut reditu interclusis, nemi- 
nem postea belli inferendi causa in Britanniam transiturum 
confidebant. Itaque, rursus CQUjuratione facta, paulatim ex 
castris discedere, ac suos clam ex agris deducere cceperunt. 

31. At Caesar, etsi nondum eorum consilia ^ignoverat, 
tamen et ^ex eventu navium suarum,.'et ex eo, quod obsides 
dare intermiserant, fore id, quod accidit, suspicabatur. 
Itaque ^ad omnes casus subsidia comparabat : nam et fru- 
mentum ex agris quotidie in castra conferebat, et, quae "gra 
vissime afiiictae erant naves, earum materia atqiie aere ad 
reliquas reficiendas utebatur, et, quae ad eas res erant usui, 
ex continenti comportari jubebat. Itaque, cum id summo 
studio a militibus administraretur, duodecim navibus amissis 
"reliquis ut navigari commode posset, effecit. 

32. Dum ea geruntur, legione ex consuetudine una fru-* 
mentatum missa, quae appellabatur septima, neque uUa ad 
i4 tempus belli suspicione interposita, cum pars '^hominum 
in agris remaneret, "pars etiam in castra ventitaret, ii, qui 
pro portis castrorum '% statione erant, Caesari renunciarunt^ 
pulverem majorem, quam consuetudo ferret, in ea p^rte 
videri, quam in partem legio iter fecisset. Caesar id, quod 

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era^ suspicatus, aliquid novi a barbaris initum conailii^ co- 
hortes, quae in stationibus erant, secum in earn partem pro- 
ficisci, duas ex reliqais *in stationem succedere, reliqnas 
annari et confestim sese snbsequi jussit. Cum paulo lon- 
gius a castris processisset, suos ab hostibus premi, atque 
«gr6 sustinere, 'etj conferta legione, ex omnibus partibua 
tela ponjici, animum advertit. Nam 'quod, omni ex reliqui* 
partibus demesso frumento, pars una erat reliqua, suspicati 
hostes, hue nostros esse venturos, noctu in silyis delitue- 
rant : tam dispersos, depositis armis, in metendo occupatos, 
snbito adorti, ^aucis interfectis, reliquos incertis ordinibus 
perturbaverant : simul equitatu atque essedis circumdede- 

33. 'Genus hoc est ex essedis pugnse : primo per omnes 
partes perequitant, et tela conjiciunt, atque ^pso terrore 
equorum, et strepitu rotarum, ordines plerumque pertuibant ; 
et, ''cum se inter equitum turmas insinuaverint ex essedis 
desiliunt, et pedibus proeliantur. '^Aurigae interim paulatim 
ex proelio excedunt, 'atque ita curru se coUocant, ut, si illi 
a multitudine hostium premantur, expeditum ad suos re- 
ceptum habeant. '^Ita mobilitatem equitum, stabilitatem 
peditum, in proeliis prsstant ; ac tantum usu quotidiano et 
exercitatione efficiunt, uti, in declivi ac praecipiti loco, "in- 
citatos equos sustinere, "et brevi moderari ac flectere, et 
per temonem percurrere, et in jugo insistere, et inde se in 
currus citissime recipere consuerint. « 

34. ^Hiuibus rebus, perturbatis nostris novitate pugnaO) 
tempore opportunissimo Caesar auxilium tulit : namque ejus 
adventu hostes '^constiterunt, nostri se ex timore receperunt 
Quo facto, ad ''lacessendum at ad committendum proelium 
alienum esse tempus arbitratus, suo se loco continuit, et, 
breri tempore intermisso, in castra legiones ^^eduxit. Diim 
haic geruntur, nostris omnibus occupatis, '\ui erant in 
agris, reliqui discesserunt. Secutae sunt ^'continuos com* 
plures dies tempestates, quae et nostros in castris confine* 

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renti eft hostam a pugna prohibereiU. Interim baibah mm 
cios in omnes partes dimisemnty paacitalemque nostrorum 
militum 'euis praedicavemnt, et, quanta predae faciendn^ 
atque in peipetomn sni liberandi, facultas daretur, si Ro? 
manos castris ezpulissent, demonstrayefunt His rebus 
celeriter magna multitu4ine peditatus equitatusqiie coacta, 
ad castra Tenerunt. 

35. Cffisar, etsi idem, quod superioribus diebos acciderat, 
fcire yidebat; ut, si essent hostes pulsi, celeritate periculum 
efiiigerent; tamen Hiactus equites circiter triginta, quos 
Commius Atrebas, de quo *ante dictum est, secum trans- 
portaverat, legiones in acie pro castris constituit. Com* 
misso proslio, diutius nostrorum militum impetum hostes 
ferre ncm potuerunt, ac terga verterunt. ^uos tanto spatio 
secuti, quantum cursu et viribus efficere potuerunt, com 
plures ex iis occiderunt; deinde, 'omnibus longe lateque 
afflictis incensisque, se in castra receperunt. 

36. Eodem die legati, ab hostibus missi ad Gaesarem de 
pace, yenenmt. His Gsesar numerum obsidum, quem antea 
imperaverat, duplicayit, eosque in continentem adduci jnssit, 
quod, *propinqua die aequinoctii, infirmis naVibus, ^emi 
navigadonem subjiciendam non ezistimabat. Ipse, idoneam 
tempestatem nactus, paulo post mediam noctem naves solvit, 
qu» pmnes incolumes ad continentem pervenerunt ; sed ex 
bis onerariae duae 'eosdem, quos reliquae, portus capere non 
potuerunt^ et paulo infra delatae sunt 

37. 'Quibus ex navibus cum essent expositi milites cir- 
citer trecenti, atque in castra contenderent, Morini, qocs 
Caesar, in Britanniam proficiscens, pacatos reliquexat, spe 
praodaB adducti, primo '^on ita magno suorum numero cir« 
comsteterunt, ac, si sese interfici nollent, arma ponere jus- 
serunt Gum illi, "orbe facto, sese defenderent, celeriter 
ad clamorem hominum .circiter millia sex convenerunt. 
Qua re nunciata, Caesar omnem ex castris equitatum suii 
■nxilio misit. Interim nostri milites impetum bostium sua- 

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tfamenuit, alque.amplius 'hons quatnor fortissime pugnltve* 
noAj et, paucis vulneribus acceptis, compliireB ex lis ocd- 
defnuxt Postea vero quam eqiiitatas noster in conspectum 
Tenit, hostefls abjectis armis terga verterunt, magnusque 
eonim numeras est occisus, 

39. Caesar postero die Titum Labienum legatum, cum lis 
legionibus, quas ex Britannia reduxerat, in Mwinos, qui 
rebellionem fecerant, misit. Qui, cum 'propter siccitates 
paludum, quo se reciperent, non haberent ('quo perfiigio 
superiore anno fiierant usi), omnes fere in potestatem La 
bieni venerunt. At Quintus Titurius et Lucius Cotta, legati, 
qui in Menapiorum fines legiones Muxerant, oifinibus eorum 
agris yastatis,' frumentis succisis, »dificiis incensis, quod 
Menapji se omnes in densissimas silvjas abdiderant, se ad 
Cssarem receperunt. C»sar in fielgis omnium legionura 
hibema constituit. 'Eo due omnino civitates ex Britannia 
obsides miserunt ; reliquse neglexerunt. His rebus gestis 
ex Uteris Cnsaxis dierum yiginti 'suppUcatio a Seaata 40» 


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Chap. 1. Caesar, leaving orders with his lieutenants to build and equi^ 
a fleet, sets out for lUyricum, where he puts a stop to the incursioni 
of the PirustiD. 2-7. Returning thence into Gaul, he marches againit 
the TreTiri, and quiets the disturbances in that province. Dunmorix, 
withdrawing from the Roman camp with the Aeduan cavalrj, is pur- 
sued and slain. 8. Caesar passes over into Britain. 9. Forces the 
enemy from the woods in which they had taken shelter. 10, 11. 
Cffisar refits his fleet, which had suffered severely in a storm. 12-14. 
A description of Britain and its inhabitants. 15-22. Cassivellamius, 
the leader of the Britons, is defeated in several encounters. The Ro- 
mans cross the Tamesis. Surrender of the Trinobantes and several 
other British tribes. 23. Caesar returns to Gaul. 
II. Wab with Ambioriz. '♦ 

Chap. 24, 25. The Roman army, in consequence of the scarcity %r 
provisions, is distributed over a wider extent of country than usual 
Tasgetius slain among the Camutes. 26-37. Revolt of Ambiorix 
and CativolcuB. The camp of Titurius Sabiims is attacked. . Am 
Uorix, by an artful speech, induces Titurius to quit his camp, and, at 
tacking him on his march, cuts him off with his whole party. 38-43. 
The winter quarters of Q. Cicero are attacked by the Eburones and 
their ctmfederatfes. Brave defence of Cicero. 44. The mrt)le emn- 

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LIBSR T. CAP. I. 87 

Alion of Pulfio and Yarenus. 45-52. Cesar, on being infonned of 
the danger in which Cicero was, marches to his relief. The Gauls 
raise the siege at his approach, and proceed to give him battle. They 
are defeated. 53, 64. Indutiomarus, who had tesolved to attack the 
quarters of Labienus, retreats into the country of the Treviri on hear- 
ing of Cesar's yictoiy. Cssai resolves to spend the whole winter 
himself in Gaul. Commotions in different parts of Gaul, and par 
ticularly among the Senones. 
III. Insubrection akono thb Tbeyibi repbbssed. 
Chap. 55, 56. Commotion among the Treviri. The Germans are 
invited oy them to cross the Rhine, but refuse. Cingetorix declared 
a public enemy by the Treviri. 57. Labienus, being in a strongly 
fortified camp, sends messengers into the different states and collects 
a laige body of horse. 58. A sally is made from the Roman camp 
and Indutiomarus is sl^in. 

1. 'Lucio DoMiTio, Appio Olaudio, consulibus, discedeng 
abnibemift Cesar in Italiam, ut quotannis facere consuerat, 
legatis imperat, quos legionibus praefecerat, uti, quampluri- 
mas possent, hieme naves sdificandas veteresque refici* 
endas curarent. Earum modum formamque Memonstrat 
Ad celentatem onerandi snbductionesque paulo facit humil- 
iores, quam quibus in ^ostro mari uti consuevimus ; atque 
id eo magis, quod propter crcbras commutationes sstuum 
minus magnos ibi fluctas fieri cognoverat : ad onera «t ad 
inultitudinem jumentorum transportandam paulo latiores 
quam quibus in reliquis utimur maribus. ^Has omnes 
actuarias imperat fieri, quam ad rem multum humilitas 
adjuvat. £a, quae sunt usui ^ad annandas naves, ex His- 
pania apportari jubet. Ipse eonventibus Gallioe citerioris 
peractis, in 'lUyricum pro^cibcitur, quod a Pirustis finitimam 
partem Provinpis incursioni^iijs vastari audiebat Eo cum 
venisset, civitatibus milites imperat, certumque in locum 
convenire jubet. Qua re nunciata, PirusUe legatos ad eum. 
mittunt, qui doceant, nihil earum rerum publico factum 
sonsilio, seseque paratos esse demonstrant, ^omnibus rati* 
smibus de injuriis saUsfacere. Accepta oraiione eorum 


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OsBsar obsides imperat, eosque ad certain diem addud 
jubet : nisi ita fecerint, sese bello 'ciyitatem persecutaruin 
demonstrat. His ad diem adductis, ut imperarerat, arbitrcNi 
inter civitates dat, qui li^m aDstiment poenamque constituant 

2. His confectis rebus 'conventibusque peractis, in cite- 
riorom Galliam revertitor, atque inde ad exercitum proficis* 
citur. Eo cum venisset, circuitis omnibus hibemis, sin- 
gulari militum studio, in summa omnium rerum inopia, 
circiter ^sexcentas ejus generis, ^cujus supra demonstravi- 
mus, naves et longas viginti octo invenit ^nstructas, ^eque 
multom abesse ab eo, quin paucis diebus deduci possent 
CoIIaudatis militibus atque iis qui negotio praefuerant, quid 
fieri velit, ostendit, atque omnes ad ''portum Itium conyenire 
jubet, quo ex portu commodissimum in Britanniam trans- 
missum esse cognoverat, circiter millium passuum trigji^ta 
a continenti. ^uic rei quod satis esse visum est militum, 
reliquit : ipse cum legionibus 'expeditis quatuor et equitibus 
octingentis in fines Trevirorum proficiscitur, quod hi neque 
ad concilia veniebant, neque imperio parebant, Germanosque 
transrbenanos solicitare dicebantur. 

3. H»c civitas longe plurimum totius Galliae equitatu 
valet, magnasque habet copias pedilum, Rbenumque, ut- 
supra demonstravimus, tangit. In eacivitate duo de pnn* 
cipatu inter se contendebant, Indutiomarus et ^'^ingetorix ^ 
ex quibus "alter, simul atque de Caesaris legionumque ad- 
ventu cognitum est, ad eum venit ; se suosque omnes in 
officio futuros, neque ab amicitia Populi Romani defec- 
turos confirmavit ; qussque in Treviris gererentur, ostendit. 
At Indutiomarus equitatum p^Jitatumque cogere, iisque. 
qui per »tatem in armis esif idon poterant, in "silvam 
Arduennam abditis, quae ingeiid magmtudine per medios 
fines Trevirorum a flumine Rheno ad initium Remorum 
pertincrt, bellum parare instituit. Sed postea quam nomiulli 
principes ex ea civitate, et familiaritate Cingetorigis adducti 
et adventa nostri exercitus perterriti, ad Gaesarem vi^nenmt, 

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L1B&R V* CAP. TI. »9 

el de suis phvatim rebus ab eo petere cosperunt, 'quoniam 
civitati consulere non possent : Indutiomarus, reritua ne ab 
omnibus desereretur, legates ad Cesarem mittit; sese 
idcirco ab suis discedere atque ad eum yenire noluisae, 
quo lacilius ciYitatem in officio contineret, ne omnis nobil- 
itatis discessu plebs propter imprudentiam ^aberetur. Ita- 
que esse civitatem in sua potestate, seque, si Caesar per- 
mitteret, ad eum in castra venturum, et suas civitatisque 
fortunes ejus fidei ^rmissurum. 

4. Cffisar, etsi intelligebat, qua de causa ea dicerentur, 
^juaeque eum res ab instituto consilio deterreret; tamen, ne 
sestatem in Treviris consumere cogeretur, omnibus ad firi- 
tannicum bellum rebus comparatis, Indutiomarum ad se 
cum ducentis obsidibus venire jussit. His adductis, in iis 
lilio propinquisque ejus omnibus, quos ^ominatim evoca- 
yerat, consolatus Indutiomarum bortatusque iBst, uti in officio 
permaneret: nihilo tamen secius, principibus TreTiromm 
ad se convocatis, %os singillatim Cingetorigi conciliavit : 
quod cum merito ejus ab se fieri intelligebat, tum magni 
jiteresse arbitrabatur, ejus auctoritatem inter suos quam- 
plurimum valere, cujus tam egregiam in se yoluntatem per- 
spexisset' Id factum graviter tulit Indutiomarus, ^suam 
gratiam inter suos minui ; et, qui jam ante inimico in nos 
animo fuisset, multo gravius hoc dolore exarsit. 

5. His rebus constitutis, Caesar ad portum Itium cum 
legionibus pervenit. Ibi cognoscit, quadraginta nayes, quae 
Hn Meldis factae erant, tempestate rejectas, cursum tenere 
non potuisse, atque eodem, undo erant profectae, reyertisse : 
reliquas paratas ad nayigandwn atque omnibus rebus in- 
structas inyenit.^ Eodem totius Galliae equitatus conyenit, 
numero millium quatuor, principesque omnibus ex ciyitati- 
bus : ex quibus perpaucos, quorum in se fidem perspexcrat, 
relinquere in Gallia, reliquos obsidum loco secum ducere, 
decreyerat ; quod, cum ipse abesset, motum Galliae yerebatur. 

0. Erat una cum ceteris Dumnorix ^duus, de quo ab 

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nobis 'antea dictum est. Hiinc secum habere in primis 
constituerat quod eum 'cupidum rerum novarum, cupidum 
imperii, magni animi, magnae inter Gallos auctoritads, cog- 
norerat. Accedebat huc^ quod 'jam in concilio iEduorum 
Dumnorix dixerat, sibi a Oeesare regnum civitatis defend : 
quod dictum iBdui grayiter ferebant, neque Vecusandi aut 
deprecandi causa legatos ad Gaesarem mittere audebant. 
^Id factum ex suis hospitibus Caesar cognoverat. Ille om- 
nibus primo precibus ^etere contendit, ut in Gallia relin- 
queretur; partijn, quod insuetus navigandi mare timeret; 
partim, quod religionibus sese diceret impediri. Postea- 
quam id ^obstinate sibi negari vidit, omni spe impetrandi 
ademta, principes Galliae solicitare, sevocare singulos hor- 
tarique coepit, uti in continent! remanerent ; metu territare. 
^on sine causa fieri, ut Gallia omni nobilitate spoliaretur : 
id esse consilium Cssaris, ut, quos in conspectu Galliae 
interficere vereretur, ^hos omnes in Britanniam transductos 
necaret : fidem reliquis interponere, Jusjurandum poscere, 
ut, quod esse ex usu Galliae intellexissent, communi consilio 
administrarent. Haec a compluribus ad Caesarem defere 

7. 'Qua re cognita, Caesar, ^^quod tantum civitati ^dua& 
dignitatis tribuerat, coercendum atque deterrendum, quibus- 
cumque rebus posset, Dumnorigem statuebat ; "quod lon- 
gius ejus amentiam progredi videbat, prospiciendum, ne 
quid sibi ac rei publicae nocere posset. Itaque dies circitc^ 
viginti quinque in eo loco commoratus, quod ^'Corus ventus 
navigationem impediebat, qui magnam partem omnis tem- 
poris in his locis flare consuevit, dabat operam, ut in officio 
Dumnorigem contineret, ''nihilo tamen secius omnia ejus 
tsonsilia cognosceret : tandem, idoneam nactus tempestatem, 
milites equitesque conscendere naves jubet. At, "omnium 
impeditis animis, Dumnorix cum equitibus iEduorum a 
castris, insciente Caesare, domum discedere ccepit. Qua 
re nunciata; Caesar, intermissa profectione atque omnibus 

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rebus postpositis, magnaic partem eqnitatus ad eum inse 
quendum mittit, retrahique imperat: si vim faciat neque 
pareat, interfici jubet : nihil 'hunc se absente pro sano fac 
tnrum arbitratus, qui prsesentis imperium neglezisset. Hie 
'enim revocatus resistere ac se manu jiefendere suoromque 
fidem implorare coepit, ssepe clamitans, " liberum se liberae- 
que civitatis esse." lUi, ut erat imperatum, circumsistunt 
atque hominem interficiunt ; at iEdui equites ad Csesarein 
omnes revertuntur. 

8. His rebus gestis, Labieno in continente cum tribus 
legionibus et equitum millibus duobus relicto, ut portus 
tneretur et ^em frumentariam provideret, quaeque in Gallia 
f ererentur cognoseeret, *consiliumque pro tempore et pro 
re caperet, ipse cum quinque legionibus et *pari numero 
equitum quem in continenti relinquebat, solis occasu naves 
solvit, et, *leni Africo provectus, media circiter nocte vento 
intermisso, cursum non tenuit, ct, longius delatus aestu, 
orta luce, sub sinistra Britanniam relict am conspexit. Tum 
rursus, aestus commutationem ®secutus, remis contendit, ut 
earn partem insulse caperet, qua optimum esse egresstim 
superiore aestate cognoverat. Qua in re admodum fuit 
militum Virtus laudanda, qui vectoriis gravibusque navigiis, 
non intermisso remigandi labore, longanim navium cursuin 
adaequarunt. Accessum est ad Britanniam omnibus navibus 
meridiano fere tempore : neque in eo loco, hostis est visus, 
sed, ut postea Caesar ex captivis comperit, cum magnae 
manus eo convenissent, multitudine navium perterritae (quae 
'®cum annotinis privatisque, quas "sui quisque commodi 
feceratj amplius octingentis uno erant visae tempore), a 
littore discesserant ac se in superiora loca abdiderant. 

9. Caesar, exposito exercitu et loco castris idoneo capto, 
ubi ex captivis cognovit, quo in loco hostium copiae consc- 
dissent, ^'cohortibus decem ad mare relictis et equitibus 
trecentis, qui praesidio navibus essent, de tertia vigilia ad 
Kost^s contendit, "eo minus veritus navibus, quod it litter* 

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92 DS BXLLO 6A1.UC0. 

molli atque aperto deli^tas ad anchoram relinquebat ; et 
pnesidio navibus Quintum Atrium praefecit. Ipse, noctu pro 
gressus millia passuum circiter duodecim, hostium copias 
conspicatus est. Illi, equitatu atque essedis ad flumen 
progress!, ex loco superiore nostros prohibere et prcelimn 
committere coBperunt. Repulsi ab equitatu, se in silvas 
abdiderunt, locum nacti, egregie et opere munitum, 
quern domestic! belli, ut ridebatur, causa jam ante praepa- 
rayerant: nam 'crebris arboribus succisis omnes introitus 
erant praeclusi. Ipsi ex silvis ran "propugnabant, nostros- 
que intra munitiones ingredi prohibebant. At milites le- 
gionis septims, 'testudine facta et aggere ad munitiones 
adjecto, locum ceperunt eosque ex silvis expulerunt, pauciA 
vulneribus acceptis. Sed eos fugientes longius C»sar 
prosequi vetuit, et quod loci naturam ignorabat, et quod, 
magna parte diei consumta, munition! castrorum tempus 
relinqui volebat. 

10. Postridie^ejus diei mane tripartite ^milites equitesqne 
in expeditionem misit, ut eos, qui fugerant, persequerentur. 
His aliquantum itineris progressis, cum jam extremi essent 
in prospectu, equites a Quinto Atrio ad Caesarem venerunt, 
qui nunciarent, ^superiore nocte, maxima coorta tempestate, 
prope omnes naves afflictas atque in littore ejectas esse ; 
quod neque anchorae funesque ^subsisterent, neque nautae 
gubematoresque vim pat! tempestatis possent: itaque ^ex 
eo concursu navium magnum esse incommodum acceptum 

11. His rebus cognitis, Caesar legiones equitatumqu€ 
revocari atque itinere desistere jubet : ipse ad naves rever- 
titur: eadem fere, quae ex nuntiis literisque cognoverat, 
"coram perspicit, sic ut, amissis circiter quadraginta navi- 
bus, reliquae tamen refici posse magno negotio viderentur 
Itaque ex legionibus ^abros delegit, et ex continent! alioe 
arcessiri jubet ; Labien) scribit, '^t, quam plurimas posset. 
Lis legionibus quae sint apud eum, naves instituat. Ipse, 
•ts'. res erat multae operae ac laboris, tamen commodissimmn 

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esse statuit^ onmes naves 'subduci et cum castris una muni- 
iione conjungi. In his rebus circiter dies decern consumity 
ae noctumis quidem temiporibus ad laborom militum inte^ 
missis. Subductis navibus castiisque egregie munitis, 
easdem copias, quas ante,4>rae8idio navibus reliquit: ipse 
eodem, hmde redierat, proficiscitur. £o cum y^oisset, 
majores jam undique in eum locum copis Britannbrum 
convenerant, 'summa impmi bellique administrandi com- 
mimi consilio permissa CassiTellauno» cujus fines a mariti- 
mis ciyitatibus flumen dividit, quod appellatur Tamesis, a 
man circiier millia passuum octoginta. Huic ^uperiore 
tempore cum reliquis civitatibus continentia bella interces- 
serant : sed nostro adrentu permoti Britanni hunc toti bello 
imperioque praefecerant. 

12. Britanniae pars interior ab iis incolitur, ^quos natos 
in insula ipsa memoria proditum dicunt : maritima pars ab 
iis,- qui ptsedae ac belli inferendi causa ex Belgis transie- 
ract ; qui omnes fere iis nominibus civitatum appellantur, 
*quibus orti ex civitaUibus eo perrenerunt, et bello illato ibi 
remanserunt atque agros. colere coeperunt. ^Hominum est 
iilfinita multitudo, creberrimaque edificia, fere Gallicis con- 
similia : pecorum magnus numerus. "Utuntur aut asre, aut 
taleis ferreis, ad certum pondus examinatis, pro nummo. 
'Nascitur ibi plumbum album in mediterraneis regionibus, 
in maritimis ferrum ; sed ejus .exigua est copia : sere utuntm 
inq>ortato. ^^Materia cujusque generis, ut in Gallia, est, 
pneter fagum atque abietem. Leporem et gallinam et 
anserem gustare, fas non putant ; hsc tamen alunt "animi 
Toluptatisque causa. Loca sunt temperatiora, quam in 
Gallia, rendssioribus frigoribus. 

13. Insula natura ^'triquetra, cujus unum latus est contra 
Galliam. Hujus lateris alter angulus, qui est *'ad Gantium, 
quo fere omnes ex Gallia naves appelluntur, ad orientem 
•dem ; inferior ad meridiem spectat. Hoc latus tenet cir- 
citer millia passuum quingenta. ^Iterum vergit *^d Huu 

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paaiam atqae occidentem solem, qua ex parte est Hibemia, 
'dimidio minor, ut aestimatur, quam Britannia; ^ed part 
spatio transmissus, atque ex Gallia, est in Britanniam. Ib 
hoc medip cursu est insula, quae appeilator 'Mona ; com- 
plines prsterea minores obje^tae insulae existimantur ; d€ 
quibus insulis nonnulli sciipserunt, ^dies continues triginta 
sub bruma esse noctem. Nos nihil de eo percontationlbus 
reperiebamus, hdsi certis ex aqua mensuris breviores esse, 
quam in continente, noctes videbamus. Hujus est longitodo 
lateris, ut fert illorum opinio, ^septingentorum millium. Ter- 
tium est ^contra septentriones, cui parti nulla est objecta 
terra ; sed ejus angulus lateris maxime ad Germaniam spec- 
tat : huic millia passuum octingenta in longitudinem esse 
existimatur. Ita omnia insula est in circuitu vicies centum 
millium passuum. 

14. Ex his omnibus longe sunt %umanissimi, qui Can- 
tium incolunt, quas regio est maritima omnia ; neqlie multum 
a Gallica differunt consuetudine. Interiores plerique fru 
menta non serunt, sed lacte et came vivunt, pellibusque 
sunt vestiti. Omnes vero ^se Britanni vitro in£ciunt, quod 
coBruleum efficit colorem, %tque hoc horridiore sunt in 
pugna aspectu : "capilloque sunt promisso atque omni parte 
corporis rasa, praeter caput et labrum superius. Uxores 
habent deni duodenique inter se communes, et maxime 
fratres cum fratribus parentesque cum liberis ; sed, si qui 
sunt ex his nati, eorum habentur liberi, *^quo primum virgo 
quaeque deducta est. 

15. Equites hostium essedariique acriter prcelio cum 
equitatu nostro in itinere confdxerunt, '^tamen ut nostri 
omnibus partibus superiores fuennt, atque eos in silras 
collesque compulerint^ sed compluribus interfectis, '^cupid- 
ius insecuti, noimullos ex suis amiserunt. At illi, inter- 
misso spatio, imprudentibus nostris atque occupatis in 
munitione castrorum, subito se ex silvis ejeceiunt, impe- 
taque in eos facto, qui erant in atatione pro castris collocat? 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


acnter pugnaverunt : duabnsque 'submissis cohoitibus a 
Caesare, 'atque his primis legionum duarum, ^cum hac, per- 
exiguo intermisso loci spatio inter se, constitissent, novo 
genere pugnae perterritis nostris, per medics audacissime 
*perruperunt, seque inde incolumes recepenint. Eo di« 
Quintus Laberius Durus, tribunus militum, interficitur. lUi, 
•pluribus inunissis cohortibus, repeDuntur. 

16. Toto hoc fn genere pugnae, *cum sub oculis omnium 
ac pro castris dimicaretur, inteUectum est, nostros proptei 
gravitatem armaturae, quod neque insequi *cedentes possent, 
neque ab signis discedere auderent, minus aptos esse ad 
hujus generis hostem ; equites autem magno cum periculo 
'dhnicare, propterea quod illi etiam consulto plerumque 
cederent, et, cum paulum ab legionibus nostros removissent, 
ex essedis desilirent *et pedibus dispari proelio contender 
rent. Equestris autem proehi ratio et cedentibus et inse- 
quentibus par atque idem periculum inferebat. Accedebat 
hue, ut, nunquam 'conferti, sed rari magnisque intervallis 
proeliarentur, stationesque dispositas haberent, atque alios 
alii deinceps exciperent, integrique et recentes defatigatia 

17. Postero die procul a castris hostes in collibus con- 
stiterunt, rarique se ostendere et "lenius, quam pridie, 
nostros equites proelio lacessere cceperunt. Sed meridie,. 
cum CaBsar pabulandi causa tres legiones atque omnem 
equitatum cum Caio Trebonio legato misisset, repente ex 
omnibus partibus ad pabulatores advolaverunt, "sic, uti ab 
signis legionibusque non absisterent. Nostri, acriter in eos 
impetu facto, repulerunt, neque finem sequendi fecerunt, 
^quoad subsidio confisi equites, cum post se legiones vide- 
rent, praecipites hostes egerunt : magnoque eorum numero 
interfecto, neque sui coUigendi, neque consistendi, aut ex 
essedis desiliendi facultatem dederunt. Ex hac fuga pro- 
tinus, quae undique convenerant, auxilia discesserunt . neque 
post id tempus unquam ^'summis nobiscum copiis hostes 
contend erunt. 

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18. Caesar, cognito consilio eorum, ad flumen Tamesu 
in fines Cassivellauni exercitum duxit ; quod flumen uno 
omnino loco pcdibus, atque hoc eegre, transiri potest. Eo 
cum venisset, ^animum advertit, ad alteram fluminis ripam 
magnas esse copias hostium instructas: 'ripa autem erat 
acutis sudibus praeflxis munita ; ejusdemque generis sub 
aqua defixae sudes flumine tegebantur. His rebus cogniti^ 
a captiris perfiigisque, Caesar, praemisso equitatu, confestim 
legiones subsequi jussit. Sed ea celeritate atque eo impetu 
milites ierunt, ^um capite solo ex aqua exstarent, ut hostes 
impetum legionum atque equitum ^ustinere non possent, 
ripasque dimitterent ac se fugae mandarent. 

19. Cassiyellaunus, Hit supra demonstravimus, omni de- 
posita spe contentionis, dimissis amplioribus copiis, millibus 
circiter quatuor essedariorum relictis, itinera nostra serva- 
bat, paululumque ^ex via excedebat, locisque impeditis ac 
silvestribus sese occultabat, atque iis regionibus, quibus nos 
iter facturos cognoverat, pecora atque homines ex agris in 
silvas compellebat : et, cum equitatus noster, liberius prae- 
dandi vastandique causa, se in agros eflunderet, omnious 
viis notis semitisque essedarios ex silvis emittebat, et 
^'magno cum periculo nostrorum equitum cum iis conflige- 
bat, atque hoc metu latius vagari prohibebat. TRelinque- 
batur, ut neque. longius ab agmine legionum discedi Caesar 
pateretur, et tantum in agris vastandis incendiisque faciendis 
hostibus noceretur, quantum labore atque itinere legionarii 
milites efficere poterant. 

20. Interim Trinobantes, prope firmissii^a earum regi 
onum civitas, ex qua Mandubratius adolescens, Caesans 
fidem secutus, ad eum in "continentem GaJliam venerat 
(cujus pater Imanuentius in ea civitate regnum obtinuerat, 
nterfectusque erat a Cassivellauno, ipse fuga mortem vita- 
irerat), legatos ad Caesarem mittunt, pollicenturque, sese ci 
dedituros atque imperata facturos: petunt, ut Mandubra- 
tium ab injuria Cassivellauni defendat, 'atque in ciritatem 

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fiuttat, |ui prassit imperiumque obtineat. His Cesar im- 
perat obsides quadraginta frumentumque exercitai, Mandn- 
bratiiimque ad eos mittit. Illi imperata celeriter fecerunt, 
obsides ad numerum frumentaque nmierant. 

21. Trinobantibus defensis atque "ab omni militum injuria 
probibitiB, Genimagni, Segvmtiaci, Ancalites, Bibroci, Cassi, 
legationibus missis sese Cesari dediint. Ab his cognoscit, 
non longe ex eo loco 'oppidum CassiTellauni abesse, silvis 
paludibusque munitum, quo satis magnus hominum pecoris- 
que numerus conv^nerit. (^Oppidum autem Britaimi vo- 
cant, cum silvas impeditas vallo atque fossa munierunt, quo 
incursionis hostium vitandae causa conrenire consuerunt.) 
£o proficiscitnr cum legionibus: 'locum reperit egregie 
natura atque opere munitum ; tamen hunc duabus ex par- 
tibus oppugnare contendit. Hostes, paulisper morati, mi- 
litum nostrorum impetum noa. tulerunt, seseque alia ex 
parte oppidi ejecerunt. Magnus ibi njamerus pecoris re- 
pertus, multique in fuga sunt comprehensi atque interfectL 

22. Dum haec in his locis geruntur, Cassivellaunus ad 
Cantium, quod esse °ad mare supra demonstravimus, quibus 
regionibus quatuor reges praeerant, Cingetorix, Caryilius.. 
Taximagulus, Segonax, nuncios mittit, atque his imperat, 
uti, coactis omnibus copiis, ^castra nayalia de improviso 
adoriantur: atque oppugnent. li cum ad castra venissent, 
nostri, eruptione facta, multis eo^iun interfectis, capto etiam 
nobili duce Lugotorige, suos incolumes reduxerunt. Cassi- 
vellaunus, hoc prcello nunciato, tot detrimentis acceptis, 
vastatis finibus, maxime etiam permotus defectione civita- 
tium, legatos per Atr^batem Commium de deditione ad 
Caesarem mittit. Caesar, cum statuisset hiemem 'in con- 
tinenti propter repentinos GaUiae motus agere, neque multum 
jestatis superesset, atque id facile extrahi posse intelligeret, 
obsides imperat, et, quid in annos singulos recligalis Pop- 
ulo Romano Britannia penderet, constituit* interdicit at- 

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que imperat CasslTellauno, ne MandubnUio, ueu Trindban 
dbiis bellum facial. 

23. Obsidibus acceptis, exercitum reducit ad mare, nayee 
invenit ^refectas. His deductis, quod et captiyorum mag 
r um numenun habebat, et nonnuUae tempestate deperieranl 
ttres, Muobus commeatibus exercitum reportare instituit. 
At sic accidit, uti ex tanto navium numero, tot ^avigati* 
oiibuB, ueque hoc, neque superiore anno, ulla omnino nayis, 
quae milites- portaret, desideraretur : at ex iis, quae inanes 
ex continenti ad eum remitterentur, et prions commeatus 
expositis militibus, et quas postea Labienus faciendas cu- 
rayerat numero sexaginta, perpaucae locum caperent ; reli- 
quae fere omnes rejicerentur. Quas cum aliquamdiu Caesai 
frustra expectasset, ne anni tempore a nayigatione exclu- 
deretur, quod aequinoctium suberat, necessario 'angustius 
milites collocayit, ac, summa tranquillitate consecuta, se- 
cunda inita cum sQlyisset yigilia, prima luce terram attigif, 
omnesque incolumes nayes perduxit. 

24. ^Subductis nayibus, concilioque Gallorum Saman> 
briyse peracto, quod eo anno Yrumentum in Gallia propter 
siccitates angustius proyenerat, coactus est aliter, ac super- 
ioribus annis, exercitum in hibemis. collocare, legionesque 
"in plares ciyitates distribuere : ex quibus unam in Morinos 
ducendam Caio Fabio legato dedit; alteram in Nendos 
Quintio Ciceroni; tertiam in Essuos LucioRoscio; quartam 
in Remis cum Tito Labieno in con£nio Treyiromm hie 
mare jussit ; tres ^ Belgio collocayit : his Marcum Crassum 
quaestorem, et Lucium Munatium Plancum et Caium Trebo 
nium, legatos, praefe'cit. Unam legionem, quam proximo 
trans Padum conscripserat, et cohortes quinque in Eburones, 
quorum pars maxima est inter Mosam ac Rhenum, qui sub 
imperio Ambiorigis et Catiyolci erant, misit. His militibus 
Quintum Titurium Sabinum et Lucium Aunmculeium Cot 
tam, legatos, praeesse jussit Ad hunc modum distributis 
legionibus, facillime inopiae frumentariae sese '^ederi posse 

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i.ifi£R y. CAP. xxvii. 99 

QXistunavit : axqae harum tamen omnium bibema (prstei 
earn, quam Lucio Roscio in pacatissimam et quietiBsimam 
partem ducendam dederat), 'millibus passuum centum con 
tinebantur. Ipse interea, quoad legiones coUocasset muni 
^aqae hibema cognovisset, in Gallia morari constituit. 

25. Erat in Camutibus siunmo loco natus Tasgetiufl^ 
cujus majores in sua.civitate regnum obtinuerant. Huio 
Caesar, pro ejus virtute atque in se benevolentia, quod in 
omnibus bellis singulari ejus opera fuerat usus, majorum 
locum restituerat. ^Tertinm jam hunc annum regnantem 
inimici palam, multis etiam ex civitate auctoribus, interfece* 
runt. Defertur ea res ad Caesarem. lUe veritus, 'quod ad 
plnres pertinebat, ne civitas eorum impulsu deficeret, Lucium 
Plancum cum legij^ne ex Belgio celeriter in Camutes pro- 
ficisci jubet, ibique hiemare ; quorumque opera cognoYerit 
Tasgetium interfectum, hos comprehensos ad se mittere. 
Interim ab omnibus legatis quaestoribusque, quibus. legiones 
transdiderat, certior factus est, *in hibema perventum lo- 
cnmque hibemis esse mumtum. 

26. Diebus circiter quindecim, quibus in hibema yentum 
est, initium repentini tumultus ac defectionis ortum est ab 
Ambiorige et Catiyolco : qui cum ^ad fines regni sui Sabino 
bottaeque praesto fuissent, frumentumque in hibema com- 
portayissent, Indutiomari Treyiri nunciis impulsi, suoi^con- 
citayerunt, subitoque oppressis lignatoribus, magna manu 
castra oppugnatum yenerunt. Cum celeriter nostri arma 
cepissent yallumque ascendissent, atque, una ex parte His- 
panis equitibus emissis, equestri praelio superiores fuissent, 
desperata re, hostes sues ab oppugnatione reduxerunt. Tum 

'^ suo more conclamayemnt, uti aliqui ex nostris ad colloquium 
prodirent ; habere sese, quae Me re communi dicere yellent„ 
quibus rebus controyersias minui posse sperardnt. 

27. Mittitur ad eos cblloquendi causa Caius ArpineiuSj 
eques Romanus, familiaris Quintii Titurii, et Quintus Ju« 
nius ex Hispania quidam, qui jam ante ^missu.Cffisaris ad 


282979 ^ ^ 

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Ambiorigem ventitare consueverat : apud quos Ambioriz ai 
hunc modum locutus est : " Sese pro Caesaris in se bene- 
ficiis 'plurimum ei confiteri debere, quod ejus opera stipen- 
dio liberatus esset, quod Aduatucis finitimis .suis peiideie 
consuesset : quodque ei et filius et fratris filius ab Cae8ar% 
remissi essent, quos Aduatuci, obsidum numero missoA, 
apud se in servitute et catenis tenuissent : neque id, quod 
^ecerit *de oppugnatione castrorum, aut judicio aut volun- 
»ate sua fecisse, sed coactu civitatis ; 'suaque esse ejusmodi 
imperia, ut non minus haberet juris in se multitudo, quam 
ipse in multitudinem. Civitati porro banc fuisse belli cau 
sam, quod repentinae Gallorum conjurationi resistere non 
potuerit : id se facile ^ex humilitate sua probare posse, quod 
non adeo sit imperitus rerum, ut. suis copiis Populum Ror 
manum se superare posse confidat : ^sed esi^e Galliae com- 
mune consilium; omnibus hibemis Cssaris oppugnandis 
hunc esse dictum diem, ne qua legio alters legioni subsiclio 
venire posset: ^on facile Gallos Gallis negare potuisse, 
prssertim cum de recuperanda conununi libertate consilium 
initum videretur. ^Quibus quoniam pro pietate satisfecerit, 
habere se nunc rationem officii pro beneficiis Caesaris; 
monere, orare Titurium ^ro hospitio^ ut suae ac militum 
saluti consulate magnam manum Germanorum conductam 
Rhenimi transisse ; banc afTore biduo. 'Ipsorum esse con- 
silium, velintne prius, quam finitimi sentiant, eductos ex 
hibemis milites aut ad Giceronem aut ad Labienum dedu- 
cere, quorum alter miUia passuum circiter quinquaginta, 
alter paulo amplius ab his absit. Illud se polliceri et jure- 
jurando confirmare, tutum iter per fines suos daturum; 
^quod cum faciat, et civitati sese consulere, quod hibemis « 
levetur, et Caesari pro ejus mentis gratiam referre." Hac 
oratione habita, discedit Ambiori:^ 

28. Arpineius et Junius, quae audierint, ad legatos defe- 
runt. . Illi, repentina re perturbati, etsi ab hoste ea dice- 
bantur, non tamen negligenda existimabant : maximeque 

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luc re ennovebantur, quod, civitatem ignobilem atque 
kumilem Is. ^num sua sponte Populo Romano bellum fa- 
cere ausam, vix erat credendum. Itaque 'ad consilium rem 
deferunt magnaque inter eos existit controversia. Lucius 
Aurunculeius compluresque tribuni militum et primorum ordi< 
num centu^ones " nihil temere agendum, neque ex hibemis 
injussu Csesaris discedendum," existimabant : " quantasvis, 
magnas etiam copias Grermanorum sustineri posse muiiitis 
hibemis," docebant : ^^ rem esse testimonio, quod primum 
hostium impetum, multis ultro vulneribus illatis, fortissime 
sustinuerint : 're fmmentaria non premi : interea et ex 
proximis hibemis et a Caesare conyentura subsidia :" pos- 
dremo, *^ quid esse Kevins aut turpius, quam, anctore hoste, 
de summis rebus capere consilium ?" 

29. Contra ea Titurius, ^'sero facturos," clamitabat, 
' cum majores hostium manus, adjunctis Qermanis, conve- 
aissent : aut cum ^liquid calamitatis in proximis hibemis 
esset acceptum, brevem consulendi esse occasionem : Cs- 
sarem arbitrari profectum in Italiam : neque aliter Camutes' 
interficiendi Tasgetii consilium fuisse captures, neque Ebu- 
rones, si ille adesset, tanta cum contemtione nostri ad cas- 
dra venturos esse : ^non hbstem auctorem, sed rem spectare ; 
subesse Rhenum ; magno esse Germanis dolori Ariovisti 
mortem et superiore^ nostras victorias : "ardere Galliam, 
tot contumeliis acceptis sub Populi Romani imperium re- 
dactam, superiore gloria rei militaris extincta." Postremo, 
"quis hoc sibi persuaderet, 'sine certa re Ambiorigem ad 
ejusmodi consilium descendisse? Suam sententiam in 
utramque partem esse tutam : '*si nil sit durius, nuUo peri- 
culo ad proximam legionem perventuros ; si Gallia omnia 
cum Germanis consehtiat, "unam esse in celeritate positam 
salutem. Cottae qu^em atque eorum, qui dissentirent, con^ 
(ilium quern haberet exitum ? In quo si non ''prsesens 
periculum, at certe longinqua obsidione fames esset per- 

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30. Hac u)i utramque partem disputatione habita, cum a 
Cotta 'primisque ordinibus acriter resisteretur, 8" Vincite,** 
inquit, * si ita vultis," Sabinus, et id clariore voce, ut magna 
pars militum exaudiret : " neque is sum," inquit, << qui grav- 
issime ex vobis mortis periculo terrear: 'hi sapient, et si 
gravius quid acciderit, abs te rationem reposcent : ^qni, si 
pet te liceat, perendino die cumproximis hibemis conjuncti, 
communem cum reliquis belli casum sustineant, nee ^e- 
|ecti et relegati longe ab ceteris aut ferro aut fame intereant." 

31. ^Consurgitur ex consilio; comprehendunt utrumque 
et orant, " ne sua dissensione et pertinacia remain summum 
periculum deducant : facilem esse ^rem, seu maneant, sen ' 
proficiscantur, si modo unum omnes sentiant ac prob^nt ; 
contra in dissensione nullam se salutem perspicere." Res 
disputatione ad mediam noctem perducitur. Tandem Mat 
Cotta permotus manus ; superat sententia Sabini. 'Pro- 
nunciatur, prima luce ituros : '^consumitur vigiliis reliqua 
pars noctis, cum sua quisque miles circumspiceret, quid 
secum portare posset, quid ex instrumento hibemorum re- 
linquere cogeretur. "Omnia excogitantur, quare nee sine 
poriculo maneatur et languore militum et yigiliis periculum 

-augeatur. Prima luce sic ex castris proficiscuntur, ut qur- 
bus esset persuasum, non ab hoste, sed ab homine amicis* 
simo Ambiorige consilium datum, loi\gissimo agmine max 
imisque impedimentis. 

32. At hostes, ^'posteaquam ex noctumo fremitu vigiliis- 
jque de profectione eorum senserunt, collocatis insidiis bi- 
partito in silvis *opportuno atque occulto loco, *^a miUibus 
passuum circiter duobus, Romanorum adventum expects^ 
bant : et, cum se major pars agminis in magnam ^^convallem 
demisisset, ex utraque parte ejus vallis subito se ostende- 
runt, novissimosque premere et primqs prohibere ascensu 
atque iniquissimo nostris loco proelium committere coeperunt 

33. Tum demum Titurius, ^^ut qui nihil ante providisset. 
trepidare, concnrsare, cohortesque disponere ; haec tamen 

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ipsa timide atque ut eum omnia deficere yiderentor : quod 
plerumque iis accidere conisuevit, *qui in ipso negotio con« 
silium capere coguntur. At Cotta, qui cogitasset, hmc 
posse in idnere accidere, atqpe'ob earn causam pn^^ectionis 
%uctor non fuisset, nulla in re communi saluti deerat, et in 
appellandis cohortahdisque militibus, imperatoris ; et in 
pugna, militis officia pra^stabat. Cumque propter longitu- 
dinem agminis 'minus facile per se opmia obire, et, quid 
quoque loco faciendum esset, providere possent, ^usserunt 
pronuntiare, ut impedimenta relinquerent atque in orbem 
consisterent. Quod consilium etsi in ejusmodi casu repre* 
hendendum non est, tamen ^commode accidit: nam et 
nostris militibus 'spem minuit, et hostes ad pugnam alacri- 
ores effecit, quod non sine smnmo timore et desperatione 
id factum videbatur. Preterea accidit, quod fieri necesse 
erat, ut ^vulgo milites ab signis discederent, qae quisque 
eorum carissima haberet, ab impedimentis petere atque ab- 
ripere properaret, clamore ac fletu omnia conplerentur 

34. At %arbaris consilium non defuit : nam duces eonun 
tota acie ^ronuntiare jusserunt, " ne quis ab loco disce- 
deret : '°illorum esse predam, atque illis reservari, quiecum 
que Romani reliquissent : proinde omnia in victoria posita 
existimarent." "Erant et virtute et numero pugnando pares 
nostri, tamen etsi ab duce et a fortuna deserebantur, tamen 
omnem spem salutis in virtute ponebanit, et, quoties qusque 
cohors ^'procurreret, ab ea parte magnus hostium numerup 
cadebat. Qua re animadversa, Ambiorix pronuntiari jubet 
ut procul tela conjiciant, neu propius accedant, et, quam in 
partem Romani impetum fecerint, "cedant (levitate ar 
morum et quotidiana exercitatione nihil iis noceri posse) 
'^rursus se ad signa recipientes insequantur. 

35. Quo priecepto ab iis diligentissime observato, cum 
^usepiam cohors ex orbe '^excesserat atque impetum fecerat. 
hostes velocissime refugiebant. Interim earn partem nudaii 
necesse erat et ab latere aperto tela recipi. Rursus, cum 

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104 * ^ DB BELLO 6ALLICO. 

in eum locuin, undo erant progress!, reverti cceperant, eft ah. 
iis, qui cesa6rant, et ab lis, qui proximi steterant, circum- 
Tenieb^ntur ; sin autem 4ocum tenere yellent, nee virtuti 
locus re^nquebatur, neque ab tanta multitudine conjecta tela 
conferti vitare poterant. Tamen Hot incommodis conflic- 
tati, multis vulneribus acceptis, resistebant et, magna parte 
diei consumta, cum^ a prima luce ^ad boram octaram pug« 
naretur, nibil, quod ipsis esset indignum, committebant. 
Turn Tito Balventio, qui superiore anno ^rimum pilmn 
duxerat, yiro forti et magnae auctoritatis, utrumque femui 
tragula transjicitur. Quintus Lucanius, 'ejusdem ordinis, 
fortissime pugnans, dum circuiliyento filio subvenit, interfi- 
citur: Lucius Cotta, legatus, omnes cobortes ordinesqne 
adHortans, Hn adversum os fimda vulneratur. 

36. His rebus permotus Quintus Titurius, cum procul 
Ambiorigem sues cobortantem conspexisset, interpretem 
suum, Oneium Pompeium, ad eum mittit, rogatum, ut 
sibi militibusqte parcjat. Ille appellatus lespondit: "si 
velit secum cofloqui, licero ; sperare, a multitudine impe- 
trari posse, quod ad militum salutem pertineat ; ipsi yero 
nibil nocitum iri, inque eam rem se suam Mem interpo- 
nere.** *Ille cum Cotta saucio communicat, " si videatur, 
pugna ut excedant et cum Ambiorige mia colloquantur: 
sperare, ab eo de sua ac militum salute impetrare posse." 
Gotta se ad armatum bostem iturum negat ^atque in eo 

37. Sabinus, quos ^^in prssentia tribunes militum circum 
se babebat et primorum ordinum centuriones, se sequi 
jubet, et, cmn propius Ambiorigem accessisset, jussus arma 
abjicere, imperatum facit, suisque, ut idem faciant, imperat. 
Interim, dum de conditionibus inter se agunt, "longiorque 
consulto ab Ambiorige instituitur sermo, paulatim circum- 
ventus interficitur. Tum vero suo more **victoriam concla- 
mant atque ululatum toUunt, impetuque in nostros facto 
ordines perturbant. Ibi Lur>ius Cotta pugnans interficitur 

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i.IBER v. CAP. ZXXJX. 105 

cum maTima parte militnm, reliqui se in castra recipiunt, 
inde eraat egressi : ex quibus Lucius Petrosidius aquilifer, 
cum magna multitudiqf bostium premeretur, aquilam intra 
rallum projecit, ipse pro castris fortissime pugnans occi- 
ditur. *Illi egre ad noctem oppugnationem sustinent : 
noctu ad unum onmes, desperata salute, se ipsi interficiunt 
Pauci ex proBlio elapsi, incertis itineribus per silvas ad 
Titum Labienum legatum in bibema perveniunt atque eum 
de rebus gestis certiorem faciunt. 

38. Hac victoria 'sublatus Ambiorix, statim cum equitatu 
in Aduatucos, qui erant ejus regno finitimi, proficiscitur ; 
neque noctem neque diem intermittit, peditatumque se sub- 
sequi jubet. ^Re demonstrata, Aduatucisque concitatis, 
postero die in Nervios pervenit, hortaturque, " ne sui in 
perpetuum liberapdi atque ulciscendi Eomanos, pro iis, 
quas acceperint, injuriis, occasionem dimittant : interfectos 
esse legatos duo magnamque partem exercitus interisse" 
demonstrat ; *" nihil esse negotii, subito oppressam legio- 
uem, quae cum Cicerone hiemet, interfici ; se ad eam rem 
profitetur adjutorem." Facile hac oratione Nerviis per- 
iuadet. ' 

39. Itaque, confestim dimissis nunciis ad Ceutrones, 
Grudios, Levacos, Pleumoxios, Geidunos, qui omnes sub 
eorum imperio sunt, quam maximas manus possunt, cogunt, 
et de improvise ad Ciceronis hibema advolant, nondum ad 
eum fama de Titurii morte perlata. ^Huic quoque accidit, 
quod fuit necesse, ut nonnuUi milites, qui ^gnationis muni- 
tionisque causa in silvas discessissent, repentino equitum 
adventu interciperentur. His circumventis, magna manu 
Eburones, Nervii, Aduatuci atque horum omnium socii et 
clientes, legionem oppugnare incipiunt : nostri celeriter ad 
anna concurrunt, val]^m conscendunt. ^gre is dies ''sus- 
tentatur, quod omnem spem hostes in celeritate ponebant, 
atque, hanc adepti ^qctoriam, in perpetuum se for« vjctores 
ronfidebant • - 

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40 Mittimtur ad Cesarem coafeatim ab Cicerone liters 
hnagnis propositis praemiis, si pertulissent. Obsessis om 
nibus viis, missi intercipiuntur. N^tu ex ea materia, quam 
munitionis causa comportayerant, Hurres admodum centum 
et viginti excitantur incredibili celeritate : qus deesse operi 
▼idebantur, perficiuntur. Hostes postero die, multo major- 
ibus - copiis ooactis, castra oppugnant, fossam complent 
Ab nostris eadem ratione, qua pridie, resistitur : hoc idem 
deinceps reliquis fit diebus. Nulla pars noctumi temporis 
ad laborem intermittitur : non aegris, non vulneratis, facultas 
quietis datur : quaecumque ad proximi diei oppugnationero 
opus sunt, noctu comparantur : multe ^reustae sudes, mag 
nus muralium pilorum numerus instituitur ; Hurres contabu 
lantur, pinnae loricaeque ex cratibus attexuntur. Ipse Ci 
cero, 'cum tenuissima valetudine esset, ne noctumum qui 
dem sibi tempus ad quietem reUnquebat, ^it ultro militun 
concursu ac vocibus sibi parcere cogeretur. 

41. Tunc duces principesque Nerviorum, 'qw aliquem 
sermonis aditum causamque amicitiae cum Cicerone babe- 
bant, colloqui sese velle dicunt. Facta potestate, eadem, 
quae Ambionx cum Titurio egerat, commemorant, '^ omnem 
esse in armis Galliam, Germanos Rhenum transisse, Caesar 
.is reliquorumque bibema oppugnari." Addunt etiam d« 
Sabini morte. 'Ambiorigem ostentant fidei faciendae causa : 
" errare •eos" dicunt, " si quicquam ab his praesidii sperent, 
qui suis rebus diffidant ; sese tamen '%oc esse in Cicero 
nem Populumque Romanum animo, ut nihil nisi hibems 
recuseiit atque banc inveterascere consuetudinem nolint : 
licere "iUis incolumibus per se ex hibemis discedere, et, 
quascumque in partes yelmt, sine metu proficisci." ""Cicero 
ad haec lintim modo respondit. " Non esse consuetudinem 
Populi Romani, ullam accipere ab hoste armato conditio* 
nem : si ab armis discedere relint, se ^'adjutore utantur, 
legatosque ad Csesarem mittant : sperare, '^ro ejus justitia. 
quae petierint. impetraturos." - * 

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. 42. Ab hac t<pe repuki Nemi, 'Tallo pedum undecim et 
fossa pedum quindecim lObema cingont. Ilaec et superi* 
ormn annorum consaetadine a nostris cognoTerant, et, qnos- 
dam do exercitu nacti captiTOs, ab his docebantur: 'sed, 
nulla ferrameatorum copia, que sunt ad hunc usum idonea, 
gladiis cespitem circumcidere, inanibus ^sagulisque 'temm 
ezhaurire cogebantur. Qua quidem ex re bominum mul- 
titudo cognosci potuit: nam minus horis tribus *millium 
decern in circuitu munitionem perfecenmt : reliquisque die- 
bus turres ^ad altitudinem valli, falces Hestudinesque, quae 
iidem captivi docuerant, parare ac facere coeperunt. 

43. Septimo oppugnationis die, maximo coorto yento, 
feryentes fusili ex argilla glandes fundis et 'Yeryefacta ja- 
cula in casas, qu» more Gallico stramentis erant tecte, 
jacere ccepenmt. He celeriter ignem comprebenderunt et 
yenti magnitudine in omnem castrorum locum "distulerunt 
Hostes, maximo clamore insecuti, quasi parta jam atque 
eiqdofata yictoria, tuires testadinesque '^gere et scalis yas^ 
lum ascendere coeperunt. At tanta militum yirtus atque ea 
presentia animi fuit, ut, cum undique flamma torrerentur, 
maximaque telormn multitudine premerentur, suaque omnia 
impedimenta atque omnes fortunas confiagrare intelligerent 
non modo ^Memigrandi causa de yallo decederet nemo, sei 
paene ne respiceret quidem quisquam ; ac turn omnes acer- 
rime fintissimeque pugnarent. Hie dies nostris longe gra> 
yissimus fuit ; sed tamen '%unc babuit eyentnm, ut eo die 
maximus bosdum numerus yulnerafetur atque interficeretur, 
'hit se sub ipso yaUo constipayerant recessumque primis 
ultimi non dabant. Paulum quidem intennissa fiamma, ''et 
quodam loco turn adacta et contingente yallum, tertise co* 
bortis centuripnes ex eo, quo stabant, loco recessemnt suos- 
que onmes remoyerunt; nutu yocibusque bostes, "&i in- 
troire yellent," yocare ccepenmt, quorum progredi ausus 
est nemo. Turn ex omni parte lapidibus conjectia '^detur- 
-bati, turrisquA succensa est. 

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44.. Erant in ea legione fortissimi viri centuriones, 'qui 
jam primis ordinibus appropinquarent, Tito Pulfio et Luciiw 
Varenus. Hi perpetuas contri/versias inter se habebant, 
quinam anteferretur, omnibusque annis 'de loco summis 
simultatibus contendebant. Ex iis Pulfio, cum acerrime ad 
mtmitiones pugnaretur, " Quid diibitas," inquit, " Yarene ? 
aut quern locum probandae virtutis tuie 'spectas ? hie; hie 
dies de nostris controYersiis judicabit.** Haec cum dixisset, 
procedit extra munitiones, ^quaque pars hostium confertis* 
sima visa est, in eam irrumpit. Ne V&renus quidera turn 
vallo sese continet, sed omnium veritus existimationem 
subsoquitur. Turn, mediocri spatig relicto, Pulfio pilum in 
hostes mittit atque unum ex miultitudine ^rocurrentem 
transjicit, quo percusso et exanimato, hunc scutis protegunt 
hostes, in ilium tela universi conjiciunt neque dant regre- 
diendi facultatem. Transfigitur scutum PuMoni et Verutum 
in balteo defigitur. Avertit hie casus vaginam et gladium 
educere conanti dextram moraturmanum ; impeditum hostes 
circumsistunt. Succurrit inimicus illi Varenus et laboranti 
subvpnit. Ad liunc se confestim a Pulfione omnis multi- 
tudo convertit; iUum veruto transfLsum arbitrantur. Oc« 
cursat ocius gladio cominusque rem gerit Varenus atque, 
uno interfecto, reliquos paulum propellit : dum cupidius 
instat, Hn locum dejectus inferiorem concidit. Huic rursus 
circumvento fert subsidium Pulfio, atque ambo incolumes, 
compluribus interfectis, summa cum laude sese intra muni- 
tiones recipient. Sio fortuna ^n contentione et certamine 
i^utrumque versavit, ut alter alteri inimicus auxilio salutique 
esset, neque dijudicari posset, uter utri virtute anteferendus 

45. Quanto erat in dies ^'gravior atque asperior oppug* 
natio, et maxime quod, magna parte militum confecta yul« 
neribus, '*res ad paucitatem defensorum pervenerat, tanto 
erebriores liters nuntiique ad Cssarem mittebantur : quo« 
rum pars deprehensa in conspectu nostromm militum cum 

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X.1BBft V. Cap. XLVIi. 109 

cTuciatu netabatur. Erat 'imus intus Nemus, nomine 
VerticQ, loco natas honesto, qui a prima obsidione ad Cice 
. ronem perfugerat, 'suamque ei fidem prsstiterat. Hie senro 
8pe libertatis magnisque persuadet premiis, ut litems ad 
Ossarem deferat. Has ille in jaculo illigatas efiert, et, 
Gallus inter Gallos sine ulla suspicione versatus, ad Oesar- 
enypervenit. Ab eo de 'peri^ulis Ciceronis legionisque cog- 
noscitnr. • 

46. C«sar, accepCis Uteris %ora circiter undecima diei, 
statim nuncium in BeUovacos ad Marcum Crassum quest* 
orem mittit ; cujus hibema aberant ab eo miliia passuum 
viginti quinque. Jubet media nocte ^legionem proficisci, 
^eleriterque ad se venire. Exiit cum nuncio Crassus. 
Alterum ad Caium Fabium legatum mittit, ut in Atrebatium 
6nes legionem adducat, ^qua sibi iter faciendum sciebat. 
Scribit Labieno, si reipublicae commodo facere posset, cum 
legione ad fines Nerviorum veniat : reliquam partem exer- 
citus, quod paulo aberat longius, nun putat expectandam ; 
eqvites circiter quadringentos ex proximis hibernis cogit. 

47. ^Hora circiter tertia ab antecursoribus de Crassi ad- 
rentu certior factus, eo die ftiillia passuum viginti progre- 
ditur. Crassum Samarobrivae pneficit, ^egionemque ei at- 
tribuit, quod ibi impedimenta exercitus, obsides civitatum, 
*literas publicas, frumentumque omne, quod eo tolerands 
hiemis causa devexerat, relinquebat. Fabins, ut imperatum 
erat, non ita multum moratus, in itinere cum legione oc- 
currit. Labienus, interitu Sabini et caede cobortium cog- 
nita, cum omnes ad eum Trevirorum copis venissent, veritus, 
ne, si ex hibernis fugae similem profectionem fecisset, hos 
tium impetum sustinere non posset, prassertim quos recenti 
victoria efferri sciret, literas Cssari remittit, quanto cum 
periculo legionem ex hibernis educturus esset : *^em gestam 
in Eburonibus perscribit: docet^ omnes peditatus equita- 
tusque copias Trevirorum tria miliia passuum longe ab suit 
cantris consedisse 


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110 DB BELLO 6ALL1C0. , 

48. CssaF) H^onsilio ejus probato, etsi, opinione tnuni 
egionum dejectus, ad du^ redierat, tamen unuiu communis 

•alutis auxilium in celeritate ponebat. Venit magnis itin* 
eribus in Nerviorum fines. Ibi ex captivis cognoscit, quae 
apud Oiceronem gerantur, quantoque in periculo res sit 
Tumcuidam ex equitibus Gallis magnis prsmiis persuadet, 
uti ad Oiceronem epistolam deferat. Hanc ^riaecis con- 
scriptam Uteris mittit, ne, intercepta epistola, nostra ab nos- 
tibus consilia cognoscantur. 'Si adire non possit, monet, 
ut tragulam cum epistola, ad amentum deligata, intra muni- 
tiones castrorum abjiciat. In literis scribit, se cum legi- 
(mibus profectum celeriter affore: hortatur, ut pristinam 
▼irtutem retineat. Gallus, periculuin veritus, ut erat prae- 
ceptam, tragulam mittit. Hsec ^casu ad turrim adhtesit, 
neque ab nostris biduo animadversa, tertio die a quodam 
milite conspicitur ; demta ad Oiceronem defertur. ^Ille ^ 
perlectam in conventu militum recitat, maximaque omnes 
Icetitia afficit. Tum ^umi incendiorum procul videbantur. 
quae res onmem dubitationem adventus le^onum expulit. 

49. Gain, r« cognita per exploratores, obsidionem re 
Unquunt, ad Oaesarem omnibus copiis contendunt ; esB erant 
^armatomm circiter millia sexaginta. Oicero, Mata facul« 
tate, Galium ab eodem Verticone, quem supra demonstrav- 
imus, repetit; qui literas ad Oassarem referat; hunc ad- 
monet, iter eaute diligenterque faciat : perscribit in Uteris, 
hostes ab se discessisse, omnemque ad eum multitudinem 
convertisse. Quibus Uteris circiter media nocte' 'Oaesar 
aUatis sues facit certiores, eosque ad dimicandum animo 
confirmat : postero die luce prima movet castra, et circitei 
miUia passuum quatuor progressus, *^^ns vaUem magnara 
0t rivum multitudinem hostium conspicatur. Erat magnt 
pericidi res, cum tantis copiis iniquo loco dimicare. "Turn, 
quoniam Uberatum obsidione Oiceronem sciebat^ eoqu« 
omnino remittendum de celeritate existimabat, consedit, ei, 
quam squissimo potest loco, castra communit. Atque haec. 

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«rt8i erant exigua per se, vix hominum iniUium septem, pr»i 
sertiin: nullis cum impedimentis, 'tamen angustiis riarum 
quam maxime potest, contrahit, eo consilio, hit in sumimm 
contemtionem hostibus veniat. Interim, speculatoribus in 
omnes partes dimissis, explorat, quo commodissimo itinere 
rallem transire possit. 

50. Eo die, parvulis equestribus proeliis ad aquam factis, 
ntrique sese suo loco continent ; Galli, quod ampliores 
copias, quae nondum convenerant, expectabant; Caesar, si 
forte timoris simulatione hostes in suum locum elicere 
posset, ut ^citra vallem pro eastris proelio contenderet ; si 
id efficere non posset, ut, exploratis itineribus, minore cum 
periculo yallem rivnmque transire. Prima luce hostium 
equitatus ad castra ac^edit, prceliumque cum nostris equiti 
bus committit. Caesar consulto equites cedere seque in 
castra recipere jubet; simul ex omnibus partibus castra 
altiore vallo muniri, Yo^^^l^e obstrui, atque in his admin- 
istrandis rebus quam maxime concursari et cum simulati- 
one timoris agi jubet. 

51. Quibus omnibus rebus hostes invitati copias traiis- 
ducunt, aciemque iniquo loco constituunt ; nostris vero 
^etiam de yallo deductis, propius accedunt, et tela intra 
munitionem ex omnibus partibus conjiciunt ; praeconibusque 
circummissis pronuntiari jubent, " sen quis Gallus seu Ro- 
manus velit ante horam tertiam ad se transire, sine^ periculo 
licere ; post id tempus non fore potestatem :" *ac sic nos- 
tros contemserunt, ut obstructis in speciem portis singulis 
ordinibus cespitum, quod ea non posse introrumpere vide- 
bantur, alii vallum ''manu scindere, alii fossas complere in* 
ciperent. Tum Caesar, omnibus portis eruptione facta 
equitatuque emisso, celeriter hostes dat in fiigam, sic, uti 
omnino pugnandi causa resisteret nemo ; magnumque ex 
619 nnmerum occidit, atque omnes armis exuit. 

52. Longius prosequi veritus, quod silv^as paludesque in- 
lexAedebant, '^eque etiam parmlo detrimento illoruro locum 

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relinqui videbat, omnibus suis incolumibus copiis eMem 
die ad Ciceronem pervenit. Institutas turres, testudines, 
munitionesque hostium admiratur: 'pioducta legione cog- 
noscit, noQ decimum quemque ess^ reiictum miliiem sine 
▼ulnere. Ex his omnibus judical rebus, quanto cum peri* 
culo et quanta cum;virtute res sint administratae : Ciceronem 
'pro ejus merito legionemque collaudat: centuriones sin- 
gillatim tribunosque militum appellat, quorum egregiam 
fuisse virtutem testimonio Ciceronis cognoverat. De casu 
Sabini et CottsB certius ex captivis cognoscit. Postero die 
concione habita ^em gestam proponit, milites consolatur et 
confirmat : quod detrimentum culpa et temeritate legati sit 
acceptum, hoc squiore tinimo ferendum docet, ^quod, bene- 
ficio Deorum immortalium et virtute 'eorum ^expiato incom- 
modo, neque hostibus diutina Isetatio, neque ipsis longior 
dpk>r relinquatur. 

53. Interim ad Labienum per Remos incredibili eden- 
tate de victoria Caesaris fama perfertur, ut, cum ab hibemis 
Ciceronis abesset millia passuum circiter sexaginta, ^eoque 
post horam nonam diei Caesar perveuisset, ante mediam 
noctem ad portas castrorum clamor oriietur, quo clamore 
significatio victoriae gratulatioque ab Remis Labieno fieret. 
Hac fama ad Treviros perlata, Indutiomaius, qui postero 
die castra Labieni oppugnare decreverat, nuctu profugit, 
copiasquQ omnes in Treviros reducit. Cftbar Fabium 
cum legione in sua remittit hibema, ipse cum tribus 
.egionibus circum Samarobrivam ^trinis hibemis hiemare 
constituit; et, quod tanti motus Galliae extiterant, totam 
hiemem ipse ad exercitum manere decrevit. Nam illo in* 
commodo de Sabini morte *perlato, omnes fere Galliae civi- 
tates de bello consultabant, nuncios legatioiiesque in omnes 
partes dimittebant, et, quid reliqui consilii caperent atque 
unde initium belli fieret, explorabant, noctatoaque in locis 
desertis concilia habebant. Neque uUum fere totius hiemis 
tempus sine solicitudine Caesaris intercessit, ^quin aliquem 

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LIBER V, CAP. LV. 113 

de conciliis ac motu Gallorum nuncium acciperet. lu bis 
ab Lucio Roscio legato, quern legioni decime tertiaei pnefe- 
cerat, certior est factus, magnas Gallorum ^ copias earum 
civitatuiu, quae ^Annoricffi appellantur, oppugnandi sui causa 
convenisse : neque longius millia passuum octo ab hiberais 
suis afuisse, sed nuncio allato de victoria Cesaris, disces 
sisse, adeo ut fugae similis discessns videretur. 

54. At Cassar, principibus cujusque ^civitatis ad se evo- 
catis, alias territando, cum se scire, quae fierent, denuncia- 
ret, alias cobortando, magnam partem Galliae in officio ten* 
uit. Tamen Senones, quae est civitas in primis firma et mag- 
nae inter Gallos auctoritatis, Cavarinum, quern Cassar apur 
eos regem constituerat (cujus frater JVforitasgus, adventu in 
Galliam Caesaris, cujusque majores regnum obtinuerant), 
Interlicere publico consilio conati, cum ille praesensisset ac 
profagisset, usque ad fines insecuti, regno domoqu6 ezpu^^e- 
runt: et, missis ad Caesarem satisfaciendi causa legatis, 
cum is omnem ad se senatum venire jussisset, dicto audi- 
entes non fuerunt. 'Tantum apud bomines barbaros valuit, 
esse repertos aliquos principes belli inferendi, tantamque 
omnibus voluntatum commutationem attulit, ut praetei iEduos 
et Remos, quos ^raecipuo semper bonore Caesar babuit, 
alteros pro vetere ac perpetua erga Populum Romanum fide, 
alteros pro recentibus Gallici belli officiis, nulla fere civitas 
fuerit non suspecta nobis. ^Idque adeo baud scio miran- 
dumne sit, cuifl compluribus aliis de causis, tum maxime, 
'quod, qui virtute belli omnibus gentibus praeferebantur, tan- 
tum so ejus opinionis deperdidisse, ut a Populo Romano 
imperia perferrent, gravissime dolebant. 

55. Treviri vero atque Indutiomafus totius biemis nullum 
temjpus intermiserunt, quin trans Rbenum legatos mitterent, 
civitates solicitarent, pecunias polHcerentur, magna parte 
exercitus nostri interfecta, multo minorem superesse dice- 
rent partem. Neque tamen ulli civitati Germanorum per- 
Auaderi potuit, ut Rbenum transiret, cum '* se bis expertoa" 

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114 Db BELLU GALhlCO. 

dicerent, '' Ariovisti bello et Tenchtherorum transitu, noo 
esse amplius fortunam tentandam." ^Hac spe lapsus Indu- 
tiomarus, nihilo minus copias cogere, exercere, a finitimia 
equos parare, exules damnatosque tota Gallia magnis prse- 
miis ad se allicere ccspit. Ac tantam sibi jam iis rebus in 
Gallia auctoritatem comparaverat, ut undique ad eum lega- 
tiones concurrerent, gratiam atque amicitiam publice priva- 
timque peterent. 

56. Ubi intellexit \dtro ad se veniri, altera ex parte 
Senones Camutesque conscientia facinoris instigari, altera 
Nervios Aduatucosque bellum Romanis parare, neque sibi 
voluntariorum copias defore, si ex finibus suis progredi 
coepisset : 'armatum cgncilium indicit (hoc more Gallorum 
est initium belli), quo lege communi omnes puberes armati 
conveoire consuerunt ; qui ex iis novissimus venit, in con- 
spectu multitudinis ^omnibus cruciatibus afTectus necatur. 
In eo concilio Cingetorigem, ^alterius principem factionis 
generum suum (quern supra demonstravimus, Caesaris secu- 
tum fidem, ab eo non discessisse), hostem judicat, bonaque 
ejus publicat. His rebus confectis, in concilio pronuntiat, 
arcesi^itum se a Senonibus et Camutibus aliisque compluri- 
bus Galliae civitatibus, %uc iter facturum per fines Remo* 
rum, eorumque agros populaturum, ac prius, quam id faciat, 
Labieni castra oppugnaturum : quae fieri velit, preecipit. 

57. Labienus, cum et loci netura et manu munitissiniis 
castris sese teneret, de suo ac legionis periculo nihil time*> 
bat ; ne quam occasionem rei bene gerendsB dimitteret, co- 
gitabat. Itaque a Cingetorige atque ejus propinquis ora- 
tione Indutiomari cognita, quam in concilio habuerat, nun- 
cios mittit ad finitimas civitates, equitesque undique evocat : 
iis certum diem conveniendi dicit. Interim prope quotidie 
cum omni equitatu Indutiomarus ''sub castris ejus vagabatur 
alias ut situm castrorum cognosceret, alias colloquendi aut 
territandi t;ausa : equites plerumque omnes tela intra vallum 
conjiciebant. Labienus suos intra munitiones continebat 

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LIBER V. CAP. L^lll. 115 

Hhnorisque opinionem, quibuscumque poterat rebus, au* 

58r Cum majore in dies contemtione Indutiomarus ad ' 
castra accederet, nocte una, 'intromissis equitibi 9 omnium 
finitimarum civitatum, quos arcessendos curaverat, tanta 
diligentia omnes suos custodiis intra Ciistra continuit, ut 
nulla ratione ea res enunciari aut ad Treviios perferri pos- 
set. Intenm ex consuetudine quotidiana Indutiomarus ad 
castra accedit, atque ibi magnam partem diei consumit; 
' equites tela conjiciunt, et 'magna cum contumelia verborum 
Hostros ad pugnam evocant. Nullo ab nostris dato re 
sponso, ubi visum est, sub vesperum Mispersi ac dissipati 
discedunt. Subito Labienus duabus portis omnem equita- 
tum emittit ; ^raecipit atque interdicit, proterritis hostibus 
atque in fu^am conjectis (quod fore, sicut accidit, videbat), 
unum omnes petant Indutiomarum ; neu quis quem pnus 
vulneret, quam ilium interfectum viderit, quod *mora reli- 
quorum spatium nactum ilium effugere nolebat : magna pro- 
ponit iis, qui occiderint, praemia : submittit cohortes equiti* 
bus subsidio. Comprobat ^ominis consilium fortuna ; et, 
cimi unum omnes peterent, in ipso fluminis vado deprehen- 
sus Indutiomarus interficitur, 'caputque ejus refertur in cas- 
tra: redeuntes equites. quos possunt, consectantur atque 
occidunt. Hac re cogmca, omnes Ebmronum et Nerviorum - 
quae convenerant, copiae discedunt ; pauloqne habuit^ fiosi 
- id factum Cssar quietiorem Galliam. 

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1 Commotions throughout nearly all Gaul, in consequenci o« 


Chap. 1. Caesar, apprehending commotions in Gaul, augments his 
fprces. 2, 3. Insurrection of the Treviri. The Nervii overcome by 
a sudden invasion of their territories. A council of the states of Gaul 
held at Lutetia Parisiorum. 4. The Senones and Camutes sue for 
peace, and obtain it from Caesar. 6, 6. The Menapii overcome. 7, 
8. Labienus, pretending fear, suddenly attacks and routs the Treviri. 


Chap. 9. Cssar crosses the Rhine a second time. 10. The Suevi 
retire on the approach of the Romans. U-20. The manners of the 
Gauls, their religion, &c. 21-24. The manners of the Germans. 
25. The Hercynian forest. 26-28. Different kinds of wild animals 
found in the Hercjrnian forest. 
III. Punishment of Ambiorix and the Ebubones. 

Chap. 29. CsBsar, fearing the want of provbions, repasses the Rhine 
and marches against Ambiorix. 30. The great power of fortune ex 
cmplified in the escape of Ambiorix. 3]^ Ambiorix disbands his 
troops, and counsels them to provide for their own safety. 32-34 
Caesar, having divided his forces, lays waste the territories of the Ebu> 
rones. 35 A body of Sicambri cross the Rhine, in order to take part 
in the phindering of the Eburones, but turn off |ior the purpose of sur 

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piiniig Atuatica. 36-43. The Romui camp altacfced by the Sieun- 
fan. Some cohorts, which had gone out to forage, axe in great danger. 
A part are cut to pieces, the rest make their way, by dint of fighting, 
back to the cunp. The Germans return across the Rhine. The 
alarm of the Romans dissipated by the arrival of Caesar. 44. The 
country of the Eburones being completely wasted, Csesar holds a coun- 
cil of Gaol, and inquires into the c<mspiracy of the Senones and Car- 
nutes. Aoco punished. Csesai places his troops in winter quarters, 
and sets out for Italy to hold the circmts. 

1. MuLTis de causis Caesar, majorem Galliae motuiu ex- 
pectaos, 'per Marcum Silanum, Caium Antistium Reginum, 
Titum Sextium, legatos, 'dilectum habere instituit : simul 
ab Gneio Pompeio ^roconsuie petit, ^][uoiuam ipse ad urbem 
cum imperio reipublicde causa remaneret, quos ex Cisalpina 
Gallia consulis ^sacramento rogavisset, ad signa couVenire 
et ad ae proficisci juberet : ^agni interesse etiam in reli- 
quum tempus ad opinionem Galliae existimans, tantas videri 
Italiae facultates, ut, si quid esset in bello detriment! accep- 
tum, non modo id brevi tempore ''sarciri, sed etiam ^ajori 
bus adaugeri copiis posset. 'Quod cum Pompeius et rei- 
publicse et amicJffisB tribuisset, celeriter confecto *^r suos 
dilectu, tribus ante exactam hiemem et constitutis et ad- 
ductis legionibus, duplicatoque earum cohortium numero, 
quas cum Quinto Titurio amiserat, et celeritate et copiis 
locuit, quid "Populi Romani disciplina atque opes possent. 

2. Interfecto Indutiomaro, ^t docuimus, ad ejus propin- 
4U0S a Treviris imperium defertur. Illi finitimos Germanos 
solicitare et pecuniam pollicer^ non desistunt : cum ab 
proximis impetrare non possent, ulteriores tentant. Inventis 
nonnuUis civitatibus, ^^urejurando inter se confirmant, ob- 
sidibusque de pecunia cavent : Ambiorigem sibi societate 
et foedere adjungunt. Qiiibus rebus cognitis, Gssar, ciun 
undique bellum parari videret, Nervios, Aduatucos, Menfr- 
pios, adjunctis ^^Cisrhenanis omnibus Grermanis, esse in 
orniis. Senones '^ad imperatum non venire, et cum Carnuti- 

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bus finitimisque civitatibuB consiii^ commmiicaTe, a Treriris 
Grermanos crebris legationibus solicitari ; maturius sibi de 
bello cogitandum putavit. 

3. Itaque ^nondum hieme confecta, proximis quatuor co- 
actis legionibus, de improviso in fines Nerviorum contendit, 
et prius, quam illi aut convenire aut profugere present, 
magno pecoris atque hominum numero capto, atque ea 
prseda militibus concessa, vastatisque agris, in deditionem 
venire atque obsides sibi dare coegit. Eo celeriter confecto 
negotio, rursus in hibema l^ones reduxit. Concilio Gal- 
liae primo vere, ^uti instituerat, indicto, cum reliqui, praeter 
SenonevS, Carnutes, Trevirosque, venissent, initium beUi ac 
defectionis hoc esse arbitratus, ut ^omnia postponere vide- 
retur, concilium Lutetiam Farisiorum transfert. Confines 
erant hi Senonibus, civitatemque patrum memoriaconjunxe- 
rant; ^sed ab hoc consilio afuisse existimabantur. ^Hac 
re pro suggestu pronunciata, eodem die cum legionibus in 
Senones proficiscitur, magnisque itineribus eo pervenit. 

4. Cpgnito ejus adventu, Acco, qui princeps ejus consilii 
fuerat, jubetin oppida multitudinem convenire; ^conantibus, 
priusquam id efl5ci posset, adesse Romanos nunciatur ; ne- 
cessario sententia desistunt, legatosque deprecandi causa 
ad Csesarem mittunt ; 'adeunt per JEduos, quorum antiqui- 
tus erat in fide dvitas. Libenter Caesar petentibus .^^uis 
^dat veniam, excusationemque accipit ; quod sestivum tem- 
pus instantis belli, non quaestionis, esse arbitrabatur. Ob- 
sidibus imperatis centum, hos JEduis custodiendos tradit. 
Eodem Camutes legatos pbsidesque mittunt, usi ^depreca- 
toribus Remis, quorum erant in clientela: eadem ferunt 
responsa. Peragit concilium Caesar, equitesque imperat 

6. Hac parte Gall\ae pacata, ^°totus et mente et animo in 
bellumTrevirorum et Ambiorigis insistit. " Cavarinum cum 
equitatu Senonum secum proficisci jubet, ne quis aut ex 
hujus iracundia, aut ex eo, quod meruerat, odio civitatis 

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LIBER VX. CAf Vil. 119 

biotus existat. His rebus constituth., quod *pro explorato 
habebat, Ambiorigem proelio non esse concertaturum, rel- 
* iqua ejui coiisilia animo circumspiciebat. Erant Menapii 
propmqui Eburonum finibus, ^erpetuis paludibus silvisque 
muiilti, qui uni ex Gallia de pace ad Osesarem legatos nun- 
quam miserant. Cum iis esse "hospitium Ambiorigi scie* 
bat: item per Treriros venisse Germanis in amicitiam, 
cognorerat. H»c prius ^lli detrahenda auxilia existimabat, 
quam ipsum bello lacesser^t ; ne, desperata salute, aut se 
*in Menapios abderet, aut cum Transrhenanis *congredi 
cogeretur. Hoc inito consilio, totius exercitus impedi- 
menta ad Labienum in Treviros mittit, duasque legiones 
ad eum proficisci jubet : ipse cum legionibus expeditis 
quinque in Menapios proficiscitur. Illi, nulla coacta manu 
^oci praesidio freti, in silvas paludesque confugiunt, suaque 
eodem conferunt. 

6. Caesar, partitis copiis cum Caio Fabio legato et Marco 
Crasso quaestore, celeriterque effectis pootibus, 'adit tripar- 
tite, asdificia vicosque incendit, magno pecoris atque homi- 
num numero potitur. Quibus rebus coacti Msnapii, lega- 
tos ad eum pacis petendae causa mittunt. lUe, obsidibus 
acceptis hostium se habiturum numero confirmat, si aut 
Ambiorigem, aut ejus legatos, finibus suis recepissent. His 

'confirmatis rebus, Commium Atrebatem cum equitatu cus- 
todis loco in Menapiis relinquit ; ipse in Treviros proficis- 

7. Dum haec a Caesare geruntur, Treviri, magnis coacti^ 
peditatus equitatusque copiis, Labienum cum una legione. 
quae in eorum finibus ^emabat, adoriri parabant : jamque 
ab eo non longius bidui via aberant, cum duas renisse le- 
giones missu Caesaris cognosonnt. Positis castris *®a mil- 
libus passuum quindecim, auxilia Gennanorum expectare 
constituunt. Labienus, hostium cognito consilio, sperans, 
temeritate eorum fore aliquam dimicandi facultatem, pras* 
•idio cobortiam quinque ipipedimentis relicto, "cuqi viginti 


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quinque cohertibus magnoque equitatu contra hostem pro- 
ficiscitur, et, mille passuum intennisso spatio, castra com- 
munit. Erat inter Labienum atque hostem difficili transitu • 
iiumen ripisque praertiptis : hoc neque ipse transire in 
ftuimo habebat, neque hostes transituros existimabat. ^Au- 
gebatur auxiliorum quotidie spes. Loquitur in consilio 
palam, ^'quoniam Germani appropinquare dicantur, sese 
Buas exercitusque fortunas ^n dubium non devocaturum, et 
postero die prima luce castra moturum." Celeriter haec ad 
hostes deferuntur, ^ut ex magno Gallorum equitatus numero 
nonnullis Gallicis rebus favere natura cogebat. Labienus 
noctu, tribunis militum ^rimisque ,ordinibus coactis, ^quid 
sui sit consilii, proponit, et, quo facilius hostibus timoris det 
suspicionem, majore strepitu et tumult u, quam Populi Ro- 
mani fert consuetudo, castra moveri jubet. His rebus 'fugae 
bimilem profectionem efficit. Haec quoque per exploratores 
ante lucem, in tanta propinquitate castrorum, ad hostes de 

8. Yix agmen novissimum extra munitiones processerat, 
cum Galfi, cohortati inter se, "ne ^speratam prasdam ex 
manibus dimitterent ; %ngum esse, perterritis Romanis, 
Germanorum auxilium expectare, neque suam pati dignita- 
tem, ut tantis copiis tam exiguam manum, praesertim fugi- 
entem atque '°impeditam, adoriri non audeant;" flumen. 
transire et iniquo loco proelium committere non dubitant. 
Quae fore suspicatus Labienus, ut omnes citra flumen eli- 
ceret, "eadem usus simulatione itineris, placide progredie- 
batur. Tum, praemissis paulum impedimentis atque in 
tumulo quodam collocatis, " Habetis," inquit, " milites, 
quam petistis, '^facultatem : hostem impedito atque iniquo 
loco tenetis : ^^raestate eandem nobis ducibus virtutem, 
quam saepenumero imperatOri praestitistis : adesse eum et 
haec coram cernere, existimate." Simul signa ad hostem 
eonverti aciemque dirigi jubet, et, paucis turmis praesidio 
'*aJ impedimenta dimissis . reliquos equites ad latera dis' 

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LIBBR TI. CAP. X. 121 

pokiit. Celeriter nostri.x^lamore sublato pila in hostes im- 
mittunt. nil, ubi praeter spem, quos fugere credebant, 'ia- 
festis signis ad se ire viderunt, impetum modo ferre non 
potuerunty ac, phmo concursu in fugam conjecti, proxinias 
silvas petierunt: qaos Labienus equitatu consectatus, magno 
numero interfecto, compluhbus captis, paucis post diebua 
civitatem reoepit : nam Germani, qui auxilio veniebant, per 
cepta I'reyirorum fuga, sese domum contulerunt. Cum iis 
'^rbpinqui Indudomari, qui defectionis auctores fuerant, 
comitati eos, ex civitate excessere. Cingetorigi, quern ab 
initio permansisse in officio demonstravimus, principatus 
atque imperium est traditum. 

9. Caesar, postquam ^e% Menapiis in Treriros venit,^ dua- 
bus de causis Rhenum transire constituit : quarum erat al- 
tera, quod auxilia contra se Treviris miserant ; altera, ne 
Ambiorix ad eos receptum haberet. His constitutis rebus, 
paulum supra eum locum, quo ante exercitum transduxerat, 
facere pontem instituit. Nota atque institata ratione, magno 
militum studio, paucis diebus opus efficitur. Firmo in 
Treviris praesidio ad pontem relicto, ne quis ab iis subito 
motus oriretur, reliquas copias equitatumque transducit. 
Ubii, qui ante obsides dederant atque in deditionem vene- 
rant, purgandi sui causa ad eum legatos mittunt, qui do- 
ceant, ^'neque ex sua civitate auxilia in Treviros missa, 
neque ab se fidem lacsam :" petunt atque orant, " ut sibi 
parcat, ^e communi odio Germanorum innocentes pro no- 
centibus poenas pendant :" isi amplius obsidum velit, dare 
pollicentur. ^Cognita Caesar causa reperit, ab -Suevis aux- 
ilia missa esse : Ubiorum satisfactionem accipit ; aditus 

Masque in Suevos perquint. 

10. Interim paucis post diebus fit ab Ubiis certior, Suevos 
onmes unum in locum copias cogere, atque iis nationibus, 
quae sub eorum sint imperio, denunciare, uti auxilia pedi- 
tatus equitatusque mittant. His cognitis rebus, rem fru*- ' 
mentariam providet, castris idoneum locimi deligit, Vhm 

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imperat, ut pecora deducant suaque omnia ex agris in op 
pida confemnt, sperans, ^barbaros atque imperitos homines, 
inopia cibariorum afllictos, ad iniquam pugnandi conditi- 
onem posse deduci : mandat, ut crebros exploratcres in 
Suevos mittant, qu»que apud eos gerantur, cognoscant. 
nii imperata faciunt, et, paucis diebus intermissis, referunt, 
** SueTOs omnes, posteaquanl certiores nmicii de exercitu 
Romanorum venerint, cum omnibus suis sociorumque copiis, 
quas coegissent, penitus ad extremos fines sese recepisse - 
■ilvam esse ibi 'infinita magnitudine, qus appellatur Bace 
nis : banc longe introrsus pertinere, et, pro nativo muro ob 
jactam, Cheruscos 'ab Suevis, Suevosque ab Gheruscis, in 
juriis mcursionibusque prohibere : ad ejus initium silva 
Suevos adventum Romanorum expectare constituisse." 

11. Quoniam ad hunc locum penrentum est, ^on ah 
enum, esse videtur, de Galliae Germaniaeque moribus, et 
quo difierant eae nationes inter sese, proponere. In Gallia, 
non solum in omnibus civitatibus atque ^n omnibus pagis 
partibusque, sed psne etiam in singulis domibus, factiones 
sun^ *earumque factionum principes sunt, qui summam 
auctoritatem eorum judicio habere existimantur, quorum ad 
arbitrium judiciumque summa omnium rerum consiliorum- 
que redeat. ^Idque ejus rei causa antiqidtus institutum vi- 
detur, *ne quis ex plebe contra potentiorem auxilii egeret : 
suos enim 'quisque opprimi et circumveniri non patitur, 
neque, alitor si faciant, ullam inter suos habent auctorita- 
tem. '^Hac eadem ratio est in summa totius Galliae : nam 
que omnes civitates in partes divisae sunt duas. 

12. Gum Gaesar in Galliam venit, "alterius factionis 
principes enmt ^dui, alterius Sequani. Hi cum per s^ 
minus valerent, quod summa auctoritas antiquitus erat in 
iEduis, magnaeqne eorum erant clientelae, Germanos atque 
Ariovistum sibi adjunxerant, eoaque ad se magnis ^'jacturis 
*pollieitationibu8que perduxerant. ProBliis vero coinpluiibus 

factis secundia, atque omni nobilitate JSduomm interfecta 

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LIBSft VI. CA^ XIII. 123 


'taatum potentia antecesserant, ut magnam partem clientium 
ab iEduis ad se transducerent, obsidesque ab lis principum 
filios acciperent, et publice jurare cogerent, nihil se contra 
Sequanos consilii inituros ; et partem finitimi agri, per viir 
occupatam, possiderent ; Galliseque totius principatmn ob 
merent. Qua necessitate adductus Divitiacus, amdlii pe 
lendi causa llomam ad Senatom profectus, infecta re redi 
erat. Adventu Cssaris facta 'commutatione rerum, obsidi 
bus iEduis redditis, vAeribus clientelis restitutis, novis pei 
Caesarem comparatis (quod hi, qui se ad ^eorum amicitiam 
aggregaverant, meliore conditione atque equiore imperio se 
uti videbant), ^eliquis rebus eorum, gratia, dignitate ampli* 
ficata, Sequani principatum Mimiserant. In eoriim locum 
Remi successerant ; ^quos quod adsquare apud Caesarem 
gratia intelligebatur, ii, qui propter veteres inimicitias nullo 
modo cum iEduis conjungi poterant, ^se Remis in cliente- 
Lam dicabant. Hos illi diligenter tuebantur. Ita et novant 
et repente collect am auctoritatem ten^ant. £o turn statu 
res erat, ut longe principes haberentur ^dui, secundum loc- 
um dignitatis Remi obtinerent. 

13. In omni Gallia eorum hominum, ^qui aliquo sunt nu 
mero atque honore, '^genera sunt duo : nam plebes ptenc 
servorum habetur loco, quae per se nihil audet et nullo ad- 
hibetur consilio. Plerique, cum aut ''cere alieno, aut ^^ag 
nitudine tributorum, aut injuria potentiorum premuntur, sest 
in servitutem dicant nobilibus : *^in hos eadem omnia sun 
jura, quae dbminis in servos. Sed de his duobus generibuA 
^*alterum est Druidum, alterum equitum. **llli rebus divinia 
intersunt, sacrificia publica ac privata '^rocurant, religfones 
interpretantur. Ad hos magnus adolescentium numerup 
*''disciplinse causa concurrit, magnoque *^ii sunt apud eoe 
honore. Nam fere de omnibus controversii.; publicis pri- 
vatisque constituunf* , et, si quod est admissum facinut, '^ai 
caedes facta, si de haereditate, si de finibus controversia tisr, 
iidem decernunt ; praemia pcenasqiKi constftuunt ; si qui aiM 

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i24 DE BE^LO 6ALLIC0. 


pnvatus aut publicus eorum decreto *non stetit, sacri£ciia 
interdicunt. Haec pcena apud eos est gravissima. Quibua 
ita est interdictum, ii numero impiomm ac sceleratorum 
hoLentur , iis omnes decedunt, ^aditum eorum sermonemque 
defugiunt, ne quid ex contagione incommodi accipiant: 
Deque iis peteiutibus ^us redditur, neque honos uUus com- 
municatur. His autem omnibus Druidibus praeest unus, qui 
summam inter eos habet auctoritatem. Hoc mortuo, si qui 
ex reliquis excellit dignitate, succAiit ; at, si sunt plures 
pares, sufiragio Druidum deligitur, noimunquam etiam armis 
de principatu contendunt. Hi certo anni tempore iu fini- 
bus Camutum, quae regio 'totius Gallias media habetui, con- 
sidunt in loco consecrato. Hue omnes undique, qui con* 
troversias habent, conveniunt, eorumque decretis judiciisque 
parent. 'Disciplina in Britannia reperta atque inde in Gal- 
liam translata esse existimatur : et nunc, qui ^diligentius 
earn rem cognoscere volunt, plenimque illo discendi causa 

14. Druides a bello abesse consuerunt, neque tributa una 
cum reliquis pendunt ; ^militis vacatipnem omniumque re- 
rum habent immunitatem. Tantis '^excitati praemiis, et sua 
sponte multi in disciplinam conveniunt, et a parentibus pro- 
p::iquisque mittuntur. Magnum ibi numerum versuum 
'^ediscere dicuntur : itaque annos nonnulli vicenos in dis- 
ciplina permanent Neque fas esse existimant, "ea Uteris 
mandare, cum in reliquis fere rebus, publicis privatiisque 
rationibus, Graecis utantur Uteris. *'Id mihi duabus de 
eausis instituisse videntur ; quod neque in vulgum discipli- 
nam efferri velint, neque eos, qui discant, Uteris confisos, 
minus memoriae studere: quod fere plerisque accidit, ut 
praesidio literarum diligentiam in perdiscendo ac memoriam 
remittant. ^'In primis hoc volunt persuadere, **non interire 
animas, sed ab aliis post mortem transire ad aUos : atque 
hoc maxime ad virtutem excitari putant, metu mortis neg- 
lecto Malta praeterea de eideribus atque Aorum motu« de 

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mundi ac terrarum magiiitudine,' de renun natura, de l)eo» 
rum immortalium vi ac potestate ^disputant et juventuti 

15. Alterum genus est equitum. Hi, 'cum est usus, atque 
aliquod bellum incidit (quod ante Gaesaris adventum fero 
quotaimis accidere solebat, uti aut ipsi injurias inferrent^ 
aut illatas propulsarent), ^omnes in bello versantur : atque 
eorum ut quisque est genere .copiisque amplissimus, ita 
^lurimos circum se ambactos clientesque habent. "Hanc 
unam gratiam potentiamque novenmt. 

16. Natio est omnium Gallorum ^admodum dedita religi- 
onibus, atque ob earn causam, qui sunt afTecti gravioribus 
morbis, quique in proeliis periculisque versantur, aut ^pro 
victimis homines immolant, aut se immolaturos vovent, ad- 
ministrisque ad ea sacrificia Druidibus utuntur ; «quod, pro 
vita hominis nisi hominis vita reddatur, non posse aliter 
Deorum immortalium numen placari arbitrantur : ^ublice- 
que ejusdem generis habent instituta sacrificia. Alii im 
mani magnitudine simulacra habent, quorum '^contexta vimi 
uibus membra vivis honunibus complent, quibus succensis, 
circumventi flamma exanimantur homines. *°Supplicia 
eorum, qui in furto, aut in latrocinio, aut aliqua noxa sint 
comprehensi, gratiora Diis immortalibus esse arbitrantur - 
sed, cum "ejus generis copia deficit, ad innocentium suppli- 
cia descendunt. 

17. ^Deum maxime Mercurium colunt: mjus sunt plu- 
rima simulacra, *%unc omnium inventorem artium ferunt, 
hunc viarum atque itinerum ducem, hunc *^ad quaestus pe 
cuniae m^caturasque habere vim maximum arbitrantur 
Post hunc, "ApoUinem et ^^Martem et "Jovein et Minervam : ^ 
i^de his eaifdem fere, quam reliquee gentes, habent opinio- 
nem ; Apollinem morbos depellere, ^Minervam operum 
atque artificiorum initia transdere ; Jovem ^mperimn coeles* 
tium tenere ; Martem bella regere. Huic, cum prcelio di 
micare constituerunt, ea, quae bello ceperiiit, pleramque de 

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vovent. 'Quae superavennt, aniinalia capta immolant ; rel* 
iqnas res in unum locum conferunt. Multis in civitadbus 
oarum rerum exstructos tumulos locis consecratis conspi- 
cari licet : neque saepe accidit, ut, ^eglecta quispiam reli- 
l^ione, aut capta apud se occultare, aut posita toUere auderet t 
gravissimumque ei rei supplicium cum cruciatu constitu* 
turn est. 

18. Galli se omnes 'ab Dite patre prognatos prsedicant, 
idque ab Druidibus proditum dicunt. Ob earn causam, 
^spatia omnis temporis non numero dierum, sed noctium, 
finiunt ; dies natales et mensium et annorum initia sic ob- 
servant, Hit noctem dies subsequatur. ^In reliquis vitae in* 
stitutis, hoc fere ab reliquis differunt, quod suos liberos, 
nisi cum adoleverint, ut munus militiae sustinere possint, 
palam ad se adire non patiuntur ; filiumque puerili state in 
publico, in conspectu patris, assistere, turpe ducunt. 

10. Wiri, quantas pecunias ab uxoribus dotis nomine ac- 
ceperunt, tantas ex suis bonis, aestimatione facta, cum doti- 
bus communicant. Hujus omnis pecuniae ^conjunctim ratio 
habetur, fructusque senrantur: uter eorum S^ita superarit, 
ad eum pars utriusque cum fructibus superiorum temporum 
penrenit. Viri in uxores, sicut in liberos, vitae necisque 
habent potestatem : et, cum pater familias, illustriore loco 
natus, decessit, ejus propinqui conveniunt, et, de morte si 
res in suspicionem venit, de uxoribus *4n seryiiem modum 
quaestionem habent-, et, *'si compertum est, igni atque omni 
bus tormentis excruciatas interficiunt. Funera sunt ^lo 
cultu Gallorum magnifica et sumtuosa ; omniaque, quae 
^vis cordi fuisse arbitrantur, in ignem inferunt, etiam ani' 
malia: '"'ac paulo supra hanc memoriam servi et clientQs, 
quos ab iis dilectos esse constabat, justis funenbus confeo 
tis, una cremabantur. 

20. Quae civitates ^^commodius suam rem publicam ad 
ministraire existimantur, habent leglbus sanctum, si quia 
qidd de re publica a finitimis rumure ac fama accep«n^ 

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uti ad magistratum deferat, neve cum quo alio-commuiiicet : 
quod saepe homines temerarios atque 4mperito8 falsis ra* 
moribus terreri/et ad facinus impelli, et de summis rebua 
consilium capere cognitum est. Magistxatus, 'quae visa 
sunt, occultant ; quaeque esse ex usu judicaverint, multitu- 
dini produnt. De re publica nisi 'per concilium loqui non 

21. ^Germani multum ab hac consuetudine differunt : 
hiam neque Druides habent, qui rebus divinis praesint, hie- 
que sacrificiis student. Deorum numero eos solos ducunt, 
quos cemunt, et quorum aperte opibus juvantur, Soleih et 
^ulcanum et Lunam : reliquo« ne fama quidem 'accepe- 
runt. Vita omnis in venationibus atque 'in studiis rei mili- 
taris consistit : ab parvulis labori ac duritiae student. Qui 
diutissime ''^impuberes permanserunt, maximam inter suos 
ferunt laudem: hoc ali staturam, ali hoc vires nervosque 
confirmari, putant. Intra annum vero vicesimum foeminae 
Dotitiam habuisse, in turpissimis habent rebus : *'cujus rei 
nulla est occultatio, quod et promiscue in iiuminibus per- 
luuntur, Qt pellibus *'aut parvis rhenonum tegimentis utuntur, 
magna corporis parte nuda. 

22. ''Agricultures non student ; majorque pars victus 
eorum in lacte, caseo, came consistit : neque quisquam 
'^agri modum certum aut fines habet proprios ; sed magis* 
tratus ac principes in annos singulos '^gentibus cognationi- 
busque hominum, qui una coierint, "quantum, et quo loco 
visum est, agri attribuunt, atque anno post alio transire 
cogunt. "Ejus rei multas afierunt causal; n^, assidua 
consuetudine capti, studium belli gerendi agricultura com- 
mutent; ne ^latos fines parare studeant, potentioresque 
^'hunuliores possessionibus expellant ; ne "^accuratius ad 
frigora atque aestus vitandos aedificent ; ne qua oriatur pe- 
cunias cupiditas, qua ex re factiones dissensionesque na«- 
cuntur ; ut '^animi aequitate plebem dontineant, cum suas 
quisquc opes cum potentissimls aequari videat. 

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23. Civitatibus maxima laiis est, quam latissimas circv j 
se Vastatis finibus solitudines habere. Hoc ^roprium ti>^ 
tutis existimant, expulsos agris finitimos cedere, neque 
quenquam prope audere consistere : simul hoc se fore tuti<- 
ores arbitrantu., repentinsB incursionis timore aublato. Cum 
bellum civitas aut illatum ^defendit, aut infer! ; magistratrs, 
qui ei bello praesint, ut vitae necisque habeant potestatem, 
deliguntur. In pace nullus est communis magistratus, ^scd 
principes regionum atque pagorum inter suos jus dicunt, 
controversiasque minuunt. Latrocinia nuUam habent infa- 
miam, quae extra fines cujusque civitatis fiunt ; atque ea ju- 
ventutis exercendas ac ^devdiae minuendae causa fieri prae- 
dicant. Atque, ubi quis ex principibus in concilio dixit, 
" se ducem fore ; qui sequi velint, ^rofiteantur ;" consur- 
gunt ii, qui et causam et hominem probant, suumque auxil- 
ium poUicentur, atque ab multitudine coUaudantur : qui ex 
iis secuti non sunt, in desertorum ac proditorum numero 
ducuntur, ^omniumque iis rerum postea fides derogatur. 
^Hospites violare, fas non putant ; qui quaque de causa ad 
eos venerint, ab injuria prohibent, sanctosque habent ; iis 
omnium domus patent, victusque communicatur. 

04. Ac fuit antea tempus, cum Germanos Gaili virtute 
superarent, ultro bella inferrent, propter hominum multitu- 
dinem agrique inopiam ''trans Rhenum colonias mitterent. 
Itaque ea, quae fertilissima sunt, Germaniae loca circum 
Hercyniam silvam (quam *°Eratostheni et quibusdam Graecis 
fama notam esse video, quam illi Orcyniam appellant), 
Volcae Tectosages occupaverunt, atque ibi consederunt. 
Quae gens ad hoc tempus iis sedibus sese continet, "sum- 
mamque habet justitiae et bellicae laudis opinionem : nunc 
quoque '^n eadem inopia, egestate, patientia, qua Germanic 
permanent, eodem victu et cultujsorporis utuntur; "Gallis 
autem Provinciae propinquitas, et transmarinarum rerum 
aotitia, ^^ulta ad copiam atque usus largitur. Paulatim 
assuefacti superari, multisque victi prceliis, ne se quidem 
iv*«i cum illis virtute comparant. 

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*Zb. Hujus Hercyni&e silvae, que supra demonstrata esl, 
iatitudo novem dierum iter 'expedito patet : non enim aliter 
finiri potest, neque mensuras itinerum noverunt. ^Oritut 
ab Helvetiorum et Nemetum et Rauracorum finibus, recta- 
que iluminis Danubii regi6ne pertinet ad fines Daccmun 
«t Anartium : hinc se flectit 'sinistrorsus, diversis ab flu- 
mine regionibus, multarumque gentium fines propter mag- 
nitudinem atfingit : neque quisquam est %ujus Germanis^ 
qui se aut adisse ad initium ejus silvae dicat, cum dierum 
iter sexaginta processerit, aut quo ex loco oriatur, acceperit. 
Multa in ea genera ferarum nasci constat, quse reliquis in 
locis visa non sint : ex quibus, que maxime differant ab 
ceteris et ^memorise prodenda videantur, hsc sunt. 

26. ^Est bos cervi figura, cujus a media fronte inter aures 
unum comu existit, excelsius magisque directum his, qu« 
nobis nota sunt, comibus. Ab ejus summo, ^sicut palm», 
rami quam late difRmduntur. Eadem est fceminae marisque 
natura, eadem forma magnitudoque cornuum. 

27. Sunt item, quse appellantur 'Alces. Haram est con- 
flimilis capreis figura et 'Varietas peliium ; sed magnitudine 
paulo antecedunt,."mutil8Bque sunt comibus, et crura ''sine 
nodis articulisque babent ;' neque quietis causa procumbunt, 
neque, si '^quo afflicts casu conciderkit, erigere sese aut 
subtevare possunt. His sunt arbores pro cubilibus : ad eas 
*^se applicant, atque ita, paulum modo reclinatie, quietem 
capiunt : quarum ex vestigiis cum est animadversum a ve- 
natoribus, quo se recipere consuerint, omnes eo loco aut *^a 
radicibus subruunt, aut accidunt arbores tantum, ut summa 
species ^earum standum relinquatur. Hue cum se consue- 
tudine reclinaverint, *%ifirmas arbores pondere afiligunt, 
atque una ipsae concidunt. 

28. "Tertium est genus eorum, qui Uri appellantur. Hi 
sunt magnitudine *^ulo ihfra elephantos, specie et colore 
et %ura tauri. Magna riA eorum, et magna velocitas * 
Deque homini, neque ferae, quam ctmspexerint, parcunt* 

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Hos studiose foweis captos interficiunt. Hog se laboro 
duraiit 'adolescentes, atque hoc genere venationis exercent * 
et, qui plurimos ex his interfecerunt, relatis in publicum 
coriiibus, 'quae sint testimonio, magnam ferunt laudeni 
*8ed assuescere ad homines, et mansuefieri, ne panruU 
%uidem excepti possunt. ^Amplitudo comuum et figura el 
species multum a nostrorum boum comibue difTert. Hibc 
Btudiose conquisita ab labris argento circumcludunt, atque 
in amplissimis epulis pro pocuiis utuntur. ' 

29. 'Giesar, postquam per Ubios exploratores compent, 
Suevos sese in silvas recepisse, ^inopiam irumenti veritus, 
quod, ut supra demonstravimus, minime omnes Germani 
agriculture student, constituit, non progredi longius : sed, 
Be omnino metum reditus sui barbaris tolleret, atque ut eonrni 
auxilia tardaret, reducto exercitu, partem ultimam pontis, 
quae ripas Ubiorum Coatingebat, in longitudinem pedum 
ducentorum rescindit ; atque in extremo ponte turrim tabu- 
latorum quatuor constituit, prssidiumque cohortium duode- 
cim pontis tuendi causa ponit, magnisque eum locum muni- 
tionibus firmat. ISi loco praesidioque Caium Volcatium 
TuUum adolescentem praefecit : ipse, cum maturescere fru* 
menta inciperent, ad Vellum Ambiorigis profectus (per Ar* 
duennam silvam, quae est totius Galliae maxima, atque ab 
ripis Rheni finibusque Trevirorum ad Nervios pertinet, 
millibusque amplius quingentis in longitu<iinem patet), Lu- 
cium Minucium Basilum cum omni equitatu praemittit, 'si 
quid celeritate itineris atque opportunitate temporis profi- 
cere possit ; monet, ut ignes fieri in castris prohibeat, ne 
qua ejus adventus procul sigxiificatio fiat : sese confestim 
'^ubsequi dicit. 

30. "Basilus, ut imperatum est, facit ; celeriter conlraque 
omnium opinionem confecto idnere, multos in agris inopi- 
nantes deprehendit ; eorum indfcio ad ipsum Ambiorigem 
eontendit, quo in loco cum panels equitibus esse diceMtar 

* ^'Multum cum in omnibus rebus, turn in re militari potest 

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UBBA n. CAP* ZZXII. 1^1 

fomma. Nam aicut magno accidit casu, ut in ipaum incau- 
tmn atqae^etiam unparatum incideret, 'priusque ejus adren* 
tus ab hommibus Tideietur, quam fama ac auncius adventiw 
affexretiir : sic 'magns fuit fortunae, onmi militari instrumenta, 
quod circum se habebat, erepto, rkedis equisque compre- 
hensis, ipsum effugere mortem. Sed 'hoc eo factum est, 
quod, ffidificio circumdato silva (ut sunt fere domicilia Gal* 
k>rum, qui, vitandi sstus causa, plerumque silvarum ac flu* 
minum petunt propinquitates), comites familiaresque ejus 
^angustp in loco paulisper equitum nostrorum vim sustinue- 
runt His pugnantibus, ilium in equum quidam ex suis in* 
tulit : fugientem sihrs texenmt. Sic et ad subeundum pe 
ricttlum, et ad^itandum, multum fortuna valnit. 

31. 'Ambioriz copias suas judicione nonconduxerit, quod 
proelio dimicandum non existimarit, an tempore exclusus et 
repentinp equitum adventu prohibitus, cum reliquum exer- 
citum subsequi crederet, dubium est : 'sed certe, dimissis 
per agros nunciis, sibi quemque consulere jussit : quorum 
pars in Arduennam silvam, pars ^in continentes paludes 
profugit : qui proximi Oceanum faerunt, bi insulis sese oc*- 
cultaverunt, quas aestus efficere consnerunt : multi, ex suis 
finibus egressi, se suaque omnia 'alienissimis crediderunt 
Gativolcus, rex dimidiae partis Eburonum, qui una cum Am- 
biorige consilium inierat, aetate jam confectus, cum laborer 
aut belli aut fiigaB ferre non posset, 'omnibus precibus de- 
testatus Ambiorigem, qui ejus consilii auct<»r fuisset, '^'taxo. 
eujus magna in Gallia Germaniaque copia est, se e^ani- 

32. Segni Condrusique, ex gente et numero Germano- 
rum, qui sunt inter Eborones Trevirosque, legatos ad Coe- 
sarem misenmt, oratum, ne se in kostium numero duceret, 
Uffwe "omnium Germanorum, qui essent citra Rhenum^ 
unam esse causam jadicaret : nihil se de bello cogitavisse/ 
nulla Ambiori^ auxilia misisse. Caesar, ejqdorata re 
'^aestione captiTorum, si qui ad eos Eburones ex i^iga 


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conveidssent, ad se ut reducerentur, imperavit : si ita lecia* 
bent, fines eorum se violaturum negavit. Turn copiis in 
tres partes distributis, impedimenta omnium legionum 'Ad- 
Oatueam contnlit. Id castelli nomen est. Hoc fere est in 
mediis Ebiironum finibus, ubi Titurius atque Aunmculeius 
hiemandi causa consederant. Hunc cum reliquis rebus 
locum probabat, turn, quod superioris anni munitiones in- 
tegrae manebant, ut militum laborem sublevaret. Priesidio 
impedimentis legionem quatuordecimam reliquit, unam ex 
iis tribus, quas proxime conscriptas ex Italia transduxerat. 
Ei legion! castrisque 'Qdintum TuUium Ciceronem pr«- 
ficit, ducentosque equites altribuit. 

33. Partito exercitu, Titum Labienum cum legionibus 
tribus ad Oceanum versus, in eas partes, quae Menapios at- 
tingunt, proficisci jubet : Caium Trebonium cum pari legi* 
(mum numero ad eam regionem, qute Aduatuois adjacet, 
depopulandam mittit : ipse cum reliquis tribus ad flumen 
•Sabim, quod influit in Mosam, extremasque Arduenn» 
partes ire constituit, quo cum paucis equitibus profectum 
Ambiorigem audiebat. Discedens, *post diem septimumi 
sese reversurum, confirmat ; euam ad diem ei legioni, qw 
in prtesidio relinquebatur, frumentum deberi sciebat. La 
bienum Treboniumque bortatur, si reipublicae commodo fa 
cere possint, ad earn diem revertantur ; ut, rursus commu- 
nicato consilio, exploratisque hostium rationious, aliud belli 
initium capere possent. 

34^ Erat, 'ut supra aemonstravimus, manus certa nulla, 
non oppidum, non prsBsidium, quod se armis defenderet; 
sed omnes in partes dispersa multitudo. Ubi cuique aut 
vallis abdita, aut locus silvestris, aut palus impedita, spem 
prsesidii aut salutis aliquam offerebat, coi»ederat. H»c 
loca Mcinitatibus erant nota, ^magnamque res diligentiam 
riMiuirebat, non in summa exercitus tuenda (nullum enim 
poterat universis ab perterritis ac dispersis periculum aeci 
il^re), sed in singulis militibus conserrandw; qu» tamei 

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tx parte res ad salutem exercitus pertinebat. Nam et 
prsdae cupiditas multos longius evocabat, et silv» incertit 
occtdtisque itineribus *confertos adire prohibebant. Si ne* 
gotium confici stirpemque hominmn sceleratorum interfici 
▼cllet, dimittendae plures manus diducendique erant milites : 
si continere ad signa manipulos 'veUet, ut ^nstituta ratio et 
consiictudo exercitus Romania postulabat, locus ipse era! 
prnsidio barbaris, neque ex occulto insidiandi et dispersos 
circomyeniendi singulis deerat andacia. At in ejusmodi 
difficttltatibus, quantum diligentia provideri poterat, provi- 
debatur ; ut potius ^in nocendo aliquid omitteretur, etsi om- 
nium animi ad ulciscendum ardebant, quam cum aliquo 
militum detrimento noceretur. Csesar ad finitimas civitates 
nuncios dimittit, omnes ad se evocat spe prsedae, ad diripi- 
endos Eburones, ut potius in silvis Gallorum vita, quam 
*legionarius miles, periclitetur ; simul ut, magna muititudinc 
circumfusa, *pro tali facinore, stirps ac nomen civitatis 'tol* 
latur. Magnus undique numerus celeriter convenit. 

35. Hsc in omnibus Eburonum partibus gerebantur, 
diesque ^appetebat Septimus, quem ad diem'Cssar ad im* 
pedimenta legionemque reverti constituerat. Hie, quantum 
in bello fortuna possit 'et quantos afferat casus, cognosci 
potuit. Dissipatis ac pertetritis hostibus, ut demonstrayi- 
mus, '*^anus erat nulla, quae parvam modo'causam timoris 
afierret. Trans Rbenum ad Germanos pervenit fama, diripi 
Eburones, atque "ultro omnes ad prsdam evocari. Cogunt 
equitum duo millia Sigambri, qui sunt proximi Rheno, a 
quibus receptos ex fuga Tencktberos atque Usipetes '*supra 
docuimus : transeunt Rbenum navibus ratibiisque, triginta 
milhbus passuum infra eum locum, ubi pons **erat perfectui 
praesidiumque ab Ciesare relictum : primes Eburonum finei 
adeunt, '%iultos ex fuga dispersos excipiunt, magno pecorii 
numera, cujus sunt cupidissimi barbari, potiuntur. Invitati 
praeda, longius procedunt : *^on bos palus, in bello latro 
tnniisque natos, non silvae morantur: quibus in locis sv 

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Caesar, ex eapthis qufleninC; profectilm loBgius reperiunii 
omnemque exercitnm.discessisse cognoscunt. Atque uniui 
ex captivis, *' Quid vos," inquit, " banc miseram ac tenuem 
sectamini praedam, quibus licet jam esse 'fortunatissimis ? 
Tribus bons Aduatucam venire potestis : buc omnes suas 
fortiinas exercitus Romanorum contulit: "praBsidii antum 
est, ut ne mums quidem cingi possit, neque quisquam egredi 
extra munitiones audeat." Oblata spe, Germani, quam 
aacti erant praedam, in occulto relinquunt, ipsi Aduatucam 
contendunt, hisi eodem duce, cujus base indieio ct>gnoverant. 

36. Cicero, qui per omnes superiores dies praeceptis 
Caesaris summa diligentia milites in castris condnuisset, ac 
ne calonem quidem quemquam extra munitionem egredi 
passus esset, septimo die, difiidens *d.e numero dierum 
Caesarem Mem servaturum, quod longius eum progressum 
audiebat, neque ulla de reditu ejus fama afferebatur ; simul 
eorum permotus vocibus, ^qtii illius patientiam pa&ne obses* 
sionem appellabant, si quidem ex castris egredi nonliceret ; 
'nullum ejusmodi casum exp^ctans, quo, novem oppositis 
legionibus maximoque equitatu, dispersis ac paene deletis 
bostibus, in millibus passuum tribus offendi posset ; quinque 
cobortes frumentatum in proximas segetes misit, quas inter 
et castra unus omnino collis intererat. Complures erajit in 
<;astris ex legionibus aegri relicti ; ex quibus 'q^i boc spatio 
dierum convaluerant, circiter trecenti sub vexillo una mittun- 
tur : magna praeterea .aultitudo calonum, magna vis jumen- 
torum, quae in castris "subsederat, facta potestate, sequitur. 

37. Hoc ipso tempore, 'casu Germani equites interreni- 
unt, protinusque eodem illo, quo venerant, cursu '^'ab decu- 
mana porta in castra irrumpere conantur: nee prius'sunt 
fisi, objectis ab ea parte silris, quam castris appropinqua« 
ren' usque eo, ut, "qui sub vallo tendefent ^^ercatores, re- 
cipiendi Aui facultatem non -baberent. Inopinantes nostri 
re noTftperturbantur, ac vix primum impetum coboi^ in sta- 
tione sustinet. Circumfunduntur ex reliquis bostes partibus^*^ 

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MBSR Yu Cap. XXXIX. i:)5 

n queiii UdilBm reperire possent. Mgto 'portas nostri 
tuentur, reliquos aditus locus ipse per se muaitioque defen- 
^t. Totis trepidatur castris, atque alius ex alio causam 
tumultus qusrit ; neque quo signs ferantur, *neque quam in 
partem quisque conveniat, provident. Alius capta jam 
castra pronunciait ; alius, deleto exercitu atque imperatore, 
victores barbaros yenisse contendit: 'plerique novas sibi 
ex loco religiones fingunt, Cottsque ^t Titurii calamitatem, 
qui in eodem occiderint castello, ante oculos ponunt. Tali 
timore omnibus perterritis, confinnatur opinio barbaris, ut 
ex ^captivo audienmt, nullum esse intus presidium. Per- 
rumpere nituntur, seque ipsi adhortantur, ne tantam fortu* 
• nam ex manibus dimittant. 

38. Erat ffiger in praesidio relictus Publius Sextius Bacu- 
lus, 'qui primum pOum ad Caesarem duxerat, cujus menti- 
onem 'superioribus «pro9liis fecimus, ac diem jam quintum 
cibo caruerat. Hie, difisus suse atque omnium saluti, iner- 
mis ex tabemaculo prodit : videt imminere hostes, atque in 
summo esse rem discrimine : capit arma a proximis atque 
in porta consistit. Consequuntur bunc centuriones ejus 
cobortis quae ^in stations erat : paulisper una prcelium sus* 
tinenL ^elinqutt animus Sextium, gravibus acceptis vul« 
neribus : aegre per manus tractus servatur. Hoc spatio in* 
terposito, reliqui sese confirmant tantum, ut in munitionibns 
consistere audeant, speciemque defensorum praebeant. 

39. Interim confecta frumentatione, milites nostri clamo- 
rem exaudiunt ; praecurrunt equites, quanto sit res in peri- 
culo, cognoscunt. Hie vero nulla munitio est, quae perter- 
ritos recipiat : *modo conscripti, atque usus militaris impe 
liti, ad tribunum militum centurionesque ora convertunt: 
quid ab bis praecipiatur, expectant. Nemo est tam fortis 
qidn rei novitate perturbetur. Barbari, signs procul conspi 
cati, oppugnatione dosistunt: redisse prime legiones ere 

' dunt, quas longiUs discessisse ex captivis cognoverant . 
postea, despecta paucitate, ex omnibus partibus impetun 

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40. 'Calones in prozimiim tumuium procumint : hmc 
celeriter dejecU se in signa munipulosque conjiciunt : eo 
magis tiiBidos perteirent milites. Alii, ^cuneo facto ut ce^ 
leriter pemimpant, censent, quoniam tarn propinqua sini 
castra ; et, 'si pars aliqua circumventa ceciderit, at reliquos 
sorvari posse confidunt : alii, ut in jugo consistant, atque 
eundem omnes ferant casum. Hoc veteres non probant 
milites, quos sub yexillo una profectos docuimus. Itaque 
inter se cohortati, duce Gaio Trebonio, equite Romano, qui 
eis erat praepositus, per medios hostes perrumpunt, incol- 
mnesque ad unum omnes in castra perveniunt Hos sub- 
secuti calones equitesque eodem impetu militum virtute ser* 
vantur. At ii, qui in jugo constiterant, ^ullo etiam nunc . 
usu rei militaris percepto, neque in eo, quod probaverant, 
consilio permanere, ut se loco superiore defenderent, neque 
earn, quiun profuisse aliis vim celeritatemque viderant, imi- 
tari potuerunt ; sed, se in castra recipere conati, iniquum in 
locum demiserant. Genturiones, quorum nonnulli, ^ex infe- 
rioribus ordinibus reliquarum legionum, virtutis causa, in 
superiores erant ordines hujus legioms transducti, ne ante 
partam rei militaris laudem amitterent, fortissimo pugnantes 
conciderunt. Militum pars, liorum virtute submotis hosti- 
bus, prffiter spem incolumis in castra pervenit ; pars a bar- 
bans circumventa periit. 

41. Germani, desperata expugnatione castrorum, quod 
nostros jam constitisse in munitionibus videbant, cum ea 
prseda, quam in silvis deposuerant, trans Rhenum sese re« 
ceperunt. Ac tantus fuit etiam post discessum hostium 
terror, ut ea nocte, cum Caius Volusenus missus cum equi- 
tatu ad castra venisset, %dem non faceret, adesse cimi incol- 
umi Caesarem exercitu. Sic omnium animos timer praeoc- 
cupaverat, ut, ^paene alienata mente, deletis omnibus copiis 
eqmtatum tantum se ex fuga recepisse, dicerent, neque, 
mcolumi exercitu, GTermanos castra oppugnaturos fuissa 
Gontenderent. Quem timorem Gaesaris adventus sustulit. 

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hJMRM, TI. CAP. XLIY. 137 

42. Reversus ille, eTentua belli non ignoraiw, 'o 
quod coliortes 'ex statione et prtesidio essent emisss, quai- 
tus, ae minimo quidem casu locum relinqui debui98e, mul- 
turn fortunam in repentino hostium adventu potuisse indica- 
nt ; multo etiam amplius, quod psene ab ipso vallo porUsqae 
castrorum barbaros avertisset* Quarum omnium rerum 
hnaxime admirandum videbatur, quod Germani, qui eo con* 
sijio Rhenum transierant, ^ Ambiorigis fines depopularen 
tur, ad castra Romanorum delati, ^optatissimum Ambiorigi 
beneficium obtulerint. 

43. Caesar, rursus ad vexandos hostes profectus, magno 
coacto numero ex finitimis civitatibus, in omnes partes di- 
mittit. 'Omnes vici atque omnia ledifieia, quae quisque con* 
spexerat, incendebantair : praeda ex omnibus locis agebatur : 
frumenta non solum a tanta multitudine jumentorom atque 
hominum consumebantur, sed etiam' anni tempore atque 
imbribus procubuerant ; ut, si qui etiam in pTaesentia 8% 
occultassent, tamen iis, deducto exercitu, rerum omnium 
inopia pereundum videretur. "Ac saepe in eum locum ven- 
tum est, ta.nto in omnes partes diviso equ\tatu, ut modo 
visum ab se Ambiorigem in fuga captivi, nee plane etisyn 
abLsse ex conspectu contenderent, ut, spe consequendi illata 
atque infinite labore suscepto, qui se siunmam ab Caesare 
gratiam inituros putarent, paene naturam studio vincerent, 
semperque paulum ^ad summam felicitatem defuisse vide- 
retur, atque ille latebris aut saltibus se eriperet et noctu oc- 
cultatus alias regiones partesque peteret, non majore equi* 
timi praesidio, quam quatuor, quibus solis vitam suam com- 
niittere audebat. 

44. Tali modo vastatis regionibus, exercitum Caesar 
Muarum cohortium damno Durocortorum Remorum reducit, 
concilioque in eum locum Galliae indiqto, de conjuratione 
Senonum et Camutum quaestionem habere instituit ; et Ma 
Accone, qui princeps ejus consilii fuerat, graviore sententia 
pronunciata, '°moro majorum supplicium Pumsit Nonnulli 

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judiciom VMiti profogenint ; 'quibus cum aqua atqaa igni 
interdixisset, duas legiones ad fines TreTironim, duas in 
Lingonibua, sex reliqaas in Senonum finibus Agendici in 
hibemis collocavit ; fmmentoque 'exercita proviso, nt insti* 
toKTst, in Italiam ad ccmventus agendo* piofectw eH. 

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Chap. 1. The Gauls concert measures for renewing^ the war. Z, & 
The Camutes massacre a number of Roman citizens at Genalmm. 
4. The command of the confederates given to Veicingetorix. 6. The 
Bituriges apply for aid to the Aedui, and, it being withheld, they join 
the confederates. 6. CsBsar's return to Gaul. 7, 8. The Arvemi, 
who had revolted at the instigation of Vercingetoriz, are overcome. 
9, 10. Veicingetorix besieges Gergovia. Cesar marches against hiuL 
11. Vellannodunum and Genabum taken by Cesar. 12. Vereinge* 
toriz raises the siege of Gergovia, and marches against Caesar, who is 
attacking Noviodonum. Cssar defeats the cavalry of .Vercingetoriz, 
becomes master of Noviodunum, and marches towards Avaxicum. 
13-15. The Bituriges, by the advice of Vercingetoriz, set fire to theii 
towns that they may not furnish subsistence to the Romans. Avaxi- 
cum alone is spared. 16, 17. The Romans before Avaricum snffet 
greatly for want of provisions. 18-31. Vercingetoriz, being accnaed 
of treason, dears himself, and receives great aj^lanse. ^, The 
Gauls at Avaricum defend their walls with great skill and Ivaveiy. 
23. THiB Grallic nuinner of building walls around their towns. 24-2'i'. 
Avaricum, after a resolute defence, is taken, and the garrison and all 
the inhabitants put to the sword. 28. Vercingetoriz consoles his me» 
bf a speech. 29-31. The war eontimied by Vercmgetonz. tS, 18 

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Dissensions among the Aedui. Qaieted by CsBsai. 34, 36. C«f ar 
marches towards GergOTia.. Crosses the Elaver by a feinc. Vercin 
getorix retires before him. 36. Csesar encamps near Gergovia, and 
seizes upon an eminence. 2)7-39. Revolt of the Aeduan forces. 40. 
Quelled by the prudence and diligence of Cssar. 41, 42. Roman 
camp cttacked during Caesar^s absence. Fresh disturbancef among 
die Aedoi. 48-61. Csesar cairies tbree of the enemy's camps before 
Gergovia; but the Romans, pressing the attack too far, are, repulsed 
with loss. 62. Caesar reproves in a speech the rashness of his sol- 
diers. 63-^6. War begun by the Aedui. Cesar crosses the Liger. 
57-62. Labienus, after a successful expedition against the Parisii, 
returns to Cassar with all his forces. 63, 64. The revolt of the Aedui 
followed by that of almost all Gaul. Preparatibn3 for war. Vercin- 
getoriz reappointed commander-in-chief. 66-67. The Gauls attack 
Caesar, but are routed with great slaughter. 68. Vercingetorix re 
treats to Aiesia, whither Caesar pursues him. 69. Description of the 
place. 70. The Gauls again defeated in an engagement between 
the cavalry. 71. VeYcingetorix sends away his cavalry. All Gaul 
summoned to the war. 72-74. Caesar surrounds Aiesia with Imes of 
circumvallation and contravallation. ^6, 76^ The Gallic auxiliaries 
aaseinble from all quarters, and strive to compel Caesar to raise the 
siege. 77, 78. Distress in Ale9ia. Remarkable speech of Critog- 
natus. The Mandubii compelled to leave their own city. 79-67. 
The Gauls withm and without make several attempts upon the RomaL 
lines, but are always repulsed with loss. 88. At length the Romans, 
by a movement of the horse, defeat the Gauls with great slaughter. 
89. Aiesia surrenders, and with it Vercingetorix. 90. The Aedui and 
Arvemi submit. Caesar sends his army into winter quarters. 

1. QriETA Gallia, Cssar, ut constituerat, in Italiam ad 
eonventus agendos proficiscitur. Ibi 'cognoscit de Clodii 
csede: de 'Senatusque consulto certior factus, \it omnes 
Italise juniores conjurarent, dilectum tota provinciA habere 
instituit. Em res in Galliam Transalpinam celeriter perfe 
ruvitur. Addunt ipsi et affingunt rumoribus Galli, quod res 
poscere videbatur, ^retineri urbano motu Caesarem, ^eque 
in tantis dissensionibus ad exercitum venire posse. Hac 
bnpulsi occasione, qui jam ante se Populi Romani imperio 
milijectos dolerent, liberins atque audacius de bello consilid 

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LIBXR Til. CAF. Xil. 141 

mire incipiunt. ladictis inter se principea Gallic conciliis, 
silvestribus ac remotis locis, qaeruntur 'de Acconis morte ; 
himc casum ad ipsos recidere posse demonstrant ; mise- 
rantur communem GaUiae fortimam ; omnibus pollicitatioiu- 
bus ac praemiis Meposcunt, qui belli initium faciant et sui 
capitis pericuio Galliam in libertatem vindicent. ^Ejus in 
primis rationem babendam dicunt, priusquam eonun clan- 
destina consilia efferantur, ut Caesar ab exerchu interclo- 
datur. Id esse facile, quod neque legiones, absente imper- 
atore, ^udeant ex .hibemis egredi ; neque imperator sine 
prsesidio ad legiones pervenire possit : postremo ^ aeie^ 
prsstare interfici, quam non veterem belli gloriam liberta- 
temque, quam a majoribus acceperint, recuperare. 

2, His rebus agitatis, profitentur Gamutes, " se nullum 
periculum communis salutis causa recusare, piincipesque 
ex omnibus bellum facturos pollicentur ; ^et, quoniam ih 
praesentia obsidibus inter se cavere non possint, ne res ef- 
feratur, ut jurejurando ac fide sanciatur, petunt, colktis 
militaribus signis (quo more eorum gravissimae cerimoniae 
continentur), ne, facto initio belli, ab reliquis deserantur." 
Turn, collaudatis Camutibus, date jurejurando ab omnibus 
qui aderant, tempore ejus rei cpnstituto, ab cpncilio disce^ 

3. Ubi ea dies venit, Camutes, Cotuato et Conetoduno 
ducibus, desperatis hominibust Genabum dato signo concur- 
runt, civesque Bomanos, qui negotiandi causa Hbi constite^ 
rant (in his C.aium Fusium Citam, honestum equitem Ro- 
manum, qui rei &umentaria& jussu Caesaris praeerat), inter* 
ficiunt, boqi^ue eorum diripiun^ Celeriter ad omnes Gal- 
lic civitiales fama perfertur : nam, ubi major atque ^illua- 
trior incidit r^, clamore per agros regionesque significant ; 
hunc ^alii deinceps excipiunt et proximis tradunt ; ut .torn 
accidit: nam, quae Genabi oriente sole gesta essent, ante 
primam confectam vigiliam in finibus Arremorum audita 
sunt ; quod spatium est millium circiter ^centum et sexagintiv 

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4. 'Smnli ntione ibi Yercingetorix, Geltilli filiiis, Ar▼e^ 
nuBy BcuimuB potentis adolescens (cujus patfBr principatum 
"Gallis totius obtinuerat, et ob earn causam, quod regoum 
appetebat, ab civitate erat interfectus), convocatis suib cli* 
entibus, facile mcendit. Gognito ejus consilio, ad anna 
coacumtur : ab Gobanitione, patrao suo, reliquisque priit- 
cipibiu, qui banc tentandam fortunam non existimabatit, ex- 
pellitor ex oppido Gergovia : non destitit tamen, atqne in 
agris babet dilectam egentium ac perditorum. Hac coacta 
manu, ^juoscumque adit ex civitate, ad suam sententiam 
p^ucit : bortatUT, ut communis libertatis causa anna cap- 
iant : magnisque coactis copiis, adyersarios suos, a quibus 
paulo ante erat ejectus, expellit ^ex civitate. Rex ab suis 
appeUatur ; dimittit quoquoversus legationes ; obtestatur, ut 
in fide maneant. Geleriter sibi Senones, Parisios, Pictones, 
Gadurcos, Turones, Aulercos, Lemovices, Andes reliquos- 
que omnes, 'qui Oceanum attingimt, adjungit : omnium con- 
sensu ad eum defertur imperium. Qua oblata potestate, 
omnibus his civitatibus obsides imperat, ceitum numennd 
militum ad se celeriter adduci jubet, annonun quantum 
quffique civitas domi, quodque ante tempus 'efficiat, constit- 
uit : in primis equitatui studet Summae diligentise ^sum- 
mam imperii severitatem addit ; magnitudine supplicii du- 
bitantes cogit: nam^ majore commisso delicto, igni atque 
omnibus tonnentis necat: leviofe de causa, auiibus desec- 
tis, ^t singulis effossis oculis, domum remitdt, ut sint rel- 
jquis documento et magnitudine pcense perterreant alios. 

5. His suppliciis celeriter eoacto ex^citu, Lucterium 
*Gadurcum, summs homiiAn audaciae, cum pfiHe cc^iarum 
in Rutenos mittit: ipse in Bituriges prcfficiscitur. Ejus 
adventu Bituriges ad iEduos, quorom erant in fide, legatos 
mittunt subsidium rogatum, quo facilius hostium cc^ifts sus- 
tinere possint. ^dui '°de consilio legatonim, quos Gaesar 
ad exercitmn reliquerat, copias equitatus peditatusque sub- 
•idio Bitorigibus mittunt. "Qui cum ad flumen Ligeriro 

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LIBIA Til. CAP. Till. L4d 

>eiiiB8eiit, quod Bitiffiges ab .fidnis dmdit, paucos diM ibi 
morati, neqae flumen transire ausi, domum reTerUmtor, lei- 
gatisque nostris renunciant, se Biturigum perfidiam veritoo 
revenisse, quibus id consilii fmsse cognoYerint, ut, si flumatt 
traasissent, una ex paite 'ipsi, altera Arvemi se circumsis- 
terent. 'Id eane de causa, quam legatis pronuncianmt, an 
perfidia adducti fecerint, ^^uod niM nobis constat, non vide- 
tur pro certo esse ponendum. Bituriges eorum discessu 
statim se cum Anremis conjungunt. 

6. ^His rebus in Italiam Csesari nunciatis, cum jam ille 
*axbanas res virtute Gneii Pompeii commodiorem in statum 
perFenisse intelligeret, in Transalpinam Galliam profectus 
est. Eo cum yenisset, magna difficultate afficiebatur, qua 
ratione ad exercitum penrenire posset. Nam, si legionea 
in Provinciam arcesseret, se absente in itinere proelio dimi- 
caturas intelligebat : si ipse ad exercitum contenderet, ne 
iis quidem, 'qui eo tempore pacati yiderentur, suam salittem 
recte committi videbat. 

7. Interim Lucterius Cadurcus, in Rutenos missus, eam 
civitatem Arvemis conciliat. Progressus in Nitiobriges el 
Gabalos, ab utrisque obsides accipit, et, magna coacta manu, 
in Provinciam, Narbonem versus, eruptionem facere con- 
tendit Qua re nunciata, 'Caesar omnibu9consiliis antever- 
tendum existimavit, ut Narbonem proficisceretur. Eo cum 
renisset, timentes ccmfirmat, prssidia in 'Rutenis proving 
cialibus, Volcis Arecomicis, Tolosatibus, circumque Nar- 
bonem, quae loca erant bostibus finitima, constituit : partem 
copiarum ex Provincia supplementumque, quod ex Italia 
adduxerat, *in Helvios, qui fines Arvemorum contingunt, 
convenire jubet. 

^ 8. His rebus comparatis, '^epresso jam Lucterio et re- 
moto, quod intrare intra pnesidia periculosum putabat, in 
H^vios inroficiseitur : etsi mona Oevenna, qui Arvemos ab 
Hebriis discludit, "durisdmo tempore anni, altissimanive iter 
tmpediebat : tamen discussa nive sex in altitudinem pedum 

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fttque ita ^iis palafactis, siunmo militum labore ad tines Ax* 
vemorum perrenlt. Quibus oppressis inopinantibus, quod 
86 Cevexma, ut moro, munitos oxistimabant, ac ne 'siitgu* 
iari quidem unquam homini eo tempore anni semitae patue- 
rant, equitibus imperat, ut, quam latissime possint, vagentur 
et quam maximum hostibus terrorem iaferant. Celeriter 
haBcfama ac nunciis ad Vercingetorigem perferuntur : quern 
perterriti omnes Arremi circumsistuiit, atque obsecrant, ut 
Buis fortunis consulat, ueu s'e ab hostibus diripi patiatur ; 
prsesertim cum videat, omne ad se bellum translatum. 
Quorum ille precibus permotus, castra ex Biturigibus movet 
in Airernos versus. 

9. At Cssar, biditum in iis locis moratus, 'quod hiecde 
Vercingetorige usu ventura opinione praeceperat, ^er caur 
sam supplementi equitatusque cogendi ab exercitu discedit ; 
Brutum adolescentem iis copiis prseficit ; hunc monet, ut in 
omnes partes equites quam latissime pervagentur : daturum 
se operam, ne longius triduo ab castris absit. His consti* 
tutis rebus, suis inopinantibus, quam mau;nis potest itineri- 
bus, Viennam pervenit. Ibi nactus ^ecentem equitatum« 
quem multis ante diebus eo proemiserat, neque diumo neque 
noctumo itinere intermisso, per fines ^duorum in Lingones 
contendit, ubi duas iegiones hiemabant, ut, si quid etiam de 
sua salute ab ^duis iniretur consilii, celeritate prscurreret 
Eo cum pervenisset, ad reliquas Iegiones mittit, priusqua 
omnes in unum loQum cogit, quam de ejus adventu Anremis 
nunciari posset. . Hac re* cognita, Vercingetorij^ rursus in 
Bituriges exercitum reducit, atque inde profectus Gergo- 
mm, Boiorum oppidum, quos ibi Helyetico proelio victor 
Caesar coUocaverat ^iBduisque attribuerat, ^oppugnare in* 
stituit. / 

10. Magnam hmc res Caesari difficultatem ^ad consilium 
capiendum afferebat: si reliquam partem biemis uno in 
loco Iegiones contineret, ne, ^stipendariis ^duorum expug^ 
aatis« cuncta Gallia deiiceretj quod nullum i^nicis in hi 

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LIBBA Til. CAP. XU 145 

pOMidiuin vider^t positiim esse : m loaturius ex hibernis 
educeret, 'ne ab re frumontaria, dims subvectionibus, labo* 
raret. Prestare visum ^st tamen, omnes difficultates per- 
peti, 'quam, tanta contumelia accepta, omnium suorum 
voluatates alienare. Itaque cohortatus ^duos Me suj^r^ 
tando commeatu, prwmittit ad Boios, qui de suo adventu 
doceant, hortenturque, ut in fide maneant atque hostiom 
impetum magno animo sustineant. Duabus Agendici legi* 
onibus atque impedimentis totius exercitus relictis, ad Boios 

11. ^Altero die cum ad oppidum Senonum Vellaunodu* 
num venisset, ne quem post se hostem relinqueret, quo ex* 
peditiore re frumentaxia uteretur, oppugnare instituit, idque' 
biduo. circmnTallaTit : tertio die missis ex oppido legatis 
de deiutione, ^arma conferri, jumenta produci, sexcentos 
obsides dari jubet. £a qui conficeret, Caium Trebonium 
legatum relinquit : Hpse, ut quam primum iter faceret Ge- 
nabum Camutum, proficiscitur, qui, tum primum allato nun 
cio de oppugnattone Vellaunoduni, ^cum longius eam rem 
ductum iri existimarent, praesidium Genabi tuendi causa, 
quod eo mitterent, comparabant. Hue biduo pervenit ; cas- 
tris ant^ oppidum positis, diei tempore exclusus, in posterum 
oppugnationem difif ert, qusque ad eam rem usui sint, milit- 
ibus imperat : ^et, quod oppidum Genabum pons fluminis 
Ligeris continebat, veritus, ne noctu ex oppido profugerent, 
duas legiones in armis 'excubaie jubet. Genabenses, paulo 
ante mediam noctem silentio ex- oppido egressi, fiumen 
transire coeperunt. Qua re per exjiloratores nunciata, 
C»sar legiones, quas expeditas esse jusserat, portis in* 
censis, tntromittit, atque oppido potitur, perpaucis ex bos« 
tium numero desideratis, quin cuncti vivi caperentur, quod 
pontis atque itinerum angustiae multitudini fugam interclu- 
serant Oppidum diripit atque incendit, praedam militibus 
donat, exercitum-Ugerim transducit atque in BHurignra 
fines pervenit 

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12. Vercingetariz, ubi de Cssaris adveatu cognoYit, 'op* 
pugnatione destitit atque obyiam Csesari proficiscitur. 'Ille 
oppidum Noviodunum oppugnare instituerat. Qao ex. op* 
pido cum legati ad eum yenissent, oratum, ut sibi ignoscoret 
•lueque vits consuleret ; ut celeritate reliquas res confice 
ret, qua pleraque erat consecutus, anna 'confeiri, equos pro- 
duct, obsides dari jubet. Parte jam obsidum transdicet, 
Vum reliqua administrarentur, centurionibus et paucis milit* 
ibus intromissis, qui arma jumentaque conquirerent, equi* 
tatus hostium procu. visus est, qui agmen Vercingbtorigis 
antecesserat. Quem simulatque oppidani conspexerunt, 
atque in spem aux&ii venerunt; clamore sublato arma 
capere, portas claudere, murum complere c<Bperunt. Cen- 
turiones in oppido cum 'ex significatione Gallonm} novi 
aliquid ab his iniri consilii intellexissent, gladiis destrictis 
portas occupaverunt, suosque omnes incolumes receperunt. 

13. Caesar ex castris.equitatum educi jubet, proeliumque 
equestre ^committit : laborantibus jam suis Germanos equi- 
tes circiter quadringentos submittit, quos ab initio secum 
habere instituerat. Eorum impetum Galli snstinere non 
potuerunt, atque in fugam conjecti, multis amissis, se ad 
agmen receperunt : quibus profligatis, rursus oppidani per- 
territi comprehensos eos, quorum opera plebem concitatam 
existimabant, ad Csesarem perduxerunt, seseque ei dedide- 
runt. Quibus rebus confectis, Caesar ad oppidum Ayari- 
cum, quod erat maximum munitissimumque in finibus Bita« 
rigum atque agri fertilissima regione, prof(Sctus est ; quod, 
eo oppido recepto, civitatem Biturigum se in potestatem 
redacturum confidebat. 

14. Vercingetorix, tot continuis incommodis Vellauno* 
duni, Genabi, Novioduni a^ceptis, suos ad concilium con* 
▼ocat Docet, " longe alia ratione esse bellum gerendum, 
atque antea sit gestum : omnibus modis huic rei studendum, 
at pabulatione et commeatu Romani prohibeantur : id esse 
facile, quod equitatu ipsi abundent, et. ouod ^axmi tompore 

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mbleyentur : pabulum seoari ii<»i posse: necessario dis 
persos hostes ex ssdificiis petere : hos omnes quoddie ab 
equitibus deleri posse. Pneterea salutis causa rei famtli* 
aiis commoda negligenda; vicos atque ledificia inceudi 
oportere 'hoc spado, a Boia quoquo versus, quo pabuland 
causa adire posse videaatnr. Hanun ipsis rerum eopiam 
suppetere, quod, quorum in fimbus bellum geratur, eorum 
opibus sublidYentur : Romanos aut inopiam ndh laturos, aul 
magoo cumpericnlo longius ab castris progressuros : "neque 
interesse, ipsosne interficiant in^edimentisne exuant, quib- 
us amissis bellum geri non possit. Praeterea oppida in- 

« cendi oportere, qu® non mumtione et loci natura ab omni 
sint periculo tuta ; 'neu suis sint ad detractandam militiam 
receptacula, neu ^Romauis pioposita ad eopiam commeatos 
pr«damque tollendam. Hec si gravia aut acerba videantur, 
multo ilia gravius aestimare debere, liberos, conjuges in 
servitutem abstraM, ipsos interfici ; ^qu» sit necesse acCid* 
ere victis." 

15. Omnium consensu hac sententia probata, uno die 
ampliu3 vigmti urbes Biturigmn incenduntur. Hoc idem 
fit in reliquis civitatibus. In omnibus partibus incendia 
conspiciuntur ; quie etsi magno cum dolore omnes ferebant, 
tamen hoc sibi solatii ^roponebant, explorata victoria, ce- 

^eriter amissa recup^aturos. Deliberatur de Avarico in 
communi concilio, incendi placeret, an defendL Procum' 
bunt -omnibus Grallis ad pedes Bituriges, '< ne pulcherripiam 
prope todus Gallin urbem, quae et prsesidio et omamento 
sit civitad ; suis manibus succendere cogerentur ; facile se 
loci natura defepsuros" dicunt, " quod, prope ex omnibus 
pardbus 'fiumin^ et palude circumdata, unum habeat et 
perangustum aditum." Datur petentibus Tenia, dissuadente 
primo Vercingetorige, post concedente et precibus ipsoxum 
et misericordia vulgi. Defensores oppido idonei deliguntur. 
10. y ercingetoiix minoribus Gsesarem itin^bus subseq- 
nitur, et Vf um castris deHgit, paludibus sOvicque munitmni 

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ab AtbiIoo longe millia passuum sexdecim. Ibi 'per certos 
exploratores in singula diei tempora, qu® ad ATaricimi 
agerentuT, cpgnoscebat, et, quid fieri vellety, imperabat : 
onmea nostras pabulationes frunientationesque observa* 
bat, dispersosque, cum longius necessario procederent, 
adoriebatur, magnoque incommodo afficiebat i etsi, quantum 
ratione provideri poterat, ab nostiis occurrebatur, ut 'incer- 
tis temporibus dirersisque itineribus iretur. 

17. Gastris ad eam partem oppidi positis, 'Caesar, que 
intermissa a flumine et palude aditum, ut supra diximus, 
angustum habebat, aggerem apparare, vineas agere, turres 
duas constitaere ccepit : nam circumyallare loci natura pro- 
hibebat. De re frumentaria Boios atque iESduos adbortari 
non destitit : quorum ^alteri, quod nullo studio agebant, non 
miltum adjuvabant; alteri non magnis facultatibus, quod 
civitas ^rat exigua et infirma, celeriter, quod habuerunt, 
cdnsumserunt. Smnma difficultate rei frumentariae ^aHecto 
exercitu, tenuitate Boiorum, indiligentia ^duorum, inccc- 
diis sdificiorum, usque eo, ut c9mplures dies milites fim- 
mento caruerint, ^et, pecore e longinquioribus vicis adacto, 
extremam famem sustentarent, nulla tamen tox est ab iis 
audita, Populi Romani majestate et superioribus victoriis 
indigna. Quin etiam ^Gssar cum in opere singulas legio- 
jaes appellaret, et, si acerbius inopjpn feirent, se dimissi# 
ram oppugnationem diceret ; Wiversi ab eo, " ne id face- 
ret^ petebant: "sic se complures annos illo imperante 
meruisse, ut nullam ignominiam acciperent, nunquam in- 
fecta re discederent : hoc se ignominiae laturos loco, si in- 
ceptam oppugnationem reliquissent : priestare, omnes pw- 
ferre acerbitates, *quam non civibus Romanis, qui '^Genabi 
perfidia Gallorum interissent, parentarent" Haec eadem 
centurionibus tribunisque militum mandabani, ut per eos ad 
Caesarem deferrentur. 

18. Gum jam muro turres appropinquassent, ex captiris 
Caesar cognovit, Vercingetorigem consumto pabulo castra 

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■iOTi086 propius ATaiicum, atque ipaum com equitata exp^ 
ditisque, qui inter equites proeliari consuessent, insidiarum 
causa eo profectom, quo nostros postero die pabulatum ven« 
euros arbitraretur. Quibus rebus cognitis, media nocte 
sil^atio profectus, ad bostium castra mane pervenit. lib, 
celeriter per exploratores adventu Caesaris cognito, carros 
impedimentaque sua *in arctiores siliras abdiderunt, copias 
omnes in loco edito atque aperto instruxerunt. Qua re 
mmciata, Caesar celeriter sarcinas conferri, anoa expedin 

19. Collis erat leniter ab infimo accUvis: bunc ex om- 
nibus fere partibus palus difficilis atque impedita cingebat, 
Qon latior pedibus quinquaginta. IJoc se colle, interrupti» 
pontibus, Galli fiducia loci continebanty ^generatimque dis- 
tributi in civitates, 'omnia Tada ac saltus ejus paludis certis 
custodiis obtinebant, sic animo parati,- ut, si earn paludem 
Romani perrumpere conarentur^ %8esitantes premerent ex 
loco superiore : *ut, qui propinquitatem loci vidoret, paratos 
prope Aequo Marte ad dimicandum existimaret ; qui iniqui- 
tatem conditionis perspiceret, inani simulatione sese osten- 
tare cognosceret Indignantes milites Ccesar, quod con- 
spectum suum bostes ferre possent, tantulo spatio interjecto, 
et signum proelii exposcentes, edocet, ^" quanto detrimento 
et quot virorum fortium morte necesse sit constare victb 
nam } quos cum* sic animo paratos videat, ut nullum pro sua 
laude periculum recusent, summae se iniquitatis condemnari 
debere, nisi eorum vitam sua salute babeat cahorem." Sic 
milites consolatus, eodem die reducit in castra ; reliquaque, 
qniB ad oppugnationem oppidi pertinebant, administrare in 

20. Yercingetorix, cum ad suos* redisset, proditionis in 
simulatus, ^quod castra propius Romanes movisset, quod 
cum omni equitatu discessisset, quod sine imperio tantas 
copias reliquisset, quod ejus discessu Romani tanta oppor 
looitato et celeritate venissent ; non hsBC omnia fortuito au 

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sine consilio accidere potuisse ; regnum ilium Gallue maUe 
Ossaris concessu, quam ipsorum habere beneficio: tali 
modo accusatos ad heec respondit : " Quod castra movisset, 
factum inopia pabuli, etiam ipsis hortantibus : quod propius 
Romanos accessisset, persuasum loci opportunitate, qui se 
ipsum 'mnnitione defenderet : equitum vero operam neque 
in loco palustri desiderari debuisse, et iUic fuisse utilem, 
quo sint profecti : summam imperii se consulto nulli disce- 
dentem tradidisse, ne is multitudinis studio ad dimicandum 
impelletetur ; 'cui rei propter animi moUitiem studere omnes 
videret^ quod diutius laborem ferre non possent. "Romani 
si casu intenrenerint, fortunse; si alicujus indicio vocati, 
huic habendam gradam, quod et paucitatem ^eorum ex loco 
superiore cognoscere, et virtutem despicere, potuerint, qui^ 
dimicare non ausi, turpiter se in castra receperint. Im- 
perium se ab Caesare per proditionem nullum desiderare, 
quod habere victoria posset, qu» jam esset sib^atque omni- 
bus Gallis explorata : ^quin etiam ipsis remittere, si sibi 
magis honorem tribuere, quam' ab se salutem accipere ri- 
deantur. Haec ut intelligatis,'' inquit, " a me sincere pro- 
nunciari, audite Romanos milites." Producit 'servos, quos 
in pabulatione paucis ante diebus exceperat et fame vincu- 
lisque excruciaverat. Hi, jam ante edocti, quse interrogati 
pronunciarent, i^ milites se esse legionarios'' dicunt : " fame 
et inopia adductos clam ex castris exisse, si quid frumenti 
aut pecoris in agris reperire possent : simili omnem exer- 
citum inopia premi, nee jam vires sufficere cuiquam, nee 
ferre 'operis laborem posse : itaque statuisse imperatorem, 
si nihil in oppugnatione oppidi profecisset, triduo exercitum 
doducere. Haec," inquit, "a me,",Vercingetorix, "bene* 
ficia habetis, quem proditionis insimulatis, cujus opera sine 
▼estro sanguine tantum exercitum victorem fame paene con- 
sumtum videtis ; quem, turpiter se ex hac fuga recipien- 
tem, rn qua civitas suis &nibns recipiat, a me provisum est/ 
21 Oonclamat omnia multitudo. et suo more ^urmis con 

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crepat ; quod facere in eo consuerunty eujus orationem ap 
probant; summum esse Vercingetoiigem ducem, nee de 
ejus fide dubitandum ; nee 'majore ratiqne bellum adminis- 
trari posse. Statuunt, ut decern milUa bominum delecta ex 
omnibus copiis in oppidum submittantur, nee solis Bitnrigi- 
bus communem salutem comnuttendam censent; 'quod 
penes eos, si id oppidum reMnuissent, simmiam victorin 
constare intelligebant. 

22. 'Singulari.militum nostrorum yirtuti consilia cujusque 
modi Gallorum occurrebant, ^it est summse genus isolertias 
atque ad omnia imitanda atque efficienda, quae ab quoque 
tradantur, aptissimum. Nam et laqueis falces avertebant, 
'quas cum destinayerant, tormentis introrsus reducebant;, 
et ^aggerem cuniculis subtrahebant, eo scientius, qu&fL apud 
eos ^agnae sunt ferrariae, atque omne genus cuniculorum 
notum atque usitatum est. *Totum autem murum ex omni 
parte turribus contabulaverant, atque has "coriis intexerant. 
Tum crebris diumis noctumisque eruptionibus aut "aggeri 
ignenrinferebant, aut milites occupatos in opere adorieban- 
tur ; ^'et nostrarum turrium altitudinem, quantum has ''quo- 
tidianus agger expresserat, commissis suarum turrium malis, 
adaequabant; et ^^apertos cuniculos praeusta et praeacuta 
materia et pice fcrvefacta et maximi ponderis saxis mora- 
bantur, mcenibusque appropinquare prohibebant. 

23. Muris autenk omnibus Gallicis haec fere forma^st. 
**Trabes directae, perpetuae in longitbdinem, '"paribus inter- 
vallis distantes inter se binos peded, in solo collocantur ; 
"hae revinciuntur introrsus et multo aggere vestiuntur. £a 
autem, quas diximus, '^ntervalla grandibus in fronte saxis 
efiTarciuntur. His coUocatis et coagmentatis alius insuper 
ordo adjicitjir, ut "idem illud intervallum servetur, neque 
inter se contingant trabes, ''^sed, paribus intermissls spatiis, 
singula; singulis saxis interjectis, arete contineantur. Sic 
deinceps omne opus contexitur, dum justa muri altitudo 
expleatur. ''Hoc cum in specrem varietatemque opus de 

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fonne non est, altemis trabibus ao saxis, quae rectis llneit 
6U0S ordines servant ; turn ad utflitatem et defensioneiil ur* 
bium summam babet opportimitatem ; 'quod et ab incendio 
apis et ab ariete materia defendit, quae, "perpetuis trabibus 
pedes quadragenos plerumque introrsus revincta, neque per- 
rumpi, neque distrahi potest. 

24. lis tot rebus impedita oppugnatione, milites, cum toto 
tempore luto, frigore, et assiduis imbribus tardarentur, tamen 
continenti labore omnia bsec superaverunt, et diebus viginti 
quinque aggerem, latum pedes trecentos et triginta, altum 
pedes octoginta, exstruxerunt. Cum is murum bostium 
paene contingeret, et Csesar ad opus consuetudine excubaret 
militesque cobortaretur, ne quod omnino tempus ab opere 
mtermitteretur : paulo ante tertiam vigiliam est animadver- 
sum, fumare aggerem, quem cuniculo hostes succenderant : 
eodemque tempore tOto muro clamore sublato, duabus portis 
ab utroque latere turrium eruptio fiebat. Alii faces atque 
aridam materiem de muro in aggerem eminus jaciebant^ 
•picem reliquasque res, quibus ignis excitari potest, funde- 
bant, *ut, quo primum occurreretur, aut ciii rei ferretur aux 
ilium, vix ratio iniri posset. Tamen, quod ^nstituto C»- 
saris duee semper legiones pro castris excubabant, plures- 
que partitis temporibus erant in opere, celeriter factum est, 
ut alii eruptionibus resisterent, alii *turres reducerent, ag- 
geremque interscinderent. onmis vero ex castris multitude 
ad restinguendum concurreret. 

25. Cum in omnibus locis, consumta jam reliqua parte 
noctis, pugnaretur, semperque bostibus spes victoriae redin- 
tegraretur; eo magis, ^quod deustos pluteos turrium vide* 
bant, Hiec facile adire apertos ad auxiliandum animum ad- 
vertebant, semperque ipsi recentes defessis succederent, 
omnemque Gallise salutem in illo vestigio temporis pOsitam 
aibitrarentur : accidit, inspectantibus nobis, quod, 'dig- 
num memoria visum, prsBtermittendum non existimavimus. 
Quidani ante portam oppidi Gallus, qui *°per manus tfevi ac 

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picas transditas glebas in ignem e regione turns projiciebst, ^ 
scoTpione ab latere dextro traosjectus exaoimatusque con- 
cidit. Hunc ex proximis unus jacentem 'transgressusi 
eodcm illo mimere fimgebatur : eadem ratione ictu scorpi- 
onis exanimato altero, successit tertius et tertio quartus; 
nee prius iUe est a 'propngnatoribus vacuus relictus locus, 
quam, ^estincto aggere atque omni parte submotis hostibus, 
finis est pugnandi factus. 

26. Omnia experti Galli, quod res nulla successerat, 
postero die consilium ceperunt ex oppido ^rofugere, bor- 
tante et jubente Vercingetorige. Id, silentio noctis conad, 
non magna jactura suorum sese efiecturos sperabant, prop- 
terea quod neque longe ab oppido castra Yercingetoiigis 
aberant, et palus perpetua, quae intercedebat, Romanes ad 
insequendum tardabat. Jamque hoc facere noctu appara* 
bant, cum matres familiae repente in pvblicum procurrerunt 
flentesque, projectae ad pedes suorum, omnibus precibus 
petierunt, ne se et communes liberos hostibus ad supplicium 
dederent, quod ad capiendam fiigam Naturae et virium infir- 
mitas impediret. Ubi eos in sententia perstare viderunt, 
quod plerumque in summo periculo timor "misericordiam 
Qon recipit, conclamare et significare de fuga Romania 
cceperunt. Quo timore perterriti Galli, ne ab equitatu Ro« 
manorum viae praeoccuparentur, consilio destiterunt. 

27. Postero die Caesar, promota turri, ^directisque operi* 
bus, quae facere instituerat, magno coorto imbri, Hion inuti* 
lem banc ad capiendum consilium tempestatem arbitnUuSy 
quod paulo incautius custodias in muro dispositas videbal, 
suos quoque languidius in opere versari jussit, et, quid fieri 
rellet, ostendit. Legiones 'intra vineas in occulto '^expe- 
Jitas cobortatur, ut aliquando pro tantis laboribus fructum 
nctoriae perciperent : bis, qui primi murum ascendissent, 
"praemia proposuit, militibusque signum dedit. Illi subito 
ex omnibus partibus evolaverunt, murumque celeriter com 

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28. Hostes, re nova pertemti, muro turribuBque dejecti, 
m foro ac locis pat^ntioribus cuneatim constitenint, hoc 
animo, ut, si qua ex parte 'obviam yeniretur, 'acie instructa 
depugnarent. CIbi neminem in sdquuin locum sese demit- 
tere, sed toto undique muro circumfundi viderunt, reriti, ne 
omnino spes fugae tolleretur, abjectis armis, ultimas oppidi 
partes 'continenti impetu petiverunt : parsqite ibi, ^cum an- 
gusto portarum exitu se ipsi premerent, a militibus ; pars, 
jam egressa portis» ab equitibus est interfecta : nee fidt 
quisquam, qui praedffi studeret Sic et 'Genabensi caede et 
labore operis incitati, non state confectis, non mulieribus, 
non infantibus pepercerunt. Denique ex omni eo numero, 
qui fuit circiter qaadraginta millium, vix octingenti, qui 
primo clamore audito se ex oppido ejecerant, incolumes ad 
Vercingetorigem pervenerunt. Quos ille, multa jam nocte, 
silentio ex fuga excepit (yeritus, ne qua in castris ^ex eorum 
concursu et misericordia vulgi seditio oriretur), ut, procul 
in via dispositis familiaribus suis principibusque civitatum, 
Misparandos deducendosque ad suos curaret, ^quae cuique 
civitati pars castrorum ab initio 'obvenerat. 

29. Postero die concilio convocato consolatus coborta* 
tusque est, '* ne se admodum animo demitterent, neve per- 
torbarentur incommodo : non virtute, neque in acie vicisse 
Romanes, sed *artificio quodam et scientia oppugnationis, 
cujus rei fuerint ipsi imperiti : errare, si qui in bello omnes 
(bocundos rerum proventus expectent: sibi nunquam pla- 
cuisse, Avaricum defendi, cujus rei testes ipsos haberet ; 
sed factum imprudentia Biturigum, et *°nimia oboequentia 
reliquorum, uti hoc incommodum acciperetur : id tamen se 
celeriter majoribus commodis sanaturum. Nam, quae ab 
reliquis Gallis ciyitates dissentirent, has sua diligentia ad- 
juncturum, atque unum consilium totius Galliae efTecturum, 
cujus "consensu ne orbis quidem terrarum possit obsistere : 
idque se prope jam efTectum habere. Interea aequum esse; 
lb iis communis salutis causa impetrari, ^t castra munire 


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fiastitaereat, quo facUiua repentinos hostium impetus susti* 
mere possent." 

30. Fuit h»c oraiio non ingrata Gallis, maxime, quod 
ipse animo non defeceiat, tanto accepto in|ominodo, nequ« 
ue in occultuiu abdiderat ei conspectum multiludinis fugera^ : 
'plusque auimo providere et praesentire existimabatur, quod, 
ro mtogra, primo incendendum Avaricum, post desereadum 
ceusuerat. Itaque, ut reliquorum imperatorum res adrersn 
ftuctoritatem miuuunt, sic hujus e:^: contrario dignitas, iur 
coimnodo accepto, in dies augebatur : simul in spem. renie^ 
bant, ejus affinnatione, de reliquis adjungendis ciritatibusy 
primumque eo tempore Galli castra munire instituerunt, el 
sic sunt animo constemati, homines ^nsueti laboris, ut 
omnia, quae imperarentur, sibi patienda et perferenda exis- 

31. Nee minus, quam est poUicitus, Yercingetorix animo 
iaborabat, ut reUquas eivitates adjungeret, atque earum 
principes donis poUicitationibusque alliciebat. Huic rei 
idoneos homines deligebat,. quorum quisque. aut oratione 
Aibdola aut amicitia facilMme eapi posset. 'Qui Ararico 
expugnato refugerant, armandos yestiendosq^e curat. Sim- 
ul Bt deminutae copiae. redintegrarentur, imperat ^certum nu- 
merum militum ciritatibus, quem, et quam ante diem in 
castra adduci velit ; sagittariosque omnes, quorum erat per- 
magnus in Gallia numerus, conquiri et ad se mitti jubet. 
His rebus celeriter id, quod Ararici deperierat, expletur. 
Interim ^Teutomanis, OHoviconis filius, rex Nitiobrigun^ 
cujus pater ab Senatu nostro amicus erat appeHatus, cum 
magno equitum suorum numero, et quos ex Aguitania con- 
duxerat, ad eum pervenit. 

32. Ca&sar, ^Ararici complures dies commoratus, suni- 
mamque ibi copiam frumenti et reliqui commeatus nactus, 
exercitum ex labore atque inopia refecit. Jam prope 

bieme confecta, eum ipso anni tempore ad ge^isndum bel- 
lum vocaretur et ad hostem proficiaci constituisset, hv^p 

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[ ex paludibus silvisqae elicere, sire obsidione premere 
pomet ; legad ad eum principes iBduarum veniunt) oratum, 
** ut maxime necessario tempore civitati subyeni^t : summo 
esse in periculo rem ; quod, 'cum singuli magistratus antiqui* ^ 
ttts creari atque regiam potestatem amium obtinere consues- 
sent, Muo magistratum gerant, et se uterque eorum legibus 
creatum esse dicat. Horum esse alterum Convictolitanem, 
florentem et illustrem adolescentem ; alterum Cotum, anti- 
quissima familia natmn, atque ipsum bominem siunmae po- 
tentiae et magnse cognationis ; cujus frater Yaletiacus prox- 
imo anno eundem magistratum gesserit : civitatem omnem 
esse in armis, divisum senatum, divisum populum; 'suas 
cujusque eorum clientelas. Quod si diutius alatur contro- 
versia, fore, uti pars cum parte ciritatis coofligat ; id ne ac* 
cidat, positum in ejus diligentia atque auctoritate." 

33. Caesar, etsi a bello atque boste discedere Metrimen- 
tosum esse existimabat, tamen non ignorans, quanta ex dis- 
sensionibus incommoda oriri consuessent, ne tanta et tarn 
conjuncta Populo Romano civitas, quam ipse semper alu- 
isset, cnnibusque rebus omasset, ad vim atque ad arma 
descenderet, atque ^ea pars, quffi muius sibi confideret, aux- 
ilia a Vercingetorige arcesseret, huic rei prsevertendum ex- 
istimavit ; et quod legibus ^duorum bis, qui summum 
magistratum obtinerent, excedere ex finibus non liceret, ^e 
quid de jure aut de legibus eorum deminuisse yideretur, 
ipse in iEduos proficisci statuit, senatumque omnem, et 
quos inter controversia esset, ad se Decetiam evocaviu 
Cum prope omnis civitas eo convenisset, Mocereturque, 
paucis clam convocatis, alio loco, alio te.nnpore, atque opor- 
tuerit, fratrem a fratre ^enunciatum, cum leges, duo ex una 
familia, vivo utroque, non solum magistratus creari vetarent, 
sed etiam in senatu esse probiberent: Cotum imperium 
deponere coegit ; Convictolitanem, 'qui per sacerdotes more 
ciaritatis, intermissis magistratibus, esset creatus, potest^toni 
obtinere jussit. 

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34. Hoc decreto interposito, cohortatus ^duos, ut c<mi- 
fontroversiarum ac dissensionum obliyiscerentur, atque, 
omDibus omissis his rebus, huic bello servirent, eaque, qua 
mf'ruissent, praemia ab se, devicta Gallia, expecUf ent, equi- 
ntumque omnem et peditum millia decern sibi celeritcr 
mitterent, 'quse in praesidiis rei frumentariae causa dispone- 
ret, exercitum in duas partes divisit; quatuor legiones in 
Senones Parisiosque Labieno ducendas dedit ; sex ipse in 
A^rvemos, ad oppidum Gergoviam secundum flumen Elaver, 
duxit : equitatus f>artem 'illi attribuit, partem sibi reliquit. 
Qua re cognit? Vercingetorix, omnibus intemiptis ejus flu 
minis pontibuh, *ab altera Elaveris parte iter facere ccepit 

35. ^Cum uterque utriqut? esset exercitus in conspectu, 
fereque e regione castris castra poneret, dispositis explora- 
toribus, necubi eflfecto ponte Romani copias transdncerent 
erat in magnis Caesari difHcultatibus res, ne majorem assta 
lis partem flumine impediretur ; ^quod non fere ante autum- 
num Elaver vado transiri solet. Itaque, ne id accideret, 
silvestri loco castris positis, ®e regione unius eorum pontium, 
quos Vercingetorix rescindendos curaverat, postero^ie cum 
du^us legionibus in occulto restitit ; reliquas copias cum 
omnibus impedimentis, ut consueverat, misit, 'captis quibus* 
dam cohortibus," uti numerus legionum constare videretur. 
His, quam longissime possent, progredi jussis, cum jam ex 
diei tempore conjecturam caperet in castra perventum, 
'iisdem sublicis, quarum pars inferior Integra remanebat, 
pontem reficere coepit. Celeriter effecto opere legionibus- 
jue transductis, et loco castris idoneo delecto, reliquas 
copias revocavit. Vercingetorix, re cognita, ne coiltra 
suam voluntatem dimicare cogeretur, magnis itineribus an- 

30 Cassar ex eo loco ®quintis castris Gergoviam pervenit, 
equestrique prcelio eo die levi facto, *°perspecto urbis situ, 
quie, posita in altissimo monte, omnes aditus difliciles habe- 
nat, "de expugnatione desperavit ; de obsessione non pnnn 

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a^^ndum constituit, quam rem frumentaiiam expedisaet 
At Vercingetoiix, casths prope oppidum in monte positis, 
mediocribus circum se intervallis separatim singularuir. 
civitatum copias collocaverat ; atque omnibus . ejus jugi 
collibus occupatis, 'qua despici poterat, ^orribil^m speciem 
praBbebat: principesque earum civitatum, quos sibi ad con* 
silium capiendum delegerat, prima luce quotidie ad se jube« 
bat convenire, seu quid communicandum^ seu quid adminis- 
trandum videretur: neque ullum fere diem intebmittebat, 
quin equestri prcelio, interjectis sagittariis, ^quid in quoque 
esset animi ac.virtutis suorum, periclitaretur. Erat e re 
gione oppidi collis sub ipsis radicibus montis, egregie mu 
nitus, atque ex omni parte circumcisus (quem si tenerent 
nostri, et aquae magna parte et pabulatione libera ^robibituri 
hostes videbantur ; sed is locus praesidio ab iis non nimis 
firmo tenebatur) : tamen silentio noctis Caesar, ex castris 
egressus, prius quam subsidio ex oppido veniri posset, de- 
jecto praesidio, potitus loco, duas Ibi legiones collocavit, fos- 
samque duplicem duodenum pedum a majoribus castris ad 
minora perduxit, hit tuto ab repentino hostium incursu etiam 
singuli commeare possent. 

37. Dum haec *ad Gergoviam geruntur, Convictolitania 
iSSduus, cui magistratum assignatum a Caesare demonstra- 
/imus, solicitatus ab Arvemis pecunia, cum quibusdam ado- 
lescentibus ^colloquitur, quorum erat princeps Litavicus 
atque ejus fratres, amplissima familia nati adolescentes. 
Cum iis ^praemium communicat, hortaturque, " ut se liberoa 
et imperio natos meminerint: unam esse ^duorum eivita 
tem, quae certissimam Galliae yictoriam distineat ; 'ejus anc- 
toritate reliquas contineri ; qua transducta, locum consis- 
tendi Romanis in Gallia non fore : ^^esse nonnullo se Cae- 
saris beneficio affectum, sic tamen, ut justissimam apud 
eum causam obtinuerit : sed plus communi Ubertati tribuere . 
cur enim potius Mdm de suo jure et de legibus ad Caesarem 
'disceptatorem, quam Romani ad i{)duos, reniant ?" Celer 

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iter ai'oldscentibus et oradone magistratus et prsemio de- 
ductis, cum se vel principes ejus consilii fore profitereatur 
ratio perficiendi quaerebatur, quod civitatem temere ad sus- 
cipiendum helium adduci posse non confidebant. Placuit, 
uti Litavicus 'decern illis miUibus, quae Gsesari ad bellum mit- 
terentur, praeficeretur, atc^ue ea ducenda curaret, fratresque 
ejus ad Cssarem prccurrerent. Reliqua, qua ratione agi 
placeat, constituunt. 

38. Litavicus, accepto ezercitu, cum millia passuum cir- 
citer triginta ab Gergovia abesset, conrocatis subito militi- 
bus, lacrimans, " Quo proficiscimur," inquit, " milites 7- 
Omnis noster equitatus, pmnis nobilitas interiit : principes 
civitatis, Eporedirix et Yiridomarus, insimulati proditionis, 
ab Romanis mdicta causa interfecti sunt. Heec ab iis cog- 
noscite, qui ex ipsa caede fugerunt : nam ego, fratribus at- 
que omnibus meb propinquis interfectis, dolore prohibeor, . 
quae gesta sunt, proiumciare." Producuntur ii, quos ille 
edocuerat, quae dici vellet, atque eadem, quae Litavicus pro- 
nunciaverat, multitudi&i exponunt : " omnes equites ^duo- 
rum iBt#rfecto&, quod collocuti cum Arvemis dicerentur; 
ipsos se inter multitudinem militum occultasse atque ex 
media caede profugisse." Conclamant ^dui, et Litavicum, 
ut sibi consulat, obsecrant. "Quasi vero," inquit ille, 
" consilii sit res, ac non necesse sit nobis Gergoviam con- 
tendere et cum Arvemis nosmet conjungere. An dubita« 
mus, 'quin, nefario facinore admisso, Romani jam ad nos 
interficiendos concurrant ? Proinde, si quid est in nobis 
animi; persequamur eorum mortem, qui indignissime inter- 
ierunt, atque hos latrones interficiamus." 'Ostendit cives 
Romanes, qui ejus praesidii fiducia una erant. Gonjdnuo 
magnum numerum frumenti commeatusque diripit, ipsos 
crudeliter excruciates interficit : nuncios tota civitate ^du- 
orum dimittit, eodem mendacio, de caede equitum et prmci* 
pum permoret ; hortatur, ut simili ratione* atque ipse fecerit, 
Snas injurias persequantur. 

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LISBft ▼!(. CAP. ZU. 161 

M. Eporedirix^iBduufS, siiiniiio loco natiis adolesceiiB «t 
iumnMe domi potentiae, et una Viridomarus, pari aetate et 
gratia, sed 'ge&ere dispaii, quern Cssar, aibi ab Divitiaoo 
transditum, ex humili loco ad summam digmtatem perdux- 
erat, in equitam numero conve&era&t, nominadm ab eo evo- 
cati. His erat inter se do {mncipatu contentio, et in ilia 
tnagistratuum controversia alter pro Gonviclolitane, alter 
pro Goto, summis opibus pugnaverant. Ex iis Eporedirix, 
co^to litavici consilio, media fere nocte rem ad Gesarem 
defert ; orat, " ne patiatur, civitatem pravis adolescentium 
consiliis ab anucitia Populi Romani deficere, quod fiitarum 
provideat, si ue tot hominum millia cmn hostibus conjunxe* 
rint, *quorum salutem neqoe propinqui negligere, neque cir- 
Itaa levi momento aestimare posset." 

40. Magna affectus solicitudine Hoc nuncio Gaesar, quod 
semper ^duorum civitati praecipue indulserat, "nulla iAter-* 
posita dubitatione legiones expeditas quatuor equitatumque 
omnem ex castris educit : nee fuit spatium tali tempore ad 
contrahenda castra, quod res posita in celeritate videbatur« 
Oaium Fabium legatum cum legionibus dao castris praesidio 
reli^quit. Fratres Litavici cum comprehendi jussisset, 
pa:3lo ante reperit ad hostes profugisse. Adhortatus milites, 
*' ne necessario tempore itineris labore permoveantur," cu- 
pidissimis omnibus, progressus millia passuum viginti qoin- 
que, agmen ^Eduorum conspicatus, ^mmisso equitatu, iter 
eorum moratur atque impedit, interdicitque omnibus, ne 
quemquam interficiant. Eporedirigem et Viridomarum, 
quos iUi interfectos existimabant, inter equites versari 8U08« 
que s^pellare jubet. lis^cognitis et Litavici fraude per- 
cpecta, JBdui manus tendere, 'deditionem significare, et 
projectis armis mortem deprecari incipiunt. Litavicm 
*cum suis clientibus, quibus m{>re Gallorum nefas est etiain 
in extrema fortuna deserere patronos, Gergoviam profugit. 

41. Gaesar, nunciis ad civitatem ^duorum missis, ^qui 
•uo beneficio conservatos docerent, quos jure belli interfr- 

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•sere potuisset, tribusque horis noctis exercitui ad qoietoip 
datis, castra *ad Gergoviam moyit. Medio fere itinere 
'equites, ab Fabio missi, quanto res in periculo fuerit, ex- 
ponu£.t ; summis copiis castra oppugnata demonstrant ; cum 
crebro integri defessiii succed^rent nostrosque assiduo la- 
bore defatigarent, quibus propter magnitudinem castrorum 
perpetuo esset ^eisdem in yallo permanendum ; multitudine 
sagittarum atque omni genere telorum multos vulneratos : 
ad haec sustinenda magno usui fuisse tormenta: Fabium 
discessu eorum, duabus relictis portis, obstruere ceteras, 
^luteosque vallo addere, et se in posterum diem similem 
ad casum parare. His rebus cognitis, Caesar summo studio 
militum ante ortum solis in castra pervenit. 

42. Dum hacc ad Gergoviam geruntur, ^dui, primis nuii« 
ciis ab Litavico acceptis, nullum sibi ^ad cognoscendum 
spatium relinquunt. Impellit alios avaritia, alios ira^ndia 
et temeritas, qu» maxime illi hominum generi est innata, 
ut levem auditionem habeant pro re comperta. Bona civium 
Romanorum diripiunt, caedes faciunt, in servitutem abstra- 
hunt. ®Adjuvat rem proclinatam Convictolitanis, plebem- 
que ad furorem impellit, ut, facinore admisso, ad sanitatem 
pudeai reverti. Marcum Aristium tribunum militimi, iter 
ad legionem facientem, Mata fide ex oppido Cabillono edu- 
cunt : idem facere cogunt eos, qui negotiandi causa ibi con- 
stiterant. Hos continuo in itinere adorti, omnibus impedi- 
mentis exuunt; repugnantes diem noctemque obsident; 
multis utrimque interfectis, majorem multitudinem ad arma 

43. Interim nuncio allato, omnes eorum milites in potes- 
tate Caesaris teneri, concurrunt ad Aristium ; nihil publico 
(actum consilio demonstrant ; ^quaestionem de bonis direptis 
decemunt ; Litavici fratrumque bona publicant ; legatos ad 
Caesarem sui purgandi gratia^ mittunt. Haec faciunt *recu- 
perandorum suorum causa: sed, contaminati facinore et 
capti compendio ex direptis bonis, quod ea res ad multon 

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pemnebat, et timore poenas exterriti, consilia clam de bello 
inire incipiunt, civitatesque reliquas legationibus solicitant 
Quae tametsi Caesar intelligebat, tamen, quam mitissime pot- 
est, legates appellat : *" nihil se propter inscientiam levi- 
. tatemque vulgi gravius de civitate judicare, neque de sua in 
iEduos benevolentia deminuere." Ipse, majorem Gallitt 
moium expectans, ne ub omnibus civitatibus circumsistere- 
tur, consilia inibat, qilemadmodum ab Grergovia discederet 
ac rursus 'omnem exercitum contraberet; ne profectio, 
nata ab timore defectionis, jsimilis fugae videretur. 

44. Haec cogitanti 'accidere visa est facultas bene ge- 
rendae rei. Nam, cum minora in castra operis perspiciendi 
causa venisset, animadvertit coUem, qui ab hostibus tene-. 
batur, nudatum hominibus, qui superioribus diebus vix prae 
multitudine cemi poterat. Admiratus quaerit ex perfugis 
causam, quorum magnus ad eum quotidie numerus confine- 
bat. Constabat inter omnes, quod jam ipse Caesar per ex- 
ploratores cognoverat, ^dorsum esse ejus jugi prope aequum ; 
sed hunc silvestrem et angustum, qua esset aditus ad alte- 
ram oppidi partem : huic loco vehementer illos timere, nee 
jam aliter sentire, *uno colle ab Romanis occupato, si alte- 
rum amisissent, quin paene circumvallati atque omni exitu 
et pabulatione interclusi viderentur : ad hunc muniendum 
locum omnes a Vercingetorige evocatos. 

45. Hac re cognita, Caesar mittit compliires equitum tur- 
mas eo de media nocte : iis imperat, ut paulo tumultuosius 
omnibus in locis pervagarentur. •Prima luce magnum nu- 
merum impedimentorum ex castris detrahi ^mulionesque 
cum cassidibus, equitum specie ac sjmulatione, coUibus cir- 
cumvehi jubet. His paucos addit equites, qui latius ®osten- 
talionis causa vagarentur. Longo circuitu easdem omnes 
jubet pe^en? regiones. Haec procul ex oppido videbantur 
ut erat a Gergovia despectus in castra ; neque Hanto spalio, 
certi quid esset, explorari poterat. Legionem unam '"eodem 
ixifs^ mittit, et paulo progressam inferiore constituit loco. 

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silvisque occultat. Augetur Gallis suspicion atque omnee 
'illo ad munitionem copise transducuntur. Vacua castra 
hostium Caesar conspicatus, tectis "insignibus suorum oc- 
cultatisque signis militaribus, "raros milites, ne ex op{»do 
animadverterentur, ex majoribus castris in minora transdu-i 
cit, legatisque, quos singulis legionibus praefecerat, quid 
fieri vellety ostendit : in primis monet, ut contineant milites, 
ne studio pugnandi aut spe praedae longius progrediantur : 
quid iniquitas loci habeat incommodi, proponit : hoc una 
celeritate posse vitari: ^occasionis esse rem, non proBlii 
His rebus expositis, signum dat, et ab dextera parte alio as- 
censu eodem tempore iEduos mittit. 

46. Oppidi murus ab planitie atque initio ascensus^ hrecta 
regione, si nullus anfractus intercederet, mille et ducentos 
passus aberat : 'quicquid huic circuitus ad moUiendum cli- 
% uni accesserat, id spatium itineris augebat. At medio fere 
coUe m longitudinem, ut natura montis ferebat, ex grandi- 
bus saxis sex pedum murum, qui nostrorum impetum tarda- 
ret, Jpraeduxerant Galli, atque, inferiore omni' spatio vacuo 
relicto, superiorem partem coUis usque ad murum oppidi 
densissimis castris compleyerant. Milites, dato signo, ce- 
leriter ad munitionem perveniunt, eamque transgressi, Hrinis 
castris potiuntur. Ac tanta fuit in castris capiendis celeri- 
tas, ut Teutomarus, rex Nitiobrigum, subito in tabemaculo 
oppressus, ut meridie conquieverat, 'superiore corporis parte 
nudata, vulnerato equo, vix se ex manibus praedantium mi- 
litum eriperet. 

47. '^Consecutus id, quod animo proposuerat, Caesar re« 
ceptui cani jussit, legionisque decimae, qua turn erat comi- 
tatus, signa constitere. At reliquarum milites legionum, 
non exaudito tubse sono, quod satis magna vallis intercede- 
bat, tamen ab tribunis militum legatisque, ut erat a Caesare 
praeceptum, "retinebantur : sed, elati spe celeris victoriae et 
hostium fuga superiorumque temporum secundis proeliia, 
nihil adeo arduum sibi existimabant quod non Tirtiite ( 

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■o^iii possent , neque prius finem sequendi fecemnt^ qaani 
muro oppidi portisque appropinquarent. Turn vero ex om- 
nibus urbis pardbus orto clamore, qui longius aberant, re- . 
pentino tumvltu pertemti, cum hoatem intra portas esse ex- 
tstimarent, sese ex oppido ejecerunt. Matres familise de 
muro Vestem argentumque jactabant, et, "pectoris ifine pro- 
minentes, passis manibus obtestabantur Romanos, ut sibi 
parcerent, neu, sicut Avarici fecissent, ne mulieribus quid- 
em atque infantibus abstinerent. Nonnullae, de muris per 
manus demissae, sese militibus transdebant. Lucius Fabius, 
centurio legionis octavs, quern inter suos eo die dixisse 
Gonstabat, exctlari se 'Avaricensibus praemiis neque com- 
missurum, uC prius quisquam murum ascenderet, ^es suos 
nactus maaipulares, atque ab iis sublevatns, murum ascen- 
dit. Eos ipse rursus singulos 'exceptans, in murum extulit. 

48. Interim ii, qui ad alteram partem oppidi, ut supra de- 
monstravimus, *munitionis causa convenerant, primo exau- 
dito clamore, inde etiam crebris nunciis incitati, oppidum ab 
Romanis teneri, pr«emissis equitibus, magno concursu eo 
contenderunt. Eorum ut quisque primus venerat, sub muro 
consistebat, suorumque pugnanUum numerum augebat. 
Quorum cum magna multitude convenisset, matres familisCf 
quae paulo ante Romanis de muro manus tendejbant, suos 
obtestari, et more Grallico passum capillum ostentare, li- 
berosque in conspectum proferre ccsperunt. Erat Romanis 
^nec loco, nee numero, sequa contentio : simul, et cursu et 
"spatio pugnae defatigati, non facile recentes atque integros 

^9. G»sar, cum iniquo loco pugnari hostiumque augen 
copias rideret, 'praemetuens suis, ad Titum Sextium lega- 
Imn, quem minoribus castris prBesidio reliquerat, mittit, ut 
cohortes ex castris celeriter eoperet, et sub infimo colle ab 
dextro latere hostium constitueret : ut, si nostros loco de- 
pulsos Tidisset, quo minus libere hostes insequerentur, ter* 

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reret Ipse paulum ex eo loco cum legione progressus, uhi 
eonstiterat, eventum pugnse eippectabat. ^ 

50. Cum acerrime cominus pugnaretur, hostes loco et 
numero, nostri virtute confiderent, subito suol iEdui visi, 
'ab latere nostris aperto, quos Caesar ab dextra parte alio 
ascensu, manus distinendae causa, miserat Hi 'similitudine 
&rmorum vehementer nostros perterruerunt : ac, tametsi 
dextris humeris ^exertis animadvertebantur, quod insigne 
pacatis esse consuerat, tamen id ipsum sui fallendi causa 
milites ab hostibus factumt existimabant. Eodem tempore 
Lucius Fabius centurio, quique una munim ascenderant, 
circumventi atque interfecti de muro praeciptantur. Mar- 
cus Petreius, ejusdem legionis centurio, cum portas *exc'*- 
dere conatus esset, a multitudine oppressus ac sibi despe- 
rans, multis jam vulneribus acceptis, manipularibus suis, 
qui ilium secuti erant, " Quoniam," inquit, ** me una vobis- 
cum servare non possum, vestrae quidem certe vitafi prospi- 
ciam, quos cupiditate gloriae adductus in periculum doduxi. 
Vos, data facultate, vobis consulite." Simul in medios hos- 
tes irrupit, duobusque interfectis, reliquos a porta paulum 
submovit. Conantibus auxiliari suis, "Frustra," inquit, 
" meae vitae subvenire conamini, quefti jam sanguis viresque 
deficiunt: proinde hinc abite,^dum est facultas, vosque ad 
legionem recipite." Ita pugnans post paululum concidit, ^ac 
suis saluti fuit. 

51. Nostri, cum undiqne premerentur, quadraginta sex 
. centurionibus amissis, dejecti sunt loco : sed %tolerantius 

Gallos insequentes legio decima tardavit, quae pro subsidio 
paulo aequiore loco eonstiterat. Hanc rursus decimae te|jdae 
legionis cohortes 'exceperunt, quae, ex castris minoribus 
eductae, cum Tito Sextio legato locum ceperant euperiorem. 
Jiegiones, ubi primum pla^ifiem attigerunt, infestis contra 
liostos signis constiterunt, V ercingetorix ab radicibua coUis 
sues intra munitiones reduxit. Eo die milites sunt p^ule 
miiius septingentis desiderati. 

Oigitized by 



52. Fostero die Caesar, concione advocata, ^^Temerita- 
tem cupiditatemque militum reprehendit, quod sibi ipsi ju- 
dicavissent, ^quo procedendum, aut quid agendum Tideretur, 
neque signo recipiendi dato constitissent, neque a tribunis 
militum legatisque retineri potuissent : ^exposito, quid ini- 
quitas loci posset, quid ipse ad Ayaricum sensisset cum, 
sine duce et sine equitatu deprehensis hostibus, exploratam 
▼ictoriam ^dimisisset, ne parvum modo detrimentum in con- 
tentione propter iniquitatem loci accideret. ^Quanto opere 
eorum animi magnitudinem admiraretur, quos noa castrorum 
munitiones, non altitudo montis, non murus oppidi tardare 
potuisset ; tanto opere Hcentiam arn^ntiamque reprehen- 
dere, quod ^pluQ se, quam imperatorem, de victoria atque 
exitu rerum sentird existimarent : nee minus se in milite 
modestiam et continentiam, quam virtutem atque animi mag- 
nitudinem desiderare." 

53. Hac habita concione, et ^ad extremum oratione con- 
firmatis milibitiis, '< ne ob banc causam animp permoveren- 
tur, neu, quod iniquitas loci attulisset, id virtuti hostium trib- 
uerent:" ''eadem de profectione cogitans, quae ante senserat, 
legiones ex castris eduxit, aciemque idoneo loco constituit. 
Cum Yerdngetorix nihilo magis in sequum locum descen- 
deret, levi facto equestri proelio atque eo secundo, in castra 
^siercitum ^eduxit. Cum boc idem postero die fecisset, 
satis ad Gallicam ostentationem minuendam militumque 
animos confirm^dos factum existimans, in JB^uos castra 
movit. Ne tum quidem insecutis hostibus, tertio die ad 
flumen Elaver pontem refecit, atque exercitum transduxit. 

54. Ibi a Viridomaro atque Eporedirige iBduis *appel- 
latus, discit, cum omni equitatu Litavicum ad solicitandos 
JSduos profectum esse: opus esse, et ipsos antecedere ad 
confirmandam civitatem. Etsi multis jam rebus pecfidiam 
JBduorum perspectam liabebat, atque ^%orum discessu ad- 
maturari defectionem civitatis existimabat; tamen eos re- 
Mnendos non ceosuit, ne aut inferre injuriam videretur, aut 


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dare dmoris aliquam suspicionem. Discedentibiis his brev 
Iter sua in iEduos merita exponit : " quos et quam humiles 
accepisset, compulses in oppida, ^multatos agris, omnibus 
ereptis copiis, imposito stipendio, obsidibus summa cum con- 
tumelia extortis ; et quam in fortunam, ^quamque in. ampli- 
tudinem deduxisset, ut non solum in pristinum statum re- 
dissent, sed 'omnium temporum dignitatem et gratiam ante- 
cessisse riderentur." His datis mandatis, eos ab se dimisit. 

55. Noviodunum erat oppidum ^duorum, ad ripas Li- 
geris opportune loco positum. ^Huc Cssar omnes obsides 
Galliee, frumentum, pecuniam publioam, suorum atque exer- 
citus impedimentorum magnam partem contulerat: hue 
magnum numerum equorum, hujus belli causa in Italia atque 
Hispania coemtum, miserat. Eo cum Eporedirix Virido- 
marusque venissent et de statu ciidtatis cognovissent, Lita- 
vicum ^Bibracte ab iEduis receptum, quod est oppidum 
apud eos maximee auctoritatis, Gonvictolitanem magistratum 
magnamque partem senatus ad eum conveiiisse, legatos ad 
Vercingetorigem de pace et amicitia concilianda publico 
misses : non praetermittendum ^antum commodum existima- 
verunt. Itaque, interfectis Novioduni custodibus, quique eo 
negotiandi aut itineris causa convenerant, pecuniam atque 
equos inter se partiti sunt ; obsides civitatum Bibracte ad 
magistratum deducendos curaverunt ; oppidum, quOd ab se 
teneri non posse judicabant, ne cui esset usui Romanis, in- 
senderunt ; frumenti quod subito potuerunt, navibus avexe- 
runt ; reliquum flumine atque incendio corruperunt ; ipsi ex 
finitimis regionibus copias cogere, prsesidia custodiasque ad 
ripas Ligeris disponere, equitatumque omnibus locis, injici- 
endi timoris causa, ostentare coeperunt, ^si ab re frumentaria 
Romanes excludere possent. Quam ad spem multum eos 
adjurabat, quod Liger ^ex nivibus crererat, ut omnino vado 
non posse transiri videretur. 

56. Quibus rebus cognitis, Caesar maturandum sibi cen « 
suit, 'si esset in perficiendis pontibus periclitandum, n' 

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LIBBft Til. CAP. LVIII. 169 

prius, quam essent majores eo coactn copis, iliinicaiel 
Nam, ut commutato consilio iter in Provinciam converted 
ret, *id nemo tunc quidem necessario faciendum existima- 
bat, cum quod infamia atque indignitas rei et oppositus 
mons Cevemia viarumque difficultas impediebat, tum max- 
ime, 'quod abjuncto Labieno atque iis legionibus, quas ima 
miserat, vehementer timebat. Itaque, admodum magnis 
diumis atque noctunus itineribus confectis, ccmtra omnium 
opinionem ad Ligerim pervexdt; vadoque per equites in- 
vento, 'pro rei necessitate opportuno, ut bracbia modo atque 
humeri ad sustinenda arma liberi ab aqua esse possent, dis- 
posito equitatu, qui vim fluminis refringeret, atque hostibus 
primo aspectu perturbatis, incolumem exercitumtransdrndt : 
firumentumque in agris et pecoris copiam nactus, replA iis 
rebus exercitu, iter in Senonas facere institnit. 

57. Dum haec apud Gsesarem geruntur, Labienus eo sup- 
plemento, quod nuper ex Italia venerat, relicto Agendici, ut 
esset impedimentis praesidio, cum quatuor legionibua^utft- 
tianpi proficiscitur (id est oppidum Parisiorum, positum in 
insula fluminis Sequan»), cujus adventu ab hostibus cognito, 
magnse ex finitimis civitatibus copise convenemnt. Simnna 
imperii transditur Camulogeno Aulerco, qui, prope confec- 
tus state, tamen propter singularem scientiam rei militaris 
ad eum est honorem evocatus. Is cum animum advertissel, 
^rpetuam esse paludem, quse influeret in Sequanam atque 
ilium omnem locum magnopere impediret, bic consedit nos- 
trosque transitu probibere instituit. ^ 

58. Labienus primo vineas agere, cratibus atque aggere 
paludem explere atque iter munire conabatur. Postquam 
id 'difficOius confieri animadvertit, silentio e castris tertia 
vigilia egressus, eodem, quo venerat, itinere Melodunum 
penrenit. IS est oppidum Senonum, in insula Sequans pot- 
Hum, ut paulo ante Lutetiam* diximus. Deprehensis navi- 
bus circiter qi|inquaginta celeriterque conjunctis, atque eo 
nttitibttfr imposid) e* rei novitate perterritis of^idanis quo- 

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mm magna pars ad beilum erat evocata, sine contcntione 
oppido potitur. Refecto ponte, quern superioribus diebos 
hostes resciderant, es^ercitum transducit et secimdo^fliimine 
ad Lutetiam iter facere coepit. Hostes, re cognita ab iis 
qui a Meloduno profugerant, Lutetiam incendunt pontesque 
ejus oppidi rescindi jubent : ipsi 'profecti a palude, in ripif 
Sequanae, e regione Lutetise, contra Labieni castra considunt 

59. Jam Caesar a Gergovia discessisse audiebatur ; jam 
de iEduorum defectione et 'secundo Galtiae motu nimores 
afferebantur, Gallique in colloquiis, interclusum itinere et 
Ligeri Cassarem, inopia frumenti coactum, in Provinciam 
contendisse confirmabant. Belloyaci autem, defectione 
iEduorum cognita, qui ante erant per se Hnfideles, manus 
cogt^e atque aperte beilum parare cceperunt. Turn Labie- 
nus, tanta rerum commutatione, longe aliud sibi capiendum 
consilium, atque antea senserat, intelligebat : neque jam, 
ut aliquid acquireret, ^rcelioque hostes lacesseret ; sed ut 
incc^mem ezercitum Agendicum reduceret, cogitabat. 
Namque altera ex parte Bellovaci, quae civitas in Gallia 
^aximam habet opinionem virtutis, instabant ; alteram Ca- 
mulogenus parato atque instructo exercitu tenebat: turn 
legiones, a praesidio atque impedimentis interclusas, maxi 
mum flumen ^distinebat. Tantis subito difficultatibus ob 
jectis, ab animi virtute auxilium petendum videbat. 

60. Itaque sub yesperum consilio convocato, cohortatus, 
ut ea, quae imperasset, diligenter industrieque administra 
rent, nayes, |uas a Meloduno deduxerat, singulas equitibus 
Romania attribuit, et, prima confecta yigilia, quatuor millia 
passuum secundo flumine silexitio progredi ibique se ex- 
pectari jubet. Quinque cohortes, quas minime firmas ad 
dimicandum esse existimabat, ^castris praesidio relinquit: 
qi^inque ejusdem legionis reliquas de media nxftte cum om 
nibus impedimentis adverse flumine magno tumultu profi 
cisci imperat. 'Gonquirit etiam lintres : has, magno sonitn 
remorom incitatas, in eandem partem mittit. Ipse post 

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. LIBER Til. CAP. LXII. 171 

panlo, silentio egressus, cum tribus' legionibus 'eum locum 
petit, quo naves appelli jusserat. 

61. Eo cum esset yentqm, exploratores hostium, ut omm 
fluminiis parte erant diapositi, inopinantes, quod magna sub- 
i$o erat co<»ta tempestas, ab nostris opprimuntur : 'exerei* 
tus equitatusque, equitibus Romania 'administrantibus, quos 
ei negotio priefecerat^ celeriter transmittitur. Uno fere 
tempore sub lucem hostibus nunciatur, in castris Romanorum 
^reter consuetadinem tumultuari et magnum ire agmen 
adrerso flumine, sonitumque remorum in eadem parte ex- 
audiri, et paulo infra milites navibus transportari. Quibus 
rebus auditis, qgod existimabant tribus locis transire legi- 
ones, atque omnes, perturbatos defectione iEduorum, fugam 
parare, suas quoque copias in tres partes distribuerunt 
Nam, et pnesidio e regione castrorum relicto, et panra 
manu 'Metiosedum versus missa, quae tantum progrederetur, 
quantum naves processissent, reliquas copias contra Jjabie- 
num duxerunt. 

62. Prima luce et nostri omnes erant transportati et hos 
tium acies cemebatur. Labienus, milites cobortatus, ^'iit 
8u» pristine virtutis et tot secundissimorum prceliorum me- 
moriam retinerent, atque ipsum Cssarem, cujus ductu 
sspenumero bostes superassent, praesentem adesse existi- 
marent," dat signum proelii. Primo concursu ab dextro 
comu, ubi septima legio consisterat, bostes pelluntur atque 
in fugam conjiciuntur : ab sinistro, quem locum duodecima 
legio tenebat, cum primi ordines hostium transfixi pilis con« 
cidissent, tamen acerrime reliqui resistebant, 'nee dabat 
suspicionem fug» quisquam. Ipse dux hostium Camuloge- 
nus suis aderat atque eos cohortabatur. At, incerto etiam 
nunc exitu victoriae, cum septimae legionis tribums esset 
nutciatum, quae in sinistro comu gererentur, post tergum 
hof tium legionem ostenderunt signaque intulerunt. Ne eu 
quidem tempore quisquam loco cessit, sed circumventi om- 
nes interfectique sunt. ^Eandem f(»rtunam tuUt CamulogQi 

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BUS. At ii, qui prssidio 'contra castra Iiabieni erant relicU 
cum prcBlium commissum audissent, subsidio suis ienint 
collemque ceperunt, neque nostrorum militum victorum im- 
petum sustin^re potuerunt. Sic, cum suis fugientibus per« 
mixti, quos non silTS montesque texetunt, ab equitatu sunt 
interfecti. "Hoc n^gotio confecto , I jabienus reveititur Agea- 
dicum, ubi impedimenta totius exercitus relicta erant^ inde 
cum onmibus copiis ad Csesarem pervenit. 

63. Defectione ^duorum cognita, bellum «igetur. Le- 
gationes in omnes partes circummittuntur : quantum gratia, 
auctoritate, pecunia valent, ad solicitandas civitates nituntur. 
Nacti obsides, quos Gsesar ^ud eos deposuerat, %orum 
supplicio dubitantes territant. Petunt a Vercingetorige 
iSdui, ad se veniat, ^tionesque belli gerendi communicet. 
*Re impetrata, contendunt ut ipsis summa imperii transda- 
tur ; et, re in controversiam deducta, totius Gallise concilium 
Bibracte indicitur. Eodem conyeniunt undique frequentes. 
'Multitudinis sufiragiis res permittitur: ad unum omnes 
Vercingetorigem probant imperatorem. Ab hoc concilio 
Remi, Lingones, Treviri afiierunt: ^illi, quod amicitiam 
Romanorum sequebantur ; Treyiri, quod aberant longius et 
ab Germanis premebantur : quae fuit causa, quare toto abes- 
sent bello et neutris anxilia mitterent. Magno dolore ^dui 
ferunt, se dejectos principatu ; queruntur fortunae commuta- 
tionem, ^ef Gaesaris in se indulgentiam requirunt ; neque 
tamen, suscepto bello, ^unm consilium ab reliquis separare 
aiident. Inviti, summae spei adolescentes, Eporedirix et 
Viridomarus, Vercingetorigi parent. 

64. nie imperat reliquis civitatibus obsides :« *°denique ei 
lei constituit diem : hue omnes equites, "quindecim millia 
numero, celeriter convenire jubet : peditatu, quern ante ha- 
fctierit, se fore contentum dicit, neque fortunam tentaturum, 
ant in acie dimicaturum ; sed, quoniam abundet equitatu, 
perfecile esse faotu, frumentationibvs pabulationibusque Ro« 
t prohibere : aequo modo aaimo sua ipsi frument cor 

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nunpaut »difidaque incendant, qua rei familiaris jactnm 
perpetuum imperium libertatemque se consequi videant 
His constitutis rebus, iBduis Segusianisque, qui sunt fini* 
timi 'Provinciae, decern millia peditom imperat : hue addil 
equites octingentos. His prsficit fratrem Eporedirigis, bel- 
lumque inferre AUobrogibus jubet. Altera ex parte Gabalo» 
proximosque pagos Arvemorum in Helvios, item Rutenos 
Cadurcosque ad fines Yolcarum Arecomicorum depopulan« 
dos mittit. Nibilo minus clanriestinis nunciis legationibus- 
que Allobrogas solicitat, 'quorum mentes nondum ab supe- 
riore bello resedisse sperabat. Horum principibus pecunias, 
civitati autem imperium totius povinciae pollicetur. 

65. 'Ad bos omnes cayus provisa erant preesidia cohortiuro 
duarum et viginti, quae ex ipsa coacta provincia ab Lucie 
Caesare legato ad omnes partes opponebantur. Helvii, sua 
sponte cum finitimis proeiio congressi, pelluntur, et^ Caic 
Valerio Donotauro, Caburi filio, principe civitatis compluri* 
busquealiisinterfectis, intra oppida murosque compelluntur. 
Allobroges, crebris ad Rhodanum dispositis praesidiis, magna 
cum cura et diligentia ^suos fines tuentur. Caesar, quod 
hostes equitatu superiores esse intelligebat, et, interclusis 
omnibus itineribus, nulla re ex Provincia atque Italia suble- 
▼ari poterat, trans Rhenum in Germaniam mittit ad eas civ- 
itates, quas superioribus annis pacaverat, equitesque ab his 
arcessit, et levis armaturae pedites, qui inter eos proeliaii 
consuererant. Eorum adventu, quod minus idoneis equis 
utebantur, a tribunis militum reliquisque, *sed et equitibus 
Romanis atque •erocatis, equos sumit, Germanisque dis« 

'tea, dum haec geruntur, hostium copiae ex Arrer^ 

«que, qui 'toti Galliae erant imperati, conveniunt. 

ini coacto numero, cum Caesar in Sequanos per 

*jingonum fines iter faceret, quo facilius subsidium 

^s ferri posset, circiter millia passuum decern ab 

msrM trinis castris Vercingetorix consedit : convocati-'* 

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que ad concilium praefectis equitum, '' yenisse tempos vie 
torise," demonstrat : " fugere in Provinciam Romanes Gal- 
liaque excedere : id sibi ad praesentem obtinendam liberta* 
tern satis esse ; ad reliqui temporis pacem atque otium 
parum profici: majoribus enim coactis copiis reversuros, 
neque finem belli facturos. Proinde in agmine impeditos 
aduriantur. Si pedites s^jys auxilium ferant *atque in eo 
morentur, iter confici non posse ; si (id qiiod roagis fdturum 
confidat), relictis impedim«itis, su» saluti consuhuit, et 
usu rerum necessariarum 'et dignitate spoliatum iri. Nam 
de equitibus hostium, quin nemo eorum progredi modo extra 
agmen audeat, ne ipsos quidem debere dabitare. Id quo 
majore faciant animo, 'copias se o^nes pro castris habitu- 
rum, et terrori hostibus futurum." Conclamant equites, 
" sanctissimo jurejurando confirmari oportere, ne tecto reci- 
piatur, ne ad liberos, ne ad parentes, ne ad uxorem aditum 
habeat, qui non bis per agmen hostium perequitarit." 

67. Probata re atque omnibus ad jusjurandum adactis, 
postero die in tres partes distnbuto equitatu, Muae se acies 
ab duobus lateribus ostendunt : ^una a primo agmine iter 
impedire ccBpit. Qua re nunciata, Caesar suum quoquc 
equitatum, tripartito divisum, contra hostem ire jubet. Pug- 
natur una tunc omnibus in partibus : consistit agmen : im- 
pedimenta inter legiones recipiuntur. Si qua in parte nos- 
tri laborare aut gravius premi videbantur, ^eo signa inferri 
Cassar aciemque converti jubebat : quas res et hostes ad in- ' 
sequendum tardabat et nostros ^spe auxilii confirmabat. 
Tandem ^Germani ab dextro latere, summum jugum nacti, 
hostes loco depellunt ; fugientes usque ad 'flumen, ubi Ver 
cingetorix cum pedestribus copiis consederat, persequuntur, 
compluresque interficiunt. Qua re animad versa, reliqui, ne 
eircumvenirentur, yeriti, se fugae mandant. Ommbus locis. 
fit caedes : tres nobilissimi iEdui capti ad Cassarem perdu 
cuntur : *^Cotus, praefectus equitum, qui controversiam cum 
i£onTictolitane proximis comitiis habuerat; et OavariUua, 

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JLIBBR ¥11. CAP. LZX. 175 

qui post defectionem Litavici pedestribns copiis piaefuerat; 
et Eporedirix, quo duce ante adventum Cssaris ^dui cum 
Soquanis bello contendetant. 

J58. Fugato omni equitatu, Vercingetorix copias' suas, *ut 
pro castris coUocaverat, reduxit; protinusque 'Alesiam, 
quod est oppiduih Mandubiorum, iter facere coepit ; celeiA* 
terque impedimenta ex castris educi~et se subsequi jtissit. 
Gssar, impedimentis in proximum collem dedtictis, duabus- 
que legionibus praesidio relictis, secutus, quantum diei tem- 
pus est passum, circiter Hribus millibus hostium ex novis- 
simo agmine interfectis, altero die ad Alesiam castra fecit. 
Perspecto urbis situ, perterritisque hostibus, quod equitatu, 
*quo maxime confidebant, erant pulsi, adhortatus ad laborem 
milites, Alesiam circumvallare instituit. 

69. Ipsum erat oppidum in coUe summo, admodum edito 
loco, ut, nisi obsidioiie, expugnari posse non videretur. 
Cujus collis radices Muo dual^os ex partibus flumina sublue- 
bant. Ante id oppidum planities circiter miUia passuum 
trium in longitudinem patebat: reliquis ex omnibus parti 
bus •colles, mediocri interjecto spatio, pari altitudinis fasti- 
gio, oppidum cingebant. Sub muro, quae pars collis ad ori- 
entem solem spectabat, hunc omnem locum copis Gallorum 
compleverant, fossamqu^ et ^maceriam sex in altitudinem 
pedum prseduxerant. ^Ejus munitionis, quae ab ^manis 
instituebatur, circuitus undecim millium passuum tenebat. 

'Castra opportunis locis erant posita, ibique 'castella viginti 
tria facta ; quibus in castellis interdiu stationes disponeban- 
tur, ne qua subito eruptio fieret : haec eadem noctu '^excu 
bitoribus ac firmis praesidiis tenebantur. 

70. "Opere instituto, fit equestre proelium in ea planitie 
quam intermissam collibus tria millia passuum in longitudi- 
nem patere, supra demonstravimus. Summa vi ab utrisque 
contenditur. Laborantibus nostris Caesar Germanos sub- 
mittit, legionesque pro castris constituit, ne qua subito irrup- 
tio ab hostium peditatu fiat. Praesidio legionum addito. 

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nostris animuB augetur: hostes, in fiigam coBjecti, se ipsi 
multitudine impediunt *atque angustioribuis portis relictis 
coarctantur. Turn Germani acrius usque ad miioiitioneg se- 
quTAitur. ' Fit magna csedes : nonnulli, relictis equis, foss^ 
transire et maceriam transoeadere conantur. Paulum legi* 
ones Caesar, quas pro vallo constituerat, promoveri jubet 
Non minus, qui intra munitiones erant, Galli perturbantur ; 
^reiiiri ad se 'confestim existimantes, ad arma conclamant ; 
nonnuUi pert^rriti ^in oppidum irrumpunt. Vercingetorix 
portas jubet claudi, ne castra nudentur. Multis interfectis; 
compluribuB equis captis, Germani sese recipiunt. 

71. Yercingetorix, priusquam munitiones ab Romanis 
perficiantur, consilium capit, omnem ab se equitatum noctu 
'dimittere. Discedentibus mandat, " ut suam quisque eorum 
civitatem adeat, omnesque, qui per aetatem arma ferro pos- 
sint, ad bellum cogant ; sua in illos merita proponit, obtes* 
taturque, ut suae salutis rationem habeant, neu se, de com* 
mum libertate' optime meritum, hostibus in cruciatuni de- 
dant: quod si indiligentiores fuerint, millia hominum de« 
lecta octoginta una secum interitura demonstrat; ^atione 
inita, frumentum se exigue dierum triginta habere, sed paulo 
etiam longius tolerare posse parcendo." His datis manda- 
tis, qua erat nostrum opus Hntermissum, secunda idgilia 
silentio equitatum dimitdt; frumentum omne ad se referri 
jubet ; capitis poenam iis, qui non paruerint, constitnit : 
pecus, cujus magna erat ab Mandubiis compulsa copia, viri* 
tim distribuit ; frumentum parce et paulatim metiri instituit : 
copias omnes, quas pro oppido coUocaverat, in oppidum re- 
cipit. His rationibus auxiUa Gallite expectare et bellum 
administrare parat. 

79. Quibus rebus ex perfugis et captivis cognitis, Cassai 
kaec genera munitionis instituit. Fossam ^dum viginti 
directis lateribus duxit, ut ejus fossae solum tantundem pa« 
teret, quantum summa labra distabant. TReliquas omnes 
munitiones ab ea fossa pedes quadringentos reduxit : id hoc 

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eonsilio (quoniam tantum esset necessario spatium com* 
plexus, 'nee facile totum opus corona militum cingeretur), 
ae de improviso aut noctu ad munitiones hostium multitudo 
tdvolaret ; aut interdiu tela in nostros, 'operi destinatos, 
conjicere possent. 'Hoc intermisso spatio, duas fossas, 
|uindecim pedes latas, eadem altitudine perduxit : quarum 
tnteriorem, campestribus ac demissis locis, aqua ex flumine 
derivata complevit. ^Post eas aggerem ac vallum duodecim 
pedum exstruxit ; huic loricam pinnasque adjecit, ^grandi* 
bus cervis eminentibus ad commissuras pluteorum atque 
aggeris, qui a#censum hostium tardarent; et %rres toto 
opere circumdedit, quae pedes Qctoginta inter se distarent 
73. Erat eodeiri tempore et ^materiari et frumentari et 
tantas munitiones fieri necesse, Meminutis nostris copiis 
quae longius ab castris progrediebantur : ac nonnunquam 
opera nostra Galli tentare, atque eruptionem ex oppido plu 
ribus portis summa vi facere eonabantur. Quare ad haec 
rursus opera addendum Caesar patavit, quo minore numerc^ 
militum munitiones defendi possect. Itaque truncis arbo- 
rum aut admodum firmis ramis ^abscisis, *°atque horum de- 
iibratis ac praeacutis cacuminibus, "perpetuae fossae, quinos 
pedes altae, ducebantur. "Hue illi stipi^is demissi et ab in- . 
fimo revincti, ne revelli possent, ab ramis e\3iinebant. Quini 
erant ordines, conjuncti inter se atque implicati ; ^^quo qui 
intraverant, se ipsi acutissimis vallis induebaat. "Hos cip- 
pos appellabant. Ante hos, obliqdis ordinibus in '^quincun- 
cem dispositos, '^scrobes trium in altitudinem pedum fodie 
bantur, paulatim anguBtiore ad infimum fastigio. Hue tere- 
tes stipites, feminis crassitudine, ab summo praeacuti e^ 
praeusti, demittebantur ita, ut non amplius digitis quatuor ex 
terra eminerent : "simul, confirmandi et stabiliendi causa, 
singuli ab infimo solo pedes terra exculcabantur : reliqua 
pars scrobis ad occultandas insidias viminibus ac virgultis 
integebatur. Hujus generis optoni ordines ducti, temos 
inter se pedes distabant. ^^Id ex similitudine fioris lilium 

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appellabant. Ante hsc 'talee, pedmn longs, fetreis hamh 
snfixis, tots in teiram infodiebantor ; mediocribnsque intei 
missis spatiis, omnibus locis disserebantor, qtios stimuloh 

74. His rebus perfectis, 'regiones secutus quam potuit 
^quissimas pro loci natura,'qmUuoidecim miillia passunm 
complexnSj pares ejusdem generis munitiones, dirersas ab 
his, contra exterioren^ostem perfecit, ut ne magna quidem 
multitudine, si ita accidat 'ejus discessu, munitionum prs- 
sidia circumfundi possent: Hieu cum periculo ex castris 
egredi cogantur, dierum triginta pabulum frumentumque 
habere omnes convectum jubet. 

75. Dum h«c ad Alesiam geruntur, Galli, concilio ^rin- 
cipum indicto, non omnes, qui arma ferre possent, ut cen- 
suit Vercingetorix, convocandos statuunt, sed certum nume- 
rum cuique civitati imperandum ; ne, tanta multitudine con- 
fusa, nee moderari, nee discemere sues, nee Yrumentandi 
rationem habere possent. Imperant ^duis atque eorum 
ciientibus, Segusianis, Ambivaretis, ^Aulercis Brannovici- 
bus, millia triginta ^uinque ; parem numerum Arvemis, ad- 
junctis Eleutetis Cadurcis, Gabalis, Velaunis, qui sub impe- 
rio Arremorum esse consuerunt , S^nonibus, Sequanis, Bi- 
turigibus, Santonis, Rutenis, Camutibus duodena millia; 
Bellovacis decern; totidem Lemovicibus; octona Pictoni- 
bus et Turonis et Parisiis et Helviis ; Suessionibus, Am- 
bianis, Mediomatricis, Petrocoriis, Nerviis, Morinis, Nitie- 
brigibtts quina millia, Aulercis Cenomanis totidem ; Atreba- 
dbus quatuor; Bellocassis, Lexoviis, Aulercis Eburoyici- 
bus tema ; Rauracis et Boiis triginta ; universis civitatibus, 
quae Oceanum attingunt, quaeque eorum cwisuetudine Ar- 
moricae appellantur (quo sunt in numero Curiosolites, Rhe^ 
dones, Ambibari, Caletes, Osismii, •Lemoyices, Veneti, 
Unelli), sex. Ex his Bellor^aci saum numerum non oontu- 
ierunt, quod se suo nomine atque arbitrio cum Romanis 
Mlum gesturos dicerent, neque ci^usquam imperio obtem- 


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peraturos : rogati tamen ab Coimxiio, pro ejus nospitio bina 
millia miserunt. 

76* 'Hujus opera Commii, ita ut antea demonstrayimus, 
fideli atque utili superioribus annis erat usus in Britannia 
Caesar: quibus ille pro meritis *civitatem ejus immunem 
esse jusserat, ^jfta legesque reddiderat, atque ipsi Morinos 
attribuerat. Tanta tamen universae Gallise consensio fuit 
libertatis vindicandae, et pristinae belli laudis recuperandae, 
ut neque beneficiis, neque amicitiae memoria, moverentur ; 
omnesque et animo et opibus in id bellum incumberent, 
coactis equitum octo millibus et peditum circiter ducentis 
et quadraginta. *Haec in ^duorum finibus recensebantiu: 
numerusque inibatur: praefecti constituebantur : Commio 
Atrebati, Viridoraaro et Eporedirigi, iEduis, Vergasillauno 
Arvemo, consobrino Vercingetorigis, summa imperii trans- 
ditur. His delecti ex civitatibus attribuuntur, quorum con- 
silio bellum administraretur. Omnes alacres et fiduciae 
pleni ad Alesiam proficiscuntur : neque erat omnium quis- 
quam, qui aspectum modo tantae multitudinis sustineri posse 
arbitraretur ; praesertim ^ancipiti proelio, cum ex oppido 
eruptione pugnaretur, %ris tantae copiae equitatus peditatus 
que cemerentur. 

77. At ii, qui Alesiae obsidebantur, ^praeterita die, qua 
«uorum auxilia expectaverant, consumto oratni frumento, 
'nscii, quid in iEduis gereretur, concilio ^coacto, de exitu 
fortunarum suarum consultabant. Apud quos variis dictis 
sententiis, quarum pars deditionem, pars, dum vires suppet- 
erent, eruptionem censebant, non praetereunda videtur ora 
tio Critognati, propter ejus singularem ac nefariam crudeli- 
tatem. Hie, summo in Arvemis ortus loco, et magnae hab- 
itus auctoritatis, « Nihil," inquit, " de eorum sententia 
dicturus sum^qui turpissimam servitutem deditionis nomine 
appellant ; neque hos habendos civium loco, neque ad con- 
cilium adhibendos, censeo. Cum iis mihi res sit, qui erup- 
tionem probant : quorum in consilio, omnium vestrum con 

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sensu, pristinae residere virtutis memena videtur. Aninc 
est ista mollities, non virtus, inopiam paulisper ferre non 
posse. Qui ultro morti offe^ant, facilius reperiuntur, quam 
qui dolorem patienter ferant. Atque ego hanc sententiam 
probarem ('nam apud me multum dignitas potest), si nullam, 
prsBterquam vits nostrae, jacturam fieri viderem ; sed in con- 
silio capiendo omnem Galliam respiciamus, quam ad nos- 
trum auxilium concitavimus. Quid, hominum ^millibus oc* 
toginta uno loco interfectis, propinquis. consanguineisque 
nostris animi fore existimatis, si paene in ipsis cadaveribus 
prcelio decertare cogentur ? Nolite hos vestro auxilio *ex- 
spoliare, qui vestrae salutis causa suum periculum neglexe- 
riat; ^ec stultitia ac temeritate vestra, aut imbeciUitate 
animi, omnem Galliam prosternere et perpetuae servituti ad- 
dicere. An, quod ad diem non venerunt, de eorum fide 
constantiaque dubitatis? Quid ergo? Romanos in illis 
ulterioribus munitionibus ^animine causa quotidie exerceri 
putatia ? Si riorum nunciis confirmari non potestis, omni 
aditu prfiBsepto ; iis utimini testibus, appropinquare eoruir 
adventum; cujus rei timore exterriti diem noctemque iu 
opere versantur. Quid ergo mei consilii est? Facere, 
quod nostri majores, nequaquam pari bello Cimbrorum Teu- 
tonumque, fecerunt ; qui in oppida compulsi, ac simili inop- 
ia subacti, ^eorum corporibus, qui aetate inutiles ad bellum 
videbantur, vitam toleraverunt, neque se hostibus transdide- 
runt. Cujus rei ^si exemplum non haberemus, tamen liber- 
tatis causa institui et posteris prodi pulcherrimum judicarem. 
•Nam quid illi simile bello fuit ? '°Depopulata Gallia, Cim- 
bri, magnaque illata calamitate, finibus quidem nostris ali- 
quando excessenmt, atque alias terras petierunt ; jura, leges, 
agros, libertatem nobis reliquerunt : Romani vero quid pet- 
unt aliud, aut quid volunt, nisi invidia adducti, quos fama 
aobiles potentesque bello cognoveiunt, horum in agris civi- 
tatibusque considere, atque bis aetemam injungere servitii 
tern ? Noque enim unquam alia conditione bella gesserunv 

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Quod ^i ea, que in longinquis nationibus genmtur, ignoratui 
respicite finitimam Galliam, quae in provinciam redacta, 
jure et legibus commutatis, 'securibus subjecta, perpetua 
premitur servitute." 

78. Sententiis dictis, constituunt, ut, qui valetudine aot 
letate inutiles sint bello, oppido excedant, atque omnia 
"prius experiantur, quam ad Critognati sententiam descen- 
dant : illo tamen potius utendum consilio, si res cogat atque 
auxilia morentur, quam aut deditionis aut pacis subeundam 
.conditionem. Mandubii, qui eos oppido receperant, cum 
iiberis atque uxoribus exire coguntur. Hi, cum ad muniti- 
ones Romanorum accessissent, fientes omnibus precibus 
orabant, ut se, in servitutem receptos, cibo juvarent. At 
Caesar, dispositis in vallo custodiis, '^recipi prohibebat. 

79. Interea Commius et reliqui duces, quibus summa 
imperii permissa erat, cum omnibus copiis ad Alesiam per- 
veniunt, et, coUe exteriore occupato, non longius mille pas- 
sibus ab nostris munitionibus considunt. Postero die equi- 
tatu ex castris educto, omnem earn ^lanitiem, quam in lon- 
gitudinem tria millia passuum patere demonstravimus, com- 
plent, pedestresque copias paulum ab eo loco *abductas in 
iocis superioribus constituunt. Erat ex oppido Alesia de- 
spectus in campum. Concurritur, his auxiliis visis : fit gra- 
tulatio inter eos, atque omnium animirad Taetitiam excitantur. 
Itaque productis copiis ante oppidum considunt, et proximam 
fossam cratibus integunt atque aggere explent, seque ad 
eruptionem atque omnes casus comparant. 

80. Caesar, omni exercitu ®ad utramque partem miinitio- 
num disposito, ut, si usus veniat, suum quisque locum teneat 
et noYcrit, equitatum ex castris educi et prcBlium committi 
jubet. Erat ex omnibus castris, quae summum undique 
jugum tenebant, despectus ; atque omnium militum intenti 
animi pugnae '^proventum expectabant. Galli inter equites 
*raros sagittarios expeditosque levis armaturae interjecerant, 
qui suis cedentibus auxilio -succurrerent, et nostrorum equl» 

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um impetus sustinerent. Ab Iiis complilres de improviso 
Tulnerati proelio excedebant. Cum suos 'pugnse superiores 
esse Galli confideient et nostros multitudine premi viderent, 
ex omnibus partibus et ii, qui munitiouibus continebantur, 
'et ii, qui ad auxilium convenerant, clamore et ululatu suo* 
rum animos coniinnabant. Quad in conspectu omnium res 
gerebatur, neque recte ac tuipiter factum celari poterat; 
utrosque et laudis cupiditas et timor ignominiae ad yirtutem 
excitabant. Cum a meridie prope ad solis occasum dubia 
victoria pugnaretur, Germani una in'^)arte *confertis turmis 
in hostes impetum fecerunt, eosque propulerunt : quibus iia 
fugam conjectis, sagittarii circumventi interfectique sunt 
Item ex reliquis partibus nostri, cedentes usque ad castra 
insecuti, sui colligendi facultatem non ded^nt. At ii, qui 
ab Alesia processerant, moesti, prope victoria desperata, se 
in oppidum receperunt. • 

81. Uno die intermisso, Galli, atque hoc spatio magno 
cratium, scalarum, %arpagonum numero effecto, media nocte 
silentio ex castris egressi, ad ^campestres munitiones acce- 
dint. Subito clamore sublato, qua significatione, qui in op- 
pic o obsidebantur, de suo adventu cognoscere possent, cra- 
tes projicere, fundis, sagittis, lapidibus nostros de vallo de- 
turbare, reliquaque, quae ad oppugnationem pertinent, ad 
ministrare. Eodem tempore, clamore exaudito, dat tuba 
signum suis Yercingetorix atque ex oppido educit. Nostri, 
ut superioribus diebus suus cuique locus erat definitus, ad 
munitiones accedunt : fundis, ^bralibus, sudibusque, quas 
in opere disposuerant, ac ''glandibus Gallos perterrent. 
Prospectu tenebris ademto, multa utrimque vulnera accipi- 
untur; complura tormentis tela conjiciuntur. At Marcus 
Antonius et Caius Trebonius, legati, quibus eae partes ad 
defendendum obvenerant, qua ex parte nostros premi intel- 
lexerant, iis auxilio ex ^olterioribus castellis deductos sub* 
82. Dum longius ab munitione aberant Galli, 'plus mul 

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184 D£ fiELLO 6ALL1C0. 

titudine telorum pfoficiebant : posteaquam propius successe- 
runt, aut se ipsi stimulis inopinantes induebant, aut in scrob* 
es delapsi transfodiebantur, aut ex vallo ac turribus trans- 
jecti 'pilis muralibus interibant. Multis undique vulneiibus 
acceptis, nulla munitione perrupta, cum lux 'appeteret, ver- 
iti, ne ab latere aperto ex superioribus castris eruptione 
circumvenirentur, se ad suos receperunt. At 'interiores, 
dum ea, quae a Yercingetorige ad eruptionem praeparata 
erant, proferunt, priores fossas explent ; diutius in iis rebus 
administrandis morati, prius suos discessisse cognoverunt, 
quam munitionibus appropinquarent. Ita, re infecta, in op- 
pidum reverterunt.' 

83. Bis magno cum detrimento repulsi Galli, quid agant, 
consulunt: locoftim peritos adhibent: ab his ^uperiorum 
castrorum situs munitionesque cognoscunt. Erat a septen- 
trionibus collis, quern propter magnitudinem circuitus opere 
circumplecti non potuerant nostri, necessarioque ^aene ini- 
quo loco et leniter declivi castra fecerant. Haec Caius An- 
tistius Reginus et Caius Caninius Rebilus, legati, cum dua- 
bVLS legionibus obtinebant. Cognitis per exploratores regi- 
onibus, duces hostium sexaginta millia ex omni numero de- 
ligunt earum civitatum, quae maximam virtutis opinionem. 
habebant ; quid quoque pacto agi placeat, occulte inter se 
constituunt: adeundi tempus definiunt, cum meridies esse 
rideatur. lis copiis ^ergassillaunum^ Arvemum, unum ex 
quatuor ducibus, propinquum Vercingetorigis, prseficiunt. 
Ille ex castris prima vigilia egressus, prope confecto sub 
lucem itinere, post montem se occultavit, militesque ex 
noctumo labore sese reficere jussit. Cum jam meridies 
appropinquare videretur, ad ea castra, quae supra demon- 
stravimus, contendit : eodemque tempore equitatus ad cam* 
pestres munitiones .accedere et reliquae copiae pro castris 
sese ostendere cceperunt. 

84. Vercingetorix ex arce Alesiae suos conspicatus, ex 
oppido egreditur ; ^a castris longurios, musculos, falces rel* 

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iqnaque, quee eruptionis causa paraverat, profert. Pugnator 
Hno t0mp(»re omnibus locis acriter, atque 'omnia ientantur: 
qua minime visa pars firma est, hue concurritur. Romano- 
rum manus tantis munitionibus distinetur, nee facile pluribua 
jDcis occurrit. Multum ad terrendos nostros ?aluit clamor, 
qui post tergum pugnantibus extitit, 'quod suum periculum 
in aliena vident virtute constare : omnia enim plerumque, 
quae absunt, vehementius hominmn mentes perturbant. 

85. Caesar idoneum locum nactus, quid quaque in parte 
geratur, cognoscit, laborantibus auxilium submittit. . 'Utris- 
que ad animum occurrit, unum illud esse tempus, quo max- 
ime contendi conveniat. ,Galli, nisi perfregerint munitiones, 
de omni salute desperant: Romani, %i rem obtinuerint, 
finem laborum omnium expectant* Maxime ad superiores 
munitiones laboratur, quo Vergasillaunum missum demon 
stravimus. ^Exiguum loci ad declivitatem fastigium mag- 
num habet momentum. Alii tela conjiciunt ; alii testudine 
facta subeimt ; defatigatis in vicem integri succedunt. 
•Agger, ab universis in munitionem conjectus, et ascensum 
dat Gallis, et ^ea, quae in terram occultaverant Romani, 
contegit : nee jam arma nostris, nee vires suppetunt. 

86. His rebus cognitis, Caesar Labienum cum cohortibus 
sex subsidio laborantibus mittit: imperat, si sustinere non 
possit, ^deductis cohortibus eruptione pugnet : id, nisi ne- 
cessario, ne faciat. Ipse adit reliquos ; cohortatur, ne la- 
bori succumbant; omnium superiorum dimicationum fruc- 
tum in eo die atque hora docet consistere. Interiores, de- 
speratis campestribus locis propter magnitudinem munitio- 
num, loca praerupta ex ascensu tentant : hue ea, quae para- 
verant, conferunt : multitudine telorum ex turribus propug- 
nantes deturbant : '^aggere et cratibus fossas explent, aditus 
expediunt : falcibus vallum ac loricam rescindunt. 

87. Caesar mittit primo Brutum adolescentem cum co- 
hortibus •ex, post cum aliis septem Caium Fabium legatum : 
po«« fiory ipse, cum vehementius pugnarent, integi^ps sub- 

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Bidio addncit. Restituto proelio ac repulsis hostibus, ei\ 
quo Labienum miserat, contendit; cohortes quatuor ex 
proximo castello deducit ; equitum se partem sequi, partem 
^circumire exteriores munitiones, et ab tergo hostes adonii 
jubet. Labienus, postquam neque ^aggeres, neque fos8« 
nm hostium sustinere poterant, coactis undequadiaginta 
cohortibus, quas ex proximis prsesidiis deductas fors obtulit, 
Cffisaiem per nuncios facit certiorem, quid faciendum exis- 
timet. Accelerat Caesar, ut prcslio intersit. 

88. Ejus adventu 'ex colore vestitus ^cognito, turmisque 
equitum et cohortibus visis, quas se sequi jusserat, ^it de 
ocis superioribus haec decHvia et devexa cemebantur, hos- 

tes proBlium committunt. Utrimque clamore sublato, exci- 
pit^rursus ex vallo atque omnibus munitionibus clamor. 
Nostri, omissis pilis, gladiis rem gerunt. Repente post ter- 
gum equitatus cemitur : cohortes alise appropinquant : hos* 
tes terga vertunt : fugientibus equites occurrunt : fit magna 
cedes. Sedulius, dux et princeps LcmoYicumy occiditur* 
Vergasillaunus Arvernus vivus in fuga comprehenditur : 
signa militaria septuaginta quatuor ad Csesarem referuntur : 
pauci ex tanto numero fie incolumes in castra recipiunt. 
Conspicati ex oppido caedem et fugam suorum, desperata 
salute, copias a munitionibus reducunt. ^it protinus, hac 
re audita, ex castris Gallorum fuga. Quod nisi Vrebris 
subsidiis ac totius die! labore milites essent defessi, omnes 
hostium copiae deleri potuissent. De media nocte* missus 
equitatus novissimum agmen consequitur : magnus numerus 
capitur atque interficitur, reliqui ex fuga in civitates disce- 

89. Postero die Vercingetorix, concilio convocato, id si 
bellum suscepisse non suarum necessitatum, sed communis 
libertatis causa, demoastrat ; et quoniam sit fortunes ceden- 
dum, ad utramque rem se illis dfferre, seu morte sua Ro 
manis satisfacere, seu vivum transdere relint. Mittuntui 
de bis rebus ad Caesarem legati Jubet anna transdi *pritt- 

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dpes product. Ipse in munitione pro ca^tris consedit : eo 
duces producuntur. ^Vercingetorix deditur, arma projici- 
untur. Reservatis -3Eduis atque Arvemis, si ^per eos civi- 
tates recuperare posset, ^ex reliquis captivis toto exercitu 
capita singula praedae nomine distribuit. 

90. His rebus confectis, in .^Eduos proficiscitur ; ^civita- 
tem recipit. Eo legati ab Arvemis missi, quae imperaret, 
se facturos pollicentur. Imperat magnum numerum obsi- 
dum. L^ones in hibema mittit : captivorum circiter vi- 
ginti millia .ZEduis Arvernisque reddit : Titum Labienum 
duabus cum legionibus et equitatu in Sequanos proficisci 
jubet : huicMarcum Sempronium Rutilum attribuit : Caium 
Fabium et Lucium Minucium Basilum cum duabus legioni- 
bus in Remis coUocat, ne quam ab finitimis Bellovacis ca- 
lamitatem accipiant. Caium Antistium Keginum in Ambi- 
varetos, Titum Sextium in Bituriges, Caium Caninium pe- 
bilum in Rutenos cum singulis legionibus mittit. Quintum 
TuUium Ciceronem et Publium Sulpicium Cabilloni et Ma- 
tiscone in ^Eduis ad Ararim, rei frumentariae causa, coUocat. 
Ipse Bibracte hiemare constituit. His rebus literis Caesaris 
cognitis, BomaB dierum viginti supplicatio indicitur. 

Digitized by CnOOglC 





HAS A fihif ii Fahtxla elg tqia juigtj di't^qtixat* hv tb fdv ol 
Bi^yai,' xb da ol ^ Ax\}'£tavoL* %b rqliov dk ot imxoifQit»S f^f^ 
KiXtoif xatdi dh t^v 'fifiSTigav (ptaviiv r&XXoi 6pofttt^6fi8yo$, 
KaroAXOuOT ^xal o^toi fikv ndytsg ^g is t^v di6XBjnov xal xovg 
vbfiovg xal T^y dlanav din* 6XXif[hav ^xexaQldarai. To-bg dh KfiX- 
jobg Anb fihv ribk 'AxvXtar^ 6 ^FaQOiijuvag' dnb ds tlbv BsXySiy 
IB Maxqbvag xal 6 Ssx&rag diogl^^ovcn notafwl. II&vTiav xoii;- 
ttav xq&TtaxoL Blaiv ol BiXyar ngmop /ikp, Bu noXb ^(pKTxaat tr^g 
tv T^ Twy *Po)ftaloiv inagxf^ ^i)fJi6Q6xi]xog trig Jtaywy^f, xal od 
uii noXXdxig Mfinogop aq>iatv inifAluyovxat, tdt q>iXovvxa xobg 
&vdQ(&novg dqiTVtei^v xal ixO^Xi^vsiy iysiv sioi66%eg* Mneixa 8k j 
Sr* nobaxoiqoL elat xoXg nigav xov 'Ptjyov regfiavoXgy olg 
Gvvex^g TtoXBftovai, dC atxb dh xovxo xal ol ^'EXS^ltioi 
XQ&TKnol slatv iv roXg KiXxoig- xad* ixdaxf]v ftkv ydiq frxsdbv 
uixV^ Tor? xaff aixobg FegiiavoXg avv&nxovatVy ix trig aq>&p 
i^sXaiivovteg, 1) xal slg xiiv uTurGtv ifjtS&XXovxBg, 'H fiiv^oiv KbX- 
r*jf^, dLTib fihv xov 'Podavov d^j^O/u^i'iy, t© noxafi(^ raQ0T6jLtv(f 
nal x^ ^AxXavxixcf 'JlxsapQ nBgiXafiSdvsxai, xal nqoaipaiiBi 
iC^ *Pijyq) xaxdi xobg SBxavobg xs xal xobg 'EXSrjxlovg* qinsi 8b 
nqbg^Aqxxovg* i^ 8h BsXyix^^ &nb fiiv xthv itjg KaXxixr^g fisdo- 
qloiP dqxofiBPij, 8i'/ixBi fisxq^g hnl xA xdTW xov 'Pijyov xexqan- 
xai 8h nqbg^AqxTOv xal divaxoX-^v -^ 8b *AxvXxavia ^(ijx£» fikr 
dinb xov Faqobfiva fiixq^S ^^l xic UvqqjjvaXa bqtj, xal x^ xov 
^AxXavxixov ^SIxbuvov sig *l6tjqiay xBlvovxa* dipoq^ 8b t& /te- 
xa^b^Aqxxotv X6 xal&vaxoX&v. 

II. ^Hp 8i note naqdi xoXg ^EX^fjxloig dviiq nXovaKhatogj xal 
xQ yivBi XafiTtqbxaxog^ ^ Bpofia ^v ' Oqyixoqv^, O^og fihv ohv 
M bTtSLXfav M&qxov MsafrdXa xe xal Mdqxov Ustanpog, xoi 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


$a^M9iy pidXitna hniBvfihy^ ngOftor {ikv /lard jfav s^sptati^v 
QvPfSauwsv Mneira d^ nal t^v n6X$p ivineiaa nardtjfiH t^( 
rf&0ac ixaToars^SiP, q^tnov inideliotg ihat aidioTg XQaTlarotg 
oh(T$ ndiTve «^5 FaXaxlag &ffxsiv, Toaoixi^ dh fialXor otJiS ol 
EXSi/iTUn inlarevaaVy Saao navraxddsv T^g aqtviv x^^f*S a^ol 
7f s^mpodTTOvTar tij fihv^ xQ 'Pij»^ s-dqvt&T^ tb xal (SaOvrdinf 
ij'T*. fJjv 6* *EX6tjTixiiv (JtiA t5v regftavwv dinoTifivovtr tij d^^ 
ri^ */o«Jpqe. Bgst -dipt^lotdTa t' dyri, xal r^y '^A^i^rtx^r dnb trig 
Ssxavixrifi diogll^opxr t^ dk, xr^ t8 Asfidva Xlftvri, xotl t^ 'Pod- 
uv^ noxafiS nixo^g dnb x^g x&p 'Pfajuattav hragx^^S dtax^igd^- 
•vxt. A^xav fihv cUv ^crap at alxtat xov ctixcCg xs xov fti[ nol^ 
»lg ivQ-d dtaavelgeodai^ xal dvax^Q^^'^^Q^^ ^^^ '^o^? nqoax^govg 
tdXsfiOP ixfpigEiy Sars cc^roi dirdgsg g>iXon6X8ftoi ftdXitnoL^Pxeg^ 
ltd. xovxo iXvnovvxo laxvg^g. tigbg xoinoig di, ng6g xe xb xQp 
■votKo^vTav nXridog xal T'^y xard xdv ndXsfiov xal d^fir^y aipSiv 
96|ay, axspataxrjy jjftS^av iv6fH'tflv Ijjffitf, p-^xog fiky, i;|f/A*a ^r- 
veax6(7i>a xal etxoai crrd^ta, sltgog di x^^^^ xsxgaxdcria xal stxocrt 

* III. Tolxoig fikv oZy netdd/iapoi^ xal t$ xov ^Ogyexdgvyog 
d^t(6^(XT» Ttagogfiifdiyxeg^ xa ngbg 69oinoglay n6i¥xa iif/i](plaavTO 
nagaaxsv&l^sadai,^ oiov inotfiyid xs xal dgfiaxa xal HXXa xotav 
xa navxodandL &g nXslaxa ^veladaty xal <rn6govg &g nXelaxovg, 
tya 6 oTxog <r(pi<n xad^ 69hy diagxal-q^ rtotBladaiy Blg-fivtiy dh xal 
<rvfifiaxiay ngbg tdg negioixldag ndXetg noir-^<ra<rdai>, Etg dh xb 
^avxa diangdiTBiy dio txij a(plai diagxiaeiy vofilcravxsg, t$ 
rg(j(f T-^v bdoMoglav insxiigaaay, Tbv d* " OgyBtbgvya xovxo 
KaxegyaabfieyoP dmodBi^ayxBg, ixsivog t^v 7igB<r6etay [ihv ngoa- 
sdi^axo. Kad* bSbv dh K&anxov xbv KaxafiavxaUdovg^ xov 
noXbv xQ^^o^ ^^ ''^^S SsxavoXg 6a(nX8{>(raviog, xal g>lXov ^nb xa 
xr^g ysgovolag xal xov d^ftov xiby *P&ifjial(av xX-qdhxog., ttJ xr^g 
eavxov nd^eijjg xov naxgbg xvgavvldt inix^igBXy dvinsiaB' xal 
dovfivogvya xbv 'Edovia, xby ^iStxtaxovy xov x^ig nbXsfag xfif 
Edovifov dglaxov xs xal dgsaxov xQ nXiffisi Jivrog^ didEXqiby, xavxo 
inixBigslv ivanslaag, X'^iv eavxov Ovyaiiga ixBlyff ^ngov^^ytjare, 
gq,axov slvat qxioxay i^ixpsiordai xai&Xf^g x^g imxBigifiO'BOiig. 01 
uhv ybig ^EXS-fiuoi, Iqpi/, n&vxoiv x^y JCsXtSv dvvaxfhxaxoh shat 
ifioXoyovyxai' iy^ 3h a^roy dyafttpiXbyatg SacnXeT^oroj, &ax8 xrj t* 
ifiij dvv&fABi xal xt\ Ifiri GxgaxiQ, xdig ^aaiXetag -dnitrxyovfiai ifiXv 
xa6xag, Toiixoig (liv oly xoXg Xbyoig nsidbfi" 
BPOt, xal dB^i&g inl toixoig ddvxBg xal XaSdyxag, &nriX6oy' 
ngoadoxcbyXBg, el xa{>xag xAg SaaiXslag xgial xoixotg fieviXoti 
Silfioig xtix&cfxoi'Byy gcfSltag &y naffay x\y SXkfiy rataxtat 
ATtoxslgioy noviiaeadaif. 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 

190 c. juud cMMhmu 

IV. To^mtf d* oidn oJ3* Envg toTg 'EXStftloig Qiifivtvdivxttp 
aibjol xbv ' OQyeTdqvya di^aapiegy xajdi to atptat aiOvijdsg h 
lotg dsaftolg Xdyor ribv nenqayfiivoiv difdvat ettilsvoy kaXet-' 
*6ti d* aiuTu ^iffilav iniOeaav t6 l^ibov xav^ijaeada^. Kvgiag dk 
dii ^fiif^g jr^g dixfjg ineldoiafjg, 6 ' Oqyijoqv^ naaav fthv t^v 
iauTOv oixLav Big loiig iivglovg ^vd^ag dlaav, ndvrag re ng6g 
jo^oig to^g inijx6ovg rs xal XQ^^^^^^^^^S (ndfinoUoi di xai 
oljot, ^aav) eig tft avvidqtov avvayay^v^ dC ctirt&v fihv hv^a 
tb fi'fi T&g ei>divag -OnoHsadar doqiSov S* oi> tov Tv/^rTOff 
ini toitoig t^v n6Xiv xaxaXa66vxog^ xai a^T^^ %b iavj^ 8tx- 
alafta Ji' onlb}v (piJidiTsadat inixsigoiar^gy ribv d* d^j^dvriuy 
(Siydgag ix ju)f diygtiiv noXXoifg ini jty&Ka avvaysigbptav^ fiBx- 
ij^Xka^ev 6 * Ogyitogv^, &gys M aidi^v ibnomei^STai liby *El6ri 
rifav^ iavxbv d7ioaqnk^ag% 

V. Aitov d* dinodavbvTog, oidiv t* ^nov ol 'EXSi^xcoi t6 
tr^g i^bdov inix^igrjfia dLnojeXslr inatgdaavjo, ^Enetdii fikv ydig 
idx^tfta nagsGxsvdadai ivdfiKFav, ^ndaag (ihv zd; nbXeig dibdexa 
oUaag, td V dU.a nd^Ta tdia exaajog olxodo/i'^/iara xatttg>Xi^^ 
avxegi ndvta dh rbv aliov^ nXiiP o5 avaxBvd%BadHt J^fisXXov, ^ 
(tva i^g in* oixov inavddov dnoyvbvxeg, ngodvfidjsgot xoig 
xivdi)VOvg tnodiotvxt) IfingiiaavTBg^ ixdaif^ /akv diX(piTa iavj^ 
Big tgeXg fir^vag oixodsv qjigsodai im^yyeiXav. To^g $k 'Paiga' 
xug xal joifg ^TovXiyyovg xavtb noii/iaaadal tb xal dfia atplGt 
avvk^iivaif dvanBlaavxsg^ Botovg rs radg nigav tov 'Ptjvow 
ndXay fikv o2xijaa>'Ta^, vvv da Big T^y JVogixiiv fistaajdviag^ xai 

T^y Nogrflav nog&ifiaavTag, ngocrde^dfiBPOi, avfAfidxovg ^TroiiJ- 

VI. ^Hcfav dh navrdnamv bdol d{)0, di* hv i^Uvai. avtoXg 
oI6v t* ^y ^ fikv did tr^g io)r Ssxavwv X^gag arfi^ij T£ '^y xal 
di^aSatog, fusra^-b tov tb *Io{>ga hgovg xal Hov 'Pij^ow nvtafiov^ 
^ fidXtg dv afia^a didyoito, 6gog d* 'ipijoa ngoairt iiXlSaiov 
inaxgifiajo' S^arsdfiTfixavogJivaijfj'fiddbgBlGBXdBlP aTgat6{>fiatif 
el xal bXlyot xtaX-CoiBv, H dk did Tijg t^v 'Patfialohf snagxlag 
noXb gq^uatiga j ^v xal iXdnodP. Mbiu^^ fihv ydg jG)v 'EX6ij» 
TiuVyXalTiov VBOiGtl Totg' Poifialoig avfifidxftiv ysyswr^fiivoiv *u4l- 
loSgdyotPj ^v iaxdxrj nbXig xa xal tHiv 'EXSrftimv iyyvtdtfj l(nl9 
^ rsvota^ dip* ^g xal yiipvga sig T^y ^EXSr^ztx'fiv ^iijatsi, f*6vog 6 

Podavbg iaur o5 nogsilrGifiog dw^gBl, To-itg 8k *AXX66goyag i) 
nBiaartBg^ &g oiinoa ngbt; xoitg 'Pwfiodovg Birotxtbg ^xetf atplat 
doxf)vv%ag, I)t* oZp ^laadfievot^did'tr^g iMBlvoiw x^^S nogsiuBa^ 
du* Vf^nil^op, ndvja (liv olv xd ngbg bdomogiav avaxsvaad" 
UBvot, ivtbg gtfxr^g '^gag iw ralg xov 'Podavov djf0o*f ndvxag 

Digitized by CnOOglC 


VII. Erfsidii dh 7$ Kataagi, iv tr^ 'P(6/Uij 1616 d^T*, dreiyy- 
yildtif ToiJff 'ElStjtlovg iv vQ l/fi*y ^*a T^f «^tov aV ij raXaiiq 
inagxiotg t^>' 6^6^ no»£fadafr, ^»d Tdj^ov; i^f n^Xcoi; ilijXaffEy, 

gaysvofievogf ndori fiiv t^ inixgaTBlq 6n6aovg t' ifiilfyato nal 
dQlarovg (jjqaji(bjag rb ngdregov kfbg Tdyfiarog Iv t^ Fahnlt!^ 
hvxog iwfyjfyBiXsv* jiiv d' iv 11} rsvotcf yifpvqav dUXvaev, Ol 
d^ fA^iJTfrOfr, &g ^aOovTO idj^taia iby Kalaaga difpiyfiivovy nqiQ- 
Ssig a^r$ nifinovut lo^g dglujovg jr^g a<fO)v ndXsatg, Novfitjtov 
TS xal BsQodo^iov '^yovfiivtov, elneiv' jobg *EX6jjtlovg ivdvfitj- 
^yat dutywg di>& t^? ^nagx^oiSt ^S ^*d (piXlagf xal ravja tov 
KalQaqog aq>lQi t^v 6dby avyj^w^ov^TOff toiJti/i', inel HlXtj y* 
oix lq>aiysio a^joTg, nogsisadai. ' O dk KaXaag tby (liv AoTuxitpy 
K&aaioy tby dnaioy inb xoy 'ElSr^Ttmy jedyijxiyat, T^y dk 
ixelyov aigait^y dnaaay diaq>6agrivdl is xal imb tby t^vyby 
nBfiqSi{yat fiBfAvrjfiivogj sxBlyoig tavja avyx^gritiot slvah o^x 
"fiy^aaxo, Odx ^bto fily y&g divdgag dvafiBysTg di& nayibg lolg 
Potfialoig diaysyByjjfiiyovgf ' vvv avyxotigrjdBlafig aqtlat laiitig 
TTJg bdov, TOV d-novv tb xal nogdeXv t'^v inixg&TBtav &<piiBadat, 
Ofi(og dh, iVa XQ^^^S, iy § avdi ii^y snixgiisiay inayysXOiV'- 
tBg ajgattmai <rvysXdeXv MfiBXXov, nagiXdtiy loXg fjthy ngBoSsvat 
JO^tTOtg drtBxglyajo, on 'fifiigav ngbg ib nsgl joiiov 6ovXB{iBa' 
dai> algif^oBjai' bI di %i a-iiQ So^tXoiyio, t'^ t^Iti] dsx&Tti tov 
'AnglXXov fif^vbg n&Xiy ixBXsvBy Bnaviivat. 

VIII. *Ey joiT(^ dh tQ jb aby a^i© ovtt jdyfiaT^y i^al roXg 
ix Trig iitagxiag ngoijsXTjXvddat adr^ GTgaTK&Tatg, dnb Trig slg 
iby ^'Privoy sfASaXXoiuTjg As/ndvov Xlfivrig fdxg^g inl ib tabg 
SBxavobg dnb T(by 'EXSijiioay dtogl^^oy *Io{>gci bgog, taXxog tb 
fiky firixog Hxatby xal 7tsyjif\xoyja d-Co atddia, tb dl Sipog %k 
xal dixa nddag dioixodofii^aagj n6giBTdq>gevQ6, Tavta dk 
noirjad/isyogf <fgovg&v iyxajiatfjaByf igifiax^ % iunodlt^Biv iysxa 
tobg 'EXSfjTlovg, si ^icf, slg j^y i7ttxg6.jBiay nagidvat inixsHf^^ 
QB^ayy exgdjvyB. 'PtjTi\g da "fi/iigag, ineXBo^atjg xal xard tb avv» 
. TsBhy tibv ngia^Bfay ngbg a<>xby iTtayaXObyTioy, dtyuxgug aiitotg 
^nrigy^uato fiii d^yaaOai tiyly xaid ya rb vofiil^bftBVoy xtU 
a^yrfdag tSty PtafiaUay, T^y di^di trig inagxlag avyx^gsXy bdbv 
bI dk 6l(f dtBXOaXv inix^^g^^stay, ifinodlaBty aidiobg idldavxa* 
TaiuTt^g fiky oly trig hXnidog oi 'ElS^fftioh aipaXiyxBg^ ol (aIp 
aij&y TtoXldtg axBdlag tb xal noXXdt nXoXa dUtjAotg ini^eH- 
aPtsgy ol dk ^ nogBifOigibg tb xal oix luxvgSig ^y Sadbg 6 
Podaybg^ hioTB fUy xaff 'f^fiigay, noXlS nlBXoy dh vvuTbg^ 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


al *nrjd{fP sig t6 leVxos Bnexelgt^aar' rilog dk in6 te trig rot 
ig^ov (ne^QdTrjtogj xibv tb utgajttaTWv a7ti6orj6o{>vjiuv rs nal 
SiXsaiv aito^s fiaXXdt^Kav iinsfaafiivoi, 7o6jov jov imxeigi/ifiaTog 

IX. Mlct fihv ol)V %6 ijiga 6d6g diik trig i&p Sexav^v x^Qo^S 
cnuiolg ^ndXoinog ^v, ij 6iq iivat a6x ol6v t' ^v arevii y&Q ^p 
^ ndgodog. 'Hg ds joiwvg oi3x %n6i6ov^ ngiuSeig ngftg i6p 
Edovia dovfi%'6gvya %kefi\f)av^ dedftspot a^iov, ravra oq>lGi 
ohfinqdneip. *0 dk ^ovfipoqv^ cihiog idre ip joTg SexapoXg 
^pdei^ xai dwQodoxlaig iivdoxljUBf nQoaq>iXiig 8* ^p jotg EXSrj- 
tloigy &T6 y6Yafi7jx(3)g ix ttjj o'tJiSy ndXeoug oUarjg T^y roZ 
* Opyfiid^uyoff Ovyajiga' ngbg TO^wtg d^ xal €aGiXe'C6iP ini- 
Ovfiiop, ipecinigit^e, xal &g ^iddparo nXelata^ndXstg dagodoxibp 
^pagiaadai inexetgei'. ToiuTi^ fjihp olv 1(5 ng&yfiait ixsipog 
iy^eigi^aag^ nagd is tibp 2exoipo)P, lo-dg 'EXSrjTlovg diA i^f 
(Tffiop x^Q^S TiogevaeaOoti dlBngd^aiOy xal dXXi/iXoig 6fjn/igovg 
dirddpai iTrofijaaro- ig)' ^ oC fjiip Sexapol iv[g nagddov jo^g 
'EXStjiiovg oix dnelg^ovaip- ol dk *£'i^iJTto* -^ fiiip dLaiPag 
nogBvcfBudat lolg SsxapoXg dfidaovatp , 

X- *0 fjikp oZp Kalaag toitg 'EXSijilovg ipSv/nijOrivai, did. t^j 
T(ap ^BxaPOiP yf/g eig t-^v twp SaPidpojp nogeisadai dxatJcrag, 
(avTrj d' ij X^Q^ o^ fiaxg&p i^ff iGiP ToXoaaiiop ndXewg ip til 
T(bp 'PwfialQtP intxgaTei<f, o^aijg, dinix^^) *«i ^^ lavta uvfiSi/i' 
OBjaiy xipdvpeioetP naaav t^p inagxlap ipdvfic()fisvog, bI 
^dvpajibtaiol tb xal xgdiiUTOt, &pdgsg, xal ngbg loHotg xolg 
Pua^aloig noXifjioi, ip j&notg Bigvjdwtg iB xal ipsgyoTdtotg 
ng6ax(agot> trig inixgaielag yipotpw- vovtq (aIp oJ)P BpdvfiovfiB- 
pog, j6p flip vnagxop Tiiop AaStrjpbt* ia6i(^ t© igifxau^ nBgl 
oh ^9ri iggidi}^ sniaTrjaBP' aTuidg Si ^g ^^i/ytj^Jiy Td/iora sig 
riip ^ItaXlap <xn6tgag, ixsX tb dio pia jdyfiara xaTBXi^aw, xal 
dXXa igia ngbg iri ^AxvXi^tcf, nagaxBifi&tflPta ix t(bv ;|ffft^a(5/aiy 
^lijyaye, xal lavta nipjB ^x^^t ^l ^'^ twi' ^ulXnitap Big Ti^f 
nigap raXaxlap ^p avptoftojidir^ bSbg, Ton^iij inogBisjo. ^Ep- 
xavOa di todg jb KBPtgdpag xal joiig ragoxiXovg, TOibg is Ka- 
toigvyag, rd dixga t&p ^^Xnitap xataox^PTag, xal Trig ^^^^ 
%bp Gigarbp dmoxtuXvOPTag ipxBvdep iino)ad/4BPog 6 KaXaag^ 
^nb trig ' OxiXov, iax^SiTtjg trig inl OcftBga riap *u4Xnio)P FaXa- 
ttag ndXsojg o^at^g, Big i^i' riap Boxopjlap ;^(5^a>' ip jif nigap 
inagxl^ oloap, h^dofiaXog d.(plxBW IvxbvObp d* sig T^y -^A- 
lo6g6y(ap X^Q^^t xdxBXds*' Big t^v r&p SsxovaiapQp ^ya xbp 
mgaidp. * 

IX. 01 Si 'EX6i/iTU)i^ V^dt] didt r&p t^^ SBxap*xrig axBPSiP ei£ 
x^lp x&p 2 'Edovimv x^g^^ idv (nffaxbp dianogsvG&fiBPot, a^i^p 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


Tip6Q0P» xal ^yoP' 01 /ihp o^y 'Edovstg eavxoig J8 xal Td a^&> 
dTi* a-itt^v ita<r6}^sir fii^ dvvfjdirrsgf nqiaBBig ^ Kalaagt 
hfSfiy/ay, Ssdfievoi (Tvfifiax^^' toiovto* J»d navrdg negl nybg 
Pcttjualovg yeviodat, dtddaxovreg^ &<n6 didixop sjpa^ loig le 
(TifSiv dygo^g nogOstadai, xal lO^g natdag &vdQa7Todi}^eo6ai'f idg 
18 aq>(bv ndlstg drafndjovg yipeadmf xal ravta sig by/iv ax^dbp 
tov jQp 'PatfialatP argaiod yLpBada^. *Ep Tdvrql dk xal oi l^fi- 
&ig^oi, dpayxatol ta xal ^vyyeveXg T&y 'EdoviatPy ngbg idp 
Kaluaga diaq^vy^xsg^ idlSaaxop &g o^ diPttivro^ xal dtjXwOip- 
fup ys TWP &y^p, ^(fdUug ro^g TtoXefiiovg &n6 T&y ndXewp 
dnoao^etv. Otie *AXk6Sqoyeg, ol niQop tov 'Podavov x<b/iag 
18 xal xt'/ifiata l^X^Pteg, ngdg rdp Kalaaqa dpsxi^fjoay, aHbp 
diddaxopteg &g nXiiP tov ytjnidov o^ddsp ag>luip &Xh> ^6Xoinop 
^p. To&rotg fiip o^p nstadelg toTg l&yoig 6 KaXtraq^ oix 
fieptjiiop 6lpa$ idSxBt ai)?^, iag oh oi ^El6if[tio$ n^Pta rd xi}p 
ittvtov avfifi6x(op /^i{/uaTo i^apaXfbaaPTsgf sig T^y SaptOPixi^p 

XII. "^OT* di ttg noiafibg, "^QaQtg 6pofia^ Toaoifrnj sig i6p 
Po^apbp 8la^6Xhap dtge/nltf, &aT8 3noi ^sl, t^ btpst fiii diaxgl- 
PBadat, Tovjop oi * El6ifj[tioi ^noXldig axBdiag diUtijXa»g iniH^si^- 
apjsg, dU6aiP0P, Mad^p dk nagA, t&p xaiaaxdnoiP 6 KaXaag 
f&g flip TQBXg ^(fvXAg libp 'EXSijtIwp ^dtj ibp noiafibp dia6f\paiy 
€^p dh iBrdQTffP inl OdLtega tov noiaftov It» -indXomop bIpui,, 
iLfiq>l T^y Tginjp q>vXaxiiP a^v xgial -i&yfAaQh Xddga tov urgaio- 
nidov digag^ ini to-dg oihifu jop 'EXStfjlwp tbp noxafiop diaSa- 
STjxbtag &gfitja8, xal ToOrotg dngoadoxi/fcoig la xal dfupl T^y 
tov notafiov didSaaiP daxoXovfiivotg dq^pta inmeoibp, nafinbX- 
lovg a^&p dnixTetPSP' ol d^ Xomol ifvy^ inl Td nXijolop p&nti 
SisafbOtjaap, Aiitfj (aIp 'f^ q>vX^ Tvyovgiprj insxaXaXro' titiageg 
ydg q>vXal tiap 'EXStirtwp dii^gijpjai* SiP a^i^ fidpij inl j(bp nare- 
giov i^sXBovaa, a-dtdp tb tbp inaiop Aodxtop Kdaaiop dnsxietpe^ 
xal nap ib sxbIpov (ng6t8Vfia f^txijaaaa, -dnb tbp ^vybp ini/t- 
ipato. O€roif o^p ^ ix avptvxiag ripbg, i) t* o^p ix t^; toS 
Ostov yp6fit^g, o5to« tibp 'EXSijiiiap ol ro^g 'Pfufialovg ndXat 
dstPibg xaxihGaPiBg, %(ift8 T&y SJXuiP fi&Xiara dixag hioap, 
rigbg Toinotg di ravta 6 KaXaag xatBgyaadfiePog, o^ (ibpop 
%wp ngbg tb dtjfidvtOPf ditXd xal tiop ngbg savtbp d^gBotP a-dtoiig 
it$ftatgi/laatO' tbv (ihv ydg Kaaalov tov indtov inoatgdtfjyop 
doixnop nslaapa, tbp tov Aovxlov JlBlaatPog, nspOBgov tov 
Kalaagog, ndjtnop, t^ a^T§ ^ xal Kdaaiop fidx^i ^^ *EX6i\tiot 

XIII. Tavta flip oZp notr^adfiBPOg 6 KaXaag, tbp ^AgagiP 
notafibp, Jra dattop tb lombp t&p 'EkSijtlfOP atgdtevfia xata* 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 

104 C. JVia CMBAXiA 

Oi dk 'El6ijtu>t T1J aitov Tajif/ori} iqiddaa fABxanlayivteg , Zx% d 
adroi hninhving iv stxocriv 'fifUqatg inoi'f[aavTO, xavta imsivog 
iv fuq 'flfiiqfjf, ^(fdiiag KatSTtgd^ajo^ ngia^eig naff aMr inifim 
tparto To^g trig aq^StP ndlsag inir<pays(TTdTOvg, 'Hystto dk airoiP 
dl^&xog, iv Tif xaiA Kdaaior fidxy ajqatijydg Twy 'EX6fiTl(u> 
yBv6fA8vog^ %g xal nqbg rdv Kalauqa &<ftK6fievog MXe^s totdda' 
AIX al fihPy M<pfj, Kalaag, -bfieXg ol.'Ptafialot nqbg ro^g ^El6tj» 
rlovg slqT^vsZtBf ol 'EiS^fittOi 3not dp IdiXfjrs xal TtQoaTd^tjxa 
noQe{Krovtai ta xal ixsl jUBvovat'P' el d* a^ToTg noXefiovPtag 
diaTeXeXta, fiifiPijaOa /idvop T^ff ra totp 'EXSijrioiP dqxalag 
dgatrigy xal Trig jo^paptlop i(bv ^Pfafiaitop OLXvxlag, " Ot* fiiv 
Y^if fiiq> "^fJt^p fpvXrl, xal Tttt^TTj i^ o^ ngosiddvog, xal t&p j6p 
noxafjUiP ^dri diaoaSijxdxay intxovgeip a^rij /i^ dvpafi^pav, 
dtgiPOi irtalddpxagf raixijg 8XQaxi\&ax8y /utJT6 did rovxo fiiyot 
<pgopelx8, i) xal 'fifiag xaxo^g vo/ilt^axe* nagd. /ikp y^g xGtp 
iflfiexigfop nqoyhpwp fjiaXXop dgsxif, ^ nXaova^latg re xal doX(&m 
aeai' xgaxeXr dedid&y/ieda, *uiXX* oga fn\ ntog olxog ip ^ pvp 
iafihp xdnog ix xrig xSiP 'Ftafialoup dvaxvxtag xal Trig xoi&tov xov 
ixelpfop axgaxov naPoXedglag in(bvvfiog yiptjxai^ I) yovp xaixt^g 
uvtjfielop elg x6p del %nena xg^POP inoXetqidrj, ^iSixog fihp oI>p 
o%xmg alnep, 

XIV. ^0 dh KaXcrag S)di luag a^xQ dnexgivaxo' ^AXV ^ifieXg 
fikv ol 'PotfiaXot t4 pvp -bnh aov gijOiPxa 5*d fAPi^fir^g Mxopxeg 
^xxop dnogov/iieP' xoaoibxqi dh SageCtegov xa^xt^p t^v dvaxvxict> 
pagofiBPy oaca xobg Pmfiaiovg nag* d^lap <r<pSiP xaixijp nenov 
dipat tafiBP, El fikv y&g iavxoXg xl nagl -tfiag ifii>xfix6ah avvr^ 
deaap, gqdiotg Up iq>vX(&^aPxO' I'v*' dk i^tjnax'/idr^aaPyOiixaTl 
kavxo^g nga^at i<p* S <po6eXaQat fiiXXo^BP, oHxa ye o^8efiiag al- 
xlag oUfftjg <po6tjx4oP ajpui vofit^opxeg. El Sa xai&xrjg xrig naXatag 
i6fi&p idixlag nagl xadg 'Pwfialovg iniXapO&paada^ ^ovXolftr^p^ 
T^Sg xal xa^xrjg xr^g ng^fjp ^figetog t-^y fiPi/ifirfP dnoxlOeaOat 
Svpal/it^p; ng&xop [ikp y&g^ ifiov ^xopxag, 6l<f alg xiiv imxgd'- 
xaiap nagiipat ^^ra/fii^ijaorra* ^na&xa 3a Ta6g 6* 'EdoveXg xal 
xo^g 'AftSA^govg xal xobg ' AXX66goy ag detpGig ixax^aaxa* 
Oxi 3* odxta ao8agS>g inl xaix^ x^ ib/iiexig<f pIxi^ diPanxagovoda^ 
xal "bfiag Toaovxop xg^POP d^^jutou; diayayapf^Gdat Oavft&l^axat 
alg xavxb xovxo gina$, t^iXeX flip y^ xb OeXop o^g dPT^ ddtxiaig 
agmp nixg&g xi/iiagaXada^ diXji, xoixovg dl^r^filovg xa xal inl 
noX^p xgbpop a^dalf*oPag i^p, tpa x^ xibp ngayfi&xap ftaxaSo^ 
uaXXop ^agCpfOPxai, EIbp xavxa ndpxa* ofitag, itpff, dp dfiiHgovg 
dma niaxdp xt i^fifig SiddaxatP &g i/tnad(&aBxe St Xeyexa, &p Ta 
td( ftagi ta t(m)$ *E3ovaXg xal xo^g *AXX66goyag HSgate ixalpwg 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


$M9tKeZT8^ 'flftBlg n^ to^g 'ElStftiovg Blf^vsiaofABv. KaiQa^ 
fUv o^tng alnsv, 'O di JlStxcg^ 'uiiUtd, Kdiaaff, l^^, fifisTg ol 

Bi(&Oafiay rdtov ts i^/«eig ol 'PmfiaXot fid^rv^sg iaii, Tavtu 
inoxQ&rdfiBvog 6 JlStnog dmd)y i^jifero. 

XV. Kal T§ iatSQaltf oi *JEi(?iJT«o» fiBJBtrtf^tonBdsiOaavjo, 
' O KttlaaQ dk Tuvrb i7io»ijirceio, niviag ro^g Inniag Ix xa tg5> 

Edovifav utii tSv SiUUiy avfifidx^^ ^^S tBtQaxiaxMoug iavr^f 
i^d^OKTfiipovg, not noQB^aotrto ol noXifnoi uxoTtrjaofiivovg nfjO' 
nifA9ffag, O^joi ^ ol tnftBig Avd^i^dfteyoi nXj^a^fbTBQOv I) ^dst 
TOig nolBfiiotg lnf;xolo6dt^aay &atB iv rtPt dvaxot^l(f' loTg t^v 
ElSfftlutP Innavat avfiftl^aviBg, ^TTt}(9i;ffay dX/^o« fABvjoi o^- 
Toy hteaov, Tof^rr^ dk t^ M^X^ ^^ 'EXSi^Ttoi inagdivjsg, 3u 
nBvjanoaloig ftd^ov iTtnsvai. joaovto Inniutr attipog ivlntjaav, 
$qaa{ftB(jov fdv i^iftBt^OP, xal ivioii yB joi>g t&p 'Patfiaiwr 
dnta&o^laxug Big fidx^f^ Tti^ovxttXovpjo. *0 dk Kaiaa(^ jo^g 
ftkr iaviov axifaTi(htag fidxBodat oiux bIw iiy&na q si n6voy 
S^pano riip wp buviov avftfidx^^p /c&^ay idi^anop diuffvldj" 
tstP' ^JlotB ^ifiiqai nipXB xal dixa nagrilOoPf bp cjg fiSTu^^ 
xa)p itrx&xwp tuip 'EkStftUap xal tap ngmwp tiap 'Pet/talup ai 
nlslop HxTfii atadimp diBlslnBTO, * 

XVI. *Ep TO^rq> d' 6 /ilp Kalaag toig 'EdovBig 8y di^fioaif^ 
^dr^ imiaxoPTO aXtOP dniJTe*. ^td fthp y^Q tA yjiuxog (naoa 
ydg ^ raXatla^ &g xal &Pid nQOslgtfTaif igxit^a ifnlp"^ ohx oniag 
nin(OP ^p ip jolg dy^lg 6 aXxog, dXX' oi$h j^iJlov Ip t$ aiQaj^ 
adt^xBta ^p. "EnBtta dk oiudh tQ dt& tov ^A^dQBtag insiodxjfi^ 
alrfp x^^^^"* ^^^ ^^X^^t ^^* ^^ 'ElBi^iiOi^i &p dnokslnsaOai odx 
i^So^lBTOy dnb TOV *Aq6^6iag dnBtgdnijaap. 01 S* 'EdoveXg i| 
^fiigag sig '^fiiqap dpaSoXdg inolovp* pvp fikp ddgoHsaSat t6p 
gXtop, Ttoth ^ dyBG0at, diXlotB dk xal nagsXpai XiyopjBg la?* 
dv naqixBiPOP xbp AalaaQU. *ExBXPog (aIp o1)P &g idx^ota xovio 
^adsjo, ^ouyxaXdaag aidxwp xo^g ^qx^pxag^ ot nolXol ip xQ kav' 
xov GXQaxonid<^ ^oap, xal iv xoiuxoig x6p xb ^iSnuxxbp xal xbp 
Alaxop^ xb fiiyiaxop x&p 'Edovitop diia>fia Bsgyddgaxop xalov» 
fASPOP tx^pxag (tovto dh xb xilog xa\ hog x^^QOxopaXxaif ^al 
filpv XB xal dapdxov xqlPBtP tobg intjxbovg dipaxai) mxgibg 
atidxobg ifiifitpaxo, or» cix ^"^^ ^^ ^pxog a^T$ oHxb xbp oXxop 
^PBXvOai^ o^xB yB ix xwp dyqUiP avyxofiU^e^p, xal ngbg xo6xotg 
xoaaioBf^g dnogtag oiiaijg, xal x^p Ttolafiiotp oStoi nXtjalmp, in* 
0^ xibp o^x iiHpBXsXxo, xal xavxa St* ixstPtap xb nXeXaxop xovxop 
tbv nbXBfiOP dqdgiBPog* ftaXXov 3* oxi M aii(hp iyxaxsXsiip^^ 

XVIT. Tavta S* BiJtbPtog tov Kalaagog 6 ALaxog xiiig ixBi- 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


rov Xdyoig nsiadBli, idre itpavigmaev & x^metv rtq6t6gop ^p 
naQBaxevaQfiivog. *Evlovg fthv yd^ M<paax6v elvat na^dc t^ 
jXi/ldst (liya iaj^ovxag xal drjfzdTag 6pjag nXeXoy a^m twr 
d^;^6rTWV dwafidvoug, O^toi d*, Jgoi/, slalv ol lOtg uip^v 
utaGif&dsai t9 ttal dtvoaloig Xdyoig t6 nXr^dog, /u^ i6filv dnoSodii 
6 6(fiBiX6fisvog cijog, dmoxginoviBg. K&v fikv ol joiovtoi t^p 
trig PaXailag ^qx^v f*'^ dipfhvtai' xajaXaSBly, /laXXov aHiir 
Twy ^EXSrjjlav, ff twv ^Pfafialoav slvat Hnidvfiovaiy, Ynb 
TO^nuv dh n&vja xd ^iifi^v tqiv 'Patfiatoiv nq&yiJiata tolg 'EX- 
6ijTioig diuYyiXXovtai, Kal ri, M<pij, Kalaaq, on idvto jb 
ng&Yfta aot 6.vayxaiov ^vayxaadslg crxsdbv xajBlnoVf oix 
iyvoG} didi rovio fJiBy&Xoig xivdvveiaav xal didi tai>%f}v x^p 
aUlav i(p^ oaop iidvvi/idrjv tovto iaid>7tr^(ra. jilaxog (ikv oviftig 

XVIII. *0 Sh KttXaaq TOi^rq) t$ IxbIvov Aoy© inoarjfialp 
sadtti rdv xov ^iSmaxov ddBXq^dv dovfivdqvya Tsxftatqdfispog^ 
xovTO d* ivavrlov noXX&v diaUTtBlqBadai fii^ ^ovXdfiSvog, ivObg 
fihv diiXvoB T^y diyoq&v. T6p dh Aiaxov xaiaax^v, ^qsxo fjthp 
Aifdxbv xard fi6vag^ bI rd M aHov iv xfi ixxXijorlq qvfiipta dX?^.. 
6ri s}^, 'O 8h TOVTO fistdL nXslopog Tdxe fi^tjXcdafi na^grjalag. 
AXXoug dk xal 6 KaTaaq Tavra iqan&Py dXt^dT^ ^vTa xarifittdBP 
ejvat fjihv Tbv dovfjivbqvya dqddbv &vdqu, xal t6 nXrfiog dwgo- 
doxlaig dva^TiJaaa^a^, psttneql^eiv d* intSvfiovvTa, Toig tb 
q>6qovg xal tdff Xom&g T(bv ^Edovimv nqoabdovg Iv^povg noXXdi. 
Ixiy kuxTixivai' a-dtov fibv ydtq a^Ag Tifi'/iaavTog, oidBlg dvTtTi- 
fA&y HbXfjta, ^SIotb ix Toixiov, %<paaaVy t6v 6* havrov ijH^jjubp 
olxov, xal noXX& nqbg xoirtoig slg id^ duiqodoxltitg ;|f^ii/iaTa 
avveXi^aro' xixl Inniag fxhv noXXo^g ix tij; airtov Tqitpst dandpt^gf 
xal diBl Toirtovg neql kavTbp ^x^i- o^ fibpop 6* ofxoi^ dlXd xal 
tiXbicttop, Ttaqdi t^ -bnBqoqlcf. d^parai- &(tt6 ti^» fiip fit^iqa ip ToXg 
BiToiqi^irV dipdql iTtupaPBordTf^ ts xal kxBl di/ya'RkiTdfKp avp(f' 
xifTBP' tt&rbg d' ix t^$ tGip 'EXSijrlatP x^q^S yvpalxa elg y&fiop 
^yayBP* xal x^y rrqbg fifftqbg aHov d^eAqp^y, xal n&aag nqbg 
Toiytotg xd; nqoarixoiaagf &XXrip sp diXXri nbXsi^ i^idmxsp* xal Td 
fikr x©y 'ElSrftluiP tpqopBl ts xal aifTOig ^«d x^** intya/ilap xatS- 
Ttjp tdpoiX, MktbX di as i$i(f, KaXaaq^ xal To-bg iXXovg 'Poh- 
fialovg, Sxf iv xi} raXttTl<f naqayBpbfiSPOi, xtjv fihp oiJxou 
d^pafttrP ^XaTt(&(raT8f Jt6iTtaxbp dk Tbp didsXq>bp ip x$ nqbaOeP 
d|cc6juax» T8 xal dvpd/iBi xaxfiOTi{aax«. ^iZorx', MijpaaaPy ^ flip 
noTB SbipSp Ti nddojaip oi 'PtofiaXot, ip fiBy&Xvji iXnldt x^ff ^id 
T(bp 'EXSriTltap SaaiXstixg iarlp- &p di xobpapxiop xd x©y *Po>- 
ttatap imxqaiiaTBqa yiptjTai, o^x ^nwg Trig SaaiXslag^ dXld 
xal f/g vvp l/e» dvp&fiBotg obdB/iiap' ihnlda nouXtat. 01 fii* 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


9^p Tovx tXsyoi', Katiuads dk xal ngog roHoig 6 KaTaaQ, &g 
iv rri dXlyoiv ngdadev 'fiJUEQcbv Twr SavToo Inniwv ysyBvrifiivr 
^TTcjj 6 do{)fJLVo^^ xe xal ol ixslvov InnBig Ttjff ffvyrig nqoxax- 
r[q^av' TOtJioiy Si qivydftajv, naaav ti^v ^Xr^v Innov rqan^val 
TS, xttl Big (pvyiiv 6^^TJaa»' (tGi' fikv ydp slg avfifiaxlay 7o9 
Kalaagog itnd tQv 'Edoviav nefiKpOivrtoy Innimv tnnuQxog h 
^o{ffivoQV^ insdidstmo.) 

XIX. TavTa (Akv ovv ixoiaag 6 KaTaag, xoi, ngbg ^iv V^Stf 
rod dLvSgbg bJ^bv inoif/larf Ga<jp^ ngdyftaja nQoasivai yvo^g, 
ngibTOv fikv rdv ^ovfivdgvya dt&rrig Zexapixrig jo^g *EX6i]Tlovg 
dianoQBvcai* Mnsna $^ ro6g 78 Ssxdvo^g xal ixBlrovg d/UtJ^ov^ 
dXXf^Koig dovvtti noi'/iaaadai- ««* javxa o-dx ^nug kaviov ib xal 
iGiy'Edoviay dxilBvaror, &XXA xal ixBlfovg^XaSdvia Trotijaaor- 
dat' nqbg xoiioig dh xal -dn* 'aHov tov twv 'Edoviotv digx^rrog- 
Aiaxov xaxriyogBXuSai ixelvov Sg&v, txav&g Ijjffiir altlag 
ivdfiil^BP TOV I) adibg ixsivov fiSTigxsaOai, ^ xal Tovio^if t(by 
Edoviuy ndXBt TTgoaT&TtBiV. '^Ev di toDto fi6yov taiiiti t^ tov 
Kalaagog yv^fiti ivavriovjo, ot* jdv tov ^ovfiv6gvyog xoixoh 
&dBXq)bv diSixtaxbv fi(iXi<n& tb tA tSV 'Ptafialwv cpgovovvta, 
lax^g^^g 9 kavx^ sdvoovvxa, xal SivSga ngbg roixoig dfiw xal 
aditpgova xal fiixgiov 8vTa i(bga* &(rx8f fi^i xb xov didsXcpov n&dog 
ixelvog Sagioag (pigoi, 6 Kalaag nsgiBtpoSBixo. Toiyagovv ngiv 

~ r* TOiJrctfv Trotijcrafr, xbv fthv diSixiaxbv ngbg iavxbv bx^Xscb, 
xal TT&vrag xo-dg dXXovg savxov /iBxaaxTjaafiBvog Sgfirjviagf dtdt 
xov Patov BaXrjglov UgoaxlXXov, xov Tijg iy lij raXarltf 
enagxlag &gx^vxog^ savxf} xb (plXov niaxoxiixov bvxog, ctdxS 
d$BXixOrj, ndvxa dk rd kavxov nagbvxog iv TtJ ^xxXijaiq, nBgl 
xov Jovfiydgvyog grfiivxa, xal ^ixaaxog nag* kavx(o iy dno(- 
^iJT(p ixBlvov xaxfiybgrioBy dijXtbaag a^ny* ^iofiai aov, }l<pij^ i 
diSixtaxk, fi^l XvneTadaiy Mv xby obv didBXqibv xovxov ^ovfji^ 
vbgvya fiBxiXdm i) xal ij twv 'Edovimv ndXsi bxbZvov xoX&I^Btw 

XX. T6xb dk 6 JiShxiaxbg xbv Kaluaga nBgiXaSijiy, (rbv noh- 
XoTg daxgCoig XinagBly f^g^axo, fii^ xi dsivby nddot 6 idslipbg* 
n&vxa fjihv xavxa, ig>rj, & Xdyaig, iXr^dri Hyxa yiytxiaxta' oti^Blg 
'i ifiov xavxa ^agijxBgov ijpigsi. *Ef*ov fikv y&g TtXstov My xb tJ 
8/ii9[ x^gq xal nagdi xi^ ^XXti n&axi raXaxlcf, ik x^ ngdadBP 
Xgiy^ laX^aayxog, xov d^ dtdBXqtov }\xxoy ^*d x^v PsbxijTa 
dvvfidivxog, dt* kavxov vvv fisydXrjy divaftiv xixxtfxai* ^ od 
ubyoy ngbg xb T^y i/iiiy xaBalgBiy, diXXit xal ngbg x^v ifi^v 
axedby dn(bXBiav /^^T(x». *Ey<i} 5* Sfiotg t^? xb ngbg xby ddBXgfbw 
fiX4><rxogylag xal xi\g n&yxtay ivxginofiat dd^ijg. Totrovxov fihp 
ydg uov nagdi aol icrx^pxog, hxsixa et xt Ss^vbp n&do^ -tnb <7o9 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


6 ifibg didshpbg^ o^slg Matai Btmg f fi'^ ^ofn^ rov fi^ ravn 
ifiov uvfinqdjtovjog ysviddar &at8 nitvisg &v oi rdXloi fjj* 
vvv Ix^vai nq6g fis sivoiav ngo'^itroivjo, Tavta jov dtSiriaxoi 
a^v nolloTg daitqifOtg nagdi jov Kalaagog dsofiipQV, 6 Kalaag 
atxbv de^uaa&fiByog 7tttqBftvdi\aaT0j fiii nlslov XmageXv xeXe^v. 
ToaovTO fihy yAg, lip?/, nag* iftol fibvai, at aal dB'f[GBtg di)vaviat, 
&GTB xal &p 6 abg dLSsXapbg.TO^^ 'Ptafjialovg 4fil%ria8v, }[g re diA 
TOVTO bIxov Xiyntig, ixalvaig fAbvaig uvyyiVihaKta, Tavja sln^v^ 
xtti ixBlPOv ttagaXa6(jiy, rbv dovfApbgvya fiBtBTtefiyfoto* xal & 
fdv uMg ixsXvop alttajai^ & dh xal ^ nbXig joiv 'Edoviotp 
a^(f ftifiifBTa^, dt^Xdtaag, nagi^pst oStqi notslp, &9t* Big xbp insna 
Xgbpov dPBnlXrjmop dmraXBtv^ tdt nagsXfiXvddia iqi ixslpov 
dcdsXtpS ^i6m>ax^ jJvyyiv6axBip Xiyav, Ovtm fikp oIp Bxetvop 
vovOBJi/iuag iv (pvXax^ «7iOfrij(raTO^ tva ri tb 7ton\QBt, olg ra 
avpiuBTai, yip6ax6tv oiJi'^to*. 

XXI. Ta^Tridk t^ 4/<^^? ^^b t&p xataaxdntav fia6(j)P t 
Kalaag^ roitg noXsfilovg^ 6gog ^fingoaOep o<p(bp noifjaafiivovg^ 
M a^TOv IfiJxoyTff tittagag aradlovg ujgaTOnBdBi^aaaOaif 
iipdgag n&g Mxoi trig t$ tpibasag xal trig xiiJxlq) i(p6dov tovto 
rb bgog iniaxstpo/iiipovg inifiiffato, Tbitoty dh gqdiap bIvui 
inayyBMvTOiP, t^ fihv Hnoargattjy^ 7Yt<p Aa€irjp& ix t^$ 
zglrrjg g)vXaxfig inl tiiP dixgmpvxlav tov Bgovg, toTg t-^v 6dbp 
^dij ngo/iaOovaiP 'fiys/nbat XQV^^f*^^^^* ^^ tdyfiata dtvaStSd^- 
Bip nagi/iyyBiXB^ t^v havxov yvf&fir^v ixBlpf^ <ipaxotv(OQ(ifi8Pog, 
Aiftbg dk tij iBt&gtri 9)vAo(xij digag^ rg oi5t^ to?? noXefilotg 
63{f . in^ a-dtoi^g ^yBP' xal naaav t^f tnnop ngonifitffag, tbp 
uhp Uoi^Xtop Kovvtdiop, &pdga ^ iv tolg aTgatrjy$x(afidto$g 
dybfiBPOP^ xal r^ AovxUf SiiXhif^ fiBtinsita dh xal t^ M&gxfp 
Kgdanno avojgatBvad/iBPOP , ai>v rolg xataaxbnotg ngoins/ji' 

XXII. "Afia di tij ^ju^^qC} tov fdp Tltov Aa6i^P0v ¥idrj inl 
tilp dxgtopvxlap tov ogovg u^p toXg dval tdyfiaatv ipaSdptog, 
xal tov Kalaagog od rtXsXop ^d{>o xal dixa tnadlfap dnb tfhp no* 
XBfUfav dupsat&togy t&p di noXfiftlaiP, 6$ xal fiBtd Ti^y /<d/i;y 
iXByop oi aixfidXonot, tai&T^v Tijy iniSovXiiP ^eidbvap, oltog 6 
Kopoldtog IdgovPit t^ $nnf^ t^ Kalaagt ngoadgafi^v^ dnrfiyyBt* 
Xbp^ 6?, 8 i)nb tov AaSirjPov %x^^^^^ ifioiXsto Bgog, tovto ol 
noXifiUH ngoxatr{XBl<pB€rap* tavrta Ix tB tibp ai^fislwv xal t&p 
raXXixup BnXiav yplbpai Xiyiav, '0 fihv olv KaXaag tovto (ixclJ- 
aag, tb otgdtBVfta idnb tb nXtjalov Bgog i57njy«y6, xalixst nag" 
stdttBto, 6g fnixv^ TfOiOT&fiBvog, *0 dh dii AaSitfvbg i^b tov 
Kalaagog xBXBvadslg, si /ui) t^ havt&v utgdtBvfia nXtiaU^v 
^Ivoito, /iii inBldBXv toXg noXsftlotg, (ivu noXXax^ev dfia 

Digitized by CnOOglC 


ivifisvev od fiax6(i6Pog. "Hdrj 8* iitPnoX^ nffoeXi^liOet '^ i^i(fa 
fyfUa drtaffiXhovai x& Kalcraqi ol naT^trxono^, t6r ftsr AaSit]* 
v6p t6 dqog xarixsiw^ xal Tadg *El6tjTlovg fiBTaatQatoneds^ 
aatrdai, Tbr dk Koptrldtop '6nh q>66ov d odx eVfsv ^&g tddiP 
4inaYY8ilai, Ta&iji fikp oIp t^ ^^^q^ 6 KaTaaq xarik t6 ela&6g 
dtdanj/ia jotg nolsuioig iipsineto, xal etxoat iBxraQctg atadiovg 

XXIII. T^i^ ^OTegaltf, Su fUp d<>0 'fifii^ai n&ftnap ^ttbIbU 
novjo jov deiP atrop tij (TTQarttf ^i,adid6Pttt, on d| n6X»g ftBy- 
^Xfj xe xal s^aifimp wp 'EdoviotP, BiSqaxtog Hvofia, od 
nXeXop IptbvObp exajbp jBrtaq&xopra rsaadQatP ajadlatp dntjv 
SovXSfiBPog 6 Kalaag t$ a*T9 n^poetp, &n6 flip riop 'EXSrj- 
rUap &nB'rifAnijf inl dk TiiP BlSqaxrop inogBT&eto. TotIijup S* 
BiS^g rotg 'EXSijTlotg i6n6 tipGtP inb Aovxlov AtfttXlov, tot 
t&p r&XXoiP inn&qx^^i <rq>((rp ainoftoXtiadLPiiaP^ dLnayyBXdiPxoiPy 
QtdToi ij IS TO^g 'Pafialovg dist QfpSiP qtsifBiv^ (8 did toi^to fi6,- 
Uaxa ^lyovPTOy ^» tiJ ni^xsqalq, oi ^PtafAdtoi tb 6^g xaxaa^bP' 
€8g fi&xV^ o^ avp^^ap) ^}t* o1)P %&p inttijdsimp adtoiig Ano- 
nXelasip da^^ovpjsg, fjtSTBpbrfaap* xal trig nqbadsp ag>(ji)P bdov 
inoTqaniviBg, robg T(hp 'PafiabaP bniadoq^Xaxag Si^xbip tB 
nal eig f*&XV^ naqaxaXsXy 9[Qj^ap%o, 

XXIV. TavT, olv xaxavotia&fABPOg 6 KaiGaq, xb axqdxBVfia 
6nb rb rtXrjalop bqog i^Tnjyayc, xal x^y /ikp Innop Ip xaitxi^ 
ifti xb^ x^p TtgdtXTjp x&v noXsfilwp dgfiiip imaxeXp inBfiy/sp. At* 
xbg d' iv xa^tt^ ip (ii(n^ x& hqBi> Yd xixxa^a dqxotla x&yfiaxa 
tg^x^ dwxAl^agf htsvga indvw iavxov rd hega d<)0^ & psmaxl 
Hp tJ *IxaU^ MaxBygdfffatOy x&yfAaxa^ xal nap itgbg xo{rto$g 
xb avfijMtx^^bp ip x^i dxgoiPvxl^ tov Bgovg laxtjtTBP, &ax8 n&P 
xovxo xb 6gog dpdg&p itPanX/r^g^ai^ Tojjrto dk noitjadfiBPogf 
xal n&pxa rd axavoipbga eig ipa xbnop avpayelgag, xolg ip rg 
xoguq^fi xov }igovg ohaip ai^rd $ia<pvX6:txBiP nag'fiyyaiXBP^ 'Ep xo6 
x(p 8* oi 'EX6i\tiot, navk a^p xaltg ax6vog>6goig xoig ^Pufialovg 
xaxadK&^apxsg, x&xb fikp a^d Big ipa xbnop avp-^Ogoiaap- a^ 
xol 61 didgboi x^p 'xap *P(ofiaiap tnnov xgsiff&fiBPOk^ xal slg 
^^dXayya xiip (r<p&p x&ftp noiria&fABPO^^ knl xobg ng^xovg Toy 
PoffialoiP &gfi7jaav. 

XXV. '0 db KaXaag ngmov ftkp xbp tavxov, Mrrstxa di 
to^f jtApxmp x&p &XXaiP tTtnovg ixnod^p noirfaA/uBPog^ fpa, faov 
Iko naaip ^Ptog xod xipS-Cpov^ odds/jila aixoXg gtvy^g iXntg Xal" 
noixo' ^TtBtxa dk xal xbp Bofibv x&p frxgaxuaxiop ineystgagf* xutl 
inl x'^ip oiipifdop aiirro^g iSoxgdvag, r^y f^tdxfi^'tfvpfiyfe. JM 
ngO/np fUr tl ip TJj d«^y Vj^^ Pm/iiaiot iix6pxiiibp xe »oi iwit" 

■ Digitized by CjOOQIC 


^Bvoy elg or&io^g' Sots toc)^ T'^^ iftelyatp (pAXayy^ dUf^tjfiai^ 
insl dh ^i^avah&aavTsg it^y nd^gadav dkniiy, ^i<pi\g8ig inid- 
qaftoy aq>lai, to{>j(f fxhy tov ii\ qqdltag fiq,xBadat fi&liaxa 
iysnodlJ^oyjo PiiXlor oTt ol nleXaroi a^ra)y fii^ fioX^ naXtov rd; 
dianidag diatsrgtjfiiyag ie xal roXg &fioig Ttgoadedsfjiiyag ^xovTsg, 
JSnsna x^g alXf*^S iyxa/Kpdelatjg, oiits uiiv dnoanAiraadai, oUrs 
ys trig ^Qiazsgag x^*Q^S dcxolov/jiivijg eiinstfag ii$Tifyayto jad- 
XBadat* &(T$* ol nolXol fihv adtiby nol^y XQ^^oy ngbg t6 dno- 
an&aaaQai rd naXxdi diitb i^y ^Lonldfav iby Sqaxloya aslaayrBg, 
j(kg t' uanlifxg indggtilfav, nal yvfAvol ngoslXovto fidxeaOa^. 
Tilog da xqaifjuxaiy dLnaigfjnbtag^ inl 7i6da % iyax^cavto^ xal 
ngbg bgog oid nX^Toy ^leTtiigoiiy aradlaty dnixoy dyexfhqtjaay 
'Exaiytay fAiv ohv louro t6 hqog xaiaXaSdytoiv, xal t&y 'Pa- 
fialoiv intdiojxdyjwy, oha'Botoi^ xal ol Toi^Xiyyot, ^naytaxtaxlXtOi 
inl naai> t&y 'EXSijiUay Tatayfiiyoi, ex nXayiov yvfiyov rol^ 
Poitfialotg inaXOdyjegj 7teQi8x{>xXovy aidiodg* xal rovio ol iy t(f 
hgap *EX6i\uoi xarii^y Teg, i^ ^gX^'S ndhy joig 'Fatfialoig 
in^xatyjo^ xal liiv {i&x^v dLyeyaihoayjo, 01 dh 'Fa)fialoi d^x^ 
kavTobg ta^dfiByot^ f^Xavyoy alg a^zobg- xal oi fihy a-diibv lolg 
^drj fitti^delat t©v 'EXSrjtloiy iytalxoy' ol dh ngbg robg vaiaajl 
imbrtag ifidLXoyto, 

XXVI. Odro) d* laoggbniag a-djSiy inl fiaxgdrajov dyo^yi^ 
aafiiyoiy, riXog ol 'EXSi^jtOi ^yxix^iy o^x ifivyffiriuav 6lXV s^- 
dbg ol fdy abiGty, &g xal ngbiagov, inl tb ogog, ol dk ngbg 
18 tt\ dgfiata xal id ax8vo<p6ga dvaxfttgrjoay didi n&arjg fiby 
ydg rai^Tijg T^g ftdxvSs xalnag fiixQ^ dalXrjg *i{ htadiyou dta~ 
yayeyijfiiyrjg, obdalg ix ydnov IdeZy xbv noXifitoy -^Juyij^i;. *Enl 
noXb dk xal trig ^'vxrd; ol 'Pmfialot inl xd axavoapbga ^yfayi- 
aavw ol fiky ydcg *£>t^iJTiO« dta di^ Mgvfid tt rd dgfiaxa itgoBa-- 
Xbyxag^ iS a^juiy alg toig antbytag tSty 'PfafxaUay hb^avoy xal 
iytol ye aHiay fiataSb T(bv 6^ dgfiATOiy xal jt^y xgox^y^ naXxd 
noXXd xal li/axd inaq>lauay, &g t' ixaZ ixgdidtjaay noXXol xioy 
PmfiaUay, TiXog d* ^fioig xal robxatv xgaxi^aayrag, xiay xe axavo-^ 
^bgtay xal xov abxtby axgaxonidov iyxgaxaXg iyiyoyxo ol 'Piafidioi, 
'Eyxavdd xa x^iv rov* Ogyexbgvyog dvyaxiga, xal a'ya t&y abtov 
vlSty i^6ygffaay *Ex dh taixt^g t^^ f^dxyg &ydgag x&y 'EXStjxlmy 
4ig xgiaxatdexdxig fibgwt nagiyaybfiayoi^ oXtjy T^y Kbxxa t^> 
^by ob ^dtaXalnoyxag, inogabovxo' xal xQy 'Pmfialoty, did x6 
tgaig '^fiigag nagl xa xd x^v axgaxwvd)y xgopOfiaxa xal xi^r t^ 
yexgSiy dyalgaaiv d^axgi^ai, ixaivovg du&xa&v /u^ dvpi^Oiyxoty^ 
iyxijxQy Aiyybvav xaxagxaioi dq^ixovto, 'O (Uv oZw Kalaag 
ufligvxag ngbg tobg Aiyybyag nifinonv^ dni^ybgava fir^dhv xwp 
innydaloty xolg 'EXSfiztoig nogl^eiy el di fti^, noXafiloig abxoXg 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


-6f nal joXg 'ElSijxioig x^ff^aOay xai ttiiids 6fiOv di^ Ix^p naQaw 
T^y eavxov divufnv^ inpslneio. 

XXVII. Oi S" 'ElS'f^Ttot ^dx^f^ navTQiv n^yfiAvDv AnoQ^ 
iqt avvex6ft6V0if nqioSstg notqdt tbv Kwioaqa nsql nf^ax^fj'T^- 
U6WS %n6gi^av* ot Had' SSdv air^ if^JvxSpJSSy n^dg te ro^s 
n&dag a^iov nQoainiaov^ xal elgift^yrjy nag a^ov ait> nolloti 
daxQiboig '^ttjaay, Kal 6 fihv KaXaaQ, onov ^aav T&ts, ^ptavOa 
iavfdv nB^ifiipetv ixiXsvsp' ol J' ineidovto. IJgbg aitoibg fikr 
ovv naQ0iY8v6f*8P0g, Td onXay xal 6/UiJ^vg, to{fg re ngbg a^to^ 
^aHofdoXi/^aavTag dnrltet. *Ep ^ dk tavJa ^avvijOgoltfiPTOy /tnag 
vvxibg ngbg t6 raAra dianqd^jxeadak diaXeinQidarig, &pdqBg d^- 
q>l 7oi>g k^axiaxi'Xlovg trig ^BegStylvtjg dSro) xalovftiprjg <pvXrig, 
^ q)66c^ jov TfagadoOivtay iGtv onlay ^nb riay ^Potftaltav xoXaa- 
dr^yat^ i) x oly aXnldt riybg orottjtjglag nagog/itjdeyjsg (toao^ 
T&»y fi^y Y^ by-itoy top idtg 'Fta/iialotg ngoax^godptay^ %i\p 
oq>u>y dXlyay <pvyiiP XaOslP Hvy ^ xai naytdnaaty &dr]Xop 
^yovyjo eiyai), Hp Ta<^iij j^ pvxtI ix jov aq>^p axgaronidov 
i^riXOoyy ngbg xe xby 'P^vop xai T^y xtby TBgfiay&p x^^op 


XXVIII. Tovxo xaxafjuid^p b Kalaag^ hp dtdL z^y /c&^ay 
ohxoi inogsiioyxOf xij^uxoe Mne/iif/sp^ si dpalxtoi nag' kavxQ eJyat 
idiXotav, xoiltxovg dLniys-iy xbXb^p, *ExBiPOi,g fikp ol)y b Kalaag 
ngbg iavxby dnaxOela^p 6$ noXsfiloig i/^iJaaTO* ndpxag dl robg 
dXXqvg^ rdc onXa xal bftifigovg xo6g xb ngbg crixo^g adro/uoXijaay 
tag dnoXaS^p^ slg ngoax^gr^oip Idi^axo, Kal xo^g fikv 'EXSr^^ 
xlovg, xOTug xb TovXlyyovg, xal xoi>g AaxbSg^yagy Big x^y ^g 
i^BXt^XifOsaop x^9^^i inapUvat ixiXBvasp' on di^ ndivraiy xojp 
xagnm diaq)dagiyxiayy ovdky Mx* ^y iy t*^ X^Q^ $ difyatvxo 
ngog xbv Xifiby i^agxBiQdaiy jolg flip 'AXXiSqo^i aHoXg alxop 
nogVQBiv xoXg d* al 'EX^tixlotg^ x&g xb nbXatg xal x&g x6fzag 
xiby ^AXXoSgdyay, &g xaxiipXa^ap, &paajriQat ixiXavcB, Tovxo 
di didc xa6iijp fi6tXiaxa xi\p alxlap b KaXaag inoiaXxo, fiii ^ov- 
XbfiBPog xiiv *EX6ij%txiiP x^9^^ MgijfiOP duxfiivB^y fiii oi nigap 
Tov^ijfou rBgfiaPol Tai^rij ip8gyox(kxi^ o^axi nsurdiyxsg, ix xr^g 
eij^p Big a^t^v diaSalPoiBP, ngbaxfogoi xb xt^g inixgaxBlag 
mal x&v *AXXo8gbyaiP yipoipxo, Toiig dk Botovg alxovaip nag 
iavxov xoXg 'EdovBvat, oxi dXxlfiovg dpdgag Bpxag k(&g(»Ps i 
KaXaag awsxiogfjaa, TMxoig fi^p oZp oi 'EdovsXg xbxB fikp 
X^^p Mdetxap' insna S* ilBvOigovg xb xal a^xopbgiovg ^ 
iavxobg inoitjaap, 

. XXIX- *Ep di T(p xiap 'EXSj^xUap uxgaxonidi^ EXXtjyiaxl y«* 
yga/iftiyag BigOPXBg nlyaxag ot axgajtiaffittf t^ Kaiaagi drnji^c^- 
xay ^Ep . xaixa^g dk xdt^dpxwp, xiop ix r^j ^EXGriiix^g ^|Xi;Xv- 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 

202 ^ C. JVUt CJB8ABIS 

KU)P Hal ndvtoiP ray i&nhg. tA utQaxe^aifta Hrj yeyoy^JiiW 
Mfiaia iiQidfMovvTO, ^y n&yrmy 6 dt^tO/ibg rotovrog ^»* -vt&y ju^y 
EXS^tlap, S| seal etmat /tvQtddsg xal tqiaxih^h TovXiyntiy 
dkf TQia/i^gioi^ xal i(axior/Uco»* 'Pav(f6ixay dk^ T^ia/^o* xal 
dia/iiqiof Bctatv 3k, diaxl^* xal rqiafi^qtof t&p dh Aaxih- 
Sqiymv^ fi^Qtoi xal jetqaxitrxiX^^' ^f*^ ^^'^ f^^^ axqaxavofUvmy 
avfin6,yxmy 6 dqiB/idg, iyyia fivgMsg re xal durxl^^* Toy d* 
iielijXv66roiy T^g x^Q^S avfin&ytioy 6 igidftbg, tgidxopra S^ 
fivqtddeg xal dxtaxtaxlXtor T©y J* inavi6vtioy xeXeibaaytog 
tov KaUraqog dfidfufdivTmy, stqiBiiaay fb nap iydexa fiv^ 

XXX. Toiftf^ /dp oIp t^ troXi/itp tov Kalaagog tilog ini* 
dipvogy ix Ttaa&p axsdbp t&v tr^g VaXarlag ndksmp oi dtgiatoi 
nagdL x6p Kaiaaga inl ta^rri jij a^dtov pIxti avPijd6fi6PO$ ^XOop, 
UyoPteg roMe' *uill* 'fifislg fihp tafisp, Kalaag, xalnsg aov 
totg 'ElSfiTlotg, dp6t &y j6 ndXai tobg ^Patfialovg ixdxtaauP, 
Pvp noXifju^ dtxr^p intdiptog, o^x ^rroy tavxa ^X tff avfind- 
atjg jr^g raXavla^ I) inl t^ x&p 'Pu/iaUuP ^tpsXekf nengdixOai' 
ol fihp yitq 'Eil6!t{TM>» b^ Trq&xtoPtBg r^v cr^dv /c&^ay xaiiXi^nop, 
iy y^ MxoPTBg ndiFTi tij raXari(f nbXefiOP sxtpigB^p, xal Taiiijp 
xataaTQsyf&fiBPOi, /(6gay /a^p, ^yt^ya ipBgyordnjp ft'V^^OiSP, 
kavToXg i^eXiaOaf ji^p d* dXXrjp Scnaaap raXariap i&notsXfl 
JSxsiP. ^BbfisOa 34 ooVf Mtpaaap, iaaat 'fifiag aivodoy ndaijg 
trig raXailag noi-fyjaadaf ^j^o/tiey yitg <rby jij nAprwy rSy 
r&XXwP yp^fiti tI nagd aov dBluBat. 01 (ihy ovp oOti»; bItiop* 
rsvouiyov ^ adtoTg to6xov nag& tov Kaloagog^ avpfhfwaufy, 
Ufjdiya dlXov^ bI /u^ tobg inb n&Pttup Tcor r6XXoiP 4nl ravto 
algexobgy xavra tQ Kalaagi denayyBXBlP. 

XXXI. Taibtrjg fikp oIjp rij; avpddov ^avpaOgotadBlar^gf ol 
a^Tol ^idfj ngbg %bp Kalaaga iXdbPTBg &gxopT6g jQp nbXsoiP^ 
T&tB xal ngbg a^bp inapr^Xdop, 366fiBPW uByxotgstP nBgl tB rrfi 
Gi^p xal Tij; n&px^p xfbp ^ilXuiP JTdiUleiy amrtjgtag ngbg uMp 
3iaXiy8ada»» T\>(uov fikp oIp xvxbpxBg, ndptsg ngbg xoXg itpolp 
a^jov 3B3axgvftipot ngoainBOOP, o^x ^(^op intdvfiBiP XiyopXBg 
rd xoiPoXoyrjdipxa fA^ ixdtjfiocriBifeadat, 1} agtiaiP dnBg ^oith^pxai 
nagA tov Kalaagog ylPBaOat* Sxt dip aHA 3fjfioai8v0il vd<p* 
^3>BiFap iaxvg^g xifMngijabfiBPOt, 'Ynkg ct^iQp 38 jJi6ituxxbg 6 
E3ov8^g^ Xdyovg nowb/iBPog, toMb IXb^bp. *EyipOPT0 fUp, 
1^7, 3<>o Trig raXajtag a^/a/uara* &p tov (iip |y6; ol 'ESovBtg, 
Baxigov ^ of *Ag6igpo^ ^gxoP' o? lnBi3i[ noXbp j^^^yoy to»( 
E3ov8v<rt nsgl t^; FaXaTlag dgx^'S dpx^wpltrapioy xilog QiplavP 
utjoig od ntatBioPTBg^ ftiu&eiTO^g na^ t&p ragftaprnp /tBV»' 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


divTsg^ nXeiovg Mai nlslovg intQaidtdtjaay &<ne a^xQv vvp 
Biatv iv T^ raXajia &g d(&dsMa fsv^Msg. Toirotg fik^ ot 0^ 
Edoveig xal ol ixtlpnv aiofi/iaxoi Una^ xal dig avvaSalov, 
'HmjOirteg Ji, fiBY^Aug iiHx^Qav nApxag (ihy ydiq toiig 
B^BPBlgy naadp t« ri^p cr<p&p adyxXtixop^ ndptag ts ngbg toi- 
roig to^g Ijtniag datiSaloy &aff ol t^ atpQp not^ dvp&fiat, xal 
t^ n^g to^g 'Poiftalovg $ey/(jc tc xal (pdlq {iiyiGxa lax^aaPTBq 
Edovslg, ToXg JSaxaPolg pvp 6/iifigovg dovpai ro^g n&px^p tihp 
Tr[g a(pQp n6Xsug d^/orcDv naXdag, xal dfidaat, ^ fii^p pijdi ro^g 
djuij^ovg AnatTi\<rBip^ fn/ixs pot^dslag na^ wp 'Patfiabopy ^stjaea- 
6a$y ^fJTff Y^ Ttaf^nifiasadat jov fiii dt6, napibg xSiP Ssxapihp 
^axovsiP. Kal aix6g fdp, }iq>ff, fiipog Blfil iyfb^ ^itg iv naai 
TOlg ^Edovsvaip, I) to?; dlXoig avpogxafiOTsXpf 1) yovp 6f*1^Qovi 
zoiig hfto^g natdag Sovrai, oiix ifivP'ffijiP nsiadriPcu, Kal did. 
T^y altlap rabit^p ix trig j&p 'Edoviotp ndXamg n^tpvyixiP Big 
til^ 'Pdftr^p^ nagl Sotjdeiag ngbg t^y yegovtrkcp naqeysvhfAtiv^ 
ou fidpog iy^ odra yB ipogxog ^v, o^tb Sfii^govg idsddixsiv, 
*AXX* ol ysfiiiP Ssxapol v6Pixtjx6t8g^ x&xiop pvp xQp 4(txr^div-' 
wv 'EdoviofP ngAttovatP, *0 fi^p yd^ t©v regjuapibv SaoiXs^g 
^AqMiatog iv rg ixBiPtap X^^ xara/tivBt, xal trig ralatlag 
iPBQyoT&tr^g SsxaPixr^g y^g t6 tqitop (Uqog xarixei* pvp ^ ^t» 
xov iHov tgltov fiigovg toi^g Ssxapo^g i^lataadat oi xbXbvbi" 
8t» 6Xlyoig ng6 tov fifjalp *A(io{>dioy dvo fiVQi&dBg xal tsj^axia* 
Xlltoi ain^ TtgoariXdop, olg x^Q^^ ""^^ kiotfi&lC^Bi' &(n' ix 
totiwv ovftd'^aBtat^ ndptag fdp toidg rdlhwg tr^g a<php x^qag 
ix6lij$i^(iBff$ai' n&Ptag dh to^g PegfiaPO^ t6p 'Pr^pop d^a^ij- 
asadat, (od fUp ydig vg tcov r&XloiP x^Q^ 4 ''^^ rsQfiaplap 
bfioUiy oUP 4 toi)toiP ^lOtBla t^t Sip rdXXutP nagaSXtjtia), *0 
3h dii *AqMi<Ftog, toitg rdMovg ip t^ * AgiayBto^qUf. dna^ 
f*^X^ t't.Kijaag, ^iQoyxdp ti xal dyffiop dgxsi' 6fii/iQ0vg iup y&Q 
to^g n&Ptap tQp iglartiP alxsi naXdag, xal sht ya nqdg te to 
VBhgiaxi xal v^ ixBlPov ypdfiti od noiBixat, oMp B xt x&p Sbipo^ 
xdxoiP to6xoig xoTg 6fii/igoig oid dg^' dv^^ ^' iaxlp dqylXog xb xal 
^igSagog, xat rtoQ&xoXfiogy xal x6 oXop ^ ixalpou diqx^ o^x It' 
^PBItxdg' &<n* Bi f»\ ^nb aov, Katoaq^ xal x&p dilXup 'Po)fMt[up 
6oij6oiifiB6a, ndpxsg ot rdlXoi xaM roig 'EXSrjxloig noialp 
(kP€iyxac6ij(f6/tsda' ix fikp trig ^^/i6xiQag yr^g HBXdsTp, x^qap 
di xipa ni^qoi ^nb tUiP ragfiapGiP itpsaxaoap itjxeip. El da 
yB d Xiy<o pvp, x& *Agto6tax(^ dnayyBXd^, o^x dfi^ tot fti* 
9dxl a&tbp xoi^g ftaq^ iavm^ ^fA'/^qov^ H^BMoxaxa xjiitugi^apcdah 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 

204 c. Jinun cjesasis 

AUdi ori>, KttXaaQf 1) t^ aaviov te ual tovdilfiov tm *P»fi€tim9 
<pif^fiilt i) Hal triQ vBoaaxl totiutijg xaTd toy 'ElStfTiay wlKtfg d6^ij 
xmUetv, /i^ fieil^atp dqiSfibg rBQftavwv alg t^p raXajlav StaSff^ 
»al naaoLV nqbg toiftotg t^v ralaxlav xov ^AqtoSUrxov divauui 

XXXII. TaOra rod JiSniaxov €ln6rtog, ol fikv HlXoi ndv 
Tsg ttfua^bp aq)la& yBviadah %6p Kotlaaqa xXalovtBg IxiiBvop 
M6vovg dh toO? SBxavo^g 6 KaXaaq o^ip fihp xoiroip noiovptag, 
dpia^^g Sh, Xttl T&g XBipaXdig dpBtfiipovg ts xaU x6teii SXinop^ 
Jag xarapoija&fiBPogf tI noti t strj tovto Bavfi&aag, airtoiig 
flip iiQf&jt^aep' ixBivmp d" o^^p dnoxQipafiiratP, xal zov Kalaa- 
^g TtoXldi nsQl to^KOP i^oiTiJaayTog, 6 'EdovB-^g ^tStTtaxdg odxwg 
adrc^ dnexQivatO' *AlX ol Ssxavol, KoiiaaQ, loaoirt^ Tap dlXup 
rdlXofP xdxtop TtQ^JTOvatP^ ocno a^ol fi6pot odd* ip dTro^^iJrqi 
dd^QefrOai, aidk ysfti^P Sor^Oelag od loXfidiGt '^dBiadai, Tolg (aIp 
ydi,Q dilXoig r6iXhng q>s-6y6ip oidp t iatl^ rolg Ssxapolg 6* oH, ' O 
/Akp Y^^ *uiQi66ta%og Up jb jij ixslpiop x^Q^ xatafiivBt^ xal ndaag 
T&g adtcbp Ttdlsig i<p* iavxdp noifjadfispog, oddh 3 t* auTOig 
T(by dBiPOxdiup o^d d^, 

XXXIIL Tavta 6. KaXaaq dxo^aag, to^ rdkXovg nagsfiV' 
^ijaaTO, TO0TO £avT$ /ueAij<7£»y a^oXg -tnoax^fiBPog* fiBy&kag ydt^ 
ilnldag Ij^ffiy, tbp *Aqi68unop noXXdi itp" a-btov xs xal Xihp 'Pai- 
fiaioifP BiBQyBXfidivxa, vvp toHwp fiBfiPjjfzipop na{)Q8a6ai, xr[g 
^SgBfog. To{fXmP flip x6xb slQtffiiPWPj dUlvas Ti^y dyoQ^v, Xoiglg 
dk xodttap TToXAd ai^rou xov toi^t^ t$ nQdyfiuxt iyx^^^^^^ nag- 
ihSvPB' nqmop fikp y&q xo^g 'EdovBXg noXlixtg avfifidxovg 9 iinh 
X(bp 'Piafialfup xal dLdeltpoifg XBxkrjfiipovg, vvp inlxoXg rBQfiaPoXg 
yspofiipovg, xal noXXo-dg a<p(bp nagd xoXg SsxapoXg hpxag ifi^^vg 
B(&ga' S iavxC^ xs xal xoXg 'Pa/ialoig, xoeraitxrjg oUat^g xijg ixBi- 
poip dgx^gf aUrxg^P "^lyBXxo slpai, ^Enstxa dk xal xo^g rsgfiavoi^ 
xaxd fitxgdp xhp 'P^pop diaSalPStP^ noXC x* ^dfj nXridog aidxSiP 
ip T7} PaXaxlo^ Bjpai ippoo^fiBPog, ix xoifx^p fxiyav xoXg *P<ofiatoii 
nBgiB^ga irtt^gxt^fiipop xlpdvpop* oix ^bxo ydtg Up mimoxB xotg 
OijgMsig xo^xovg xadg iSipdgag ndarjg xr^g raXaxlag iyxgaxsXg 
yspofiipovg, dnoaxioQai, ^p {pnBg ^dri ol KlfiSgot xb xal ot Toih- 
topot enoiiflaapxo) xov elg T^y inagxlap, xt^pxBvdsv Big aivi^p 
X^gsXP T^y *IxaXlap* xal xavxa^ov *Podapov fi6pop xi^p xS>p 'Pcm- 
fAalfOP inagxiotP dnb x&p ^SBxovciapSiP dnoxifipovxog* SiOXB xo^ 
xfnp t KaXaag ^BbXb TtgoXaS^p inifiBXBXoOat' 6 ydg *Agt66i4nog 
ofixug '6n6g6ifg6P6$ xb xal ifiByaX^ydgBt, dtaiB oix Mxa id6xe$ 
dpsxxdg, ' 

XXXI y. ^Edo^B fAhp oJ)p x^ Kalaagt aix^ dtd xavxa avyya-' 
piaOatf xal Mnsfi^/i ^upa Ss^aifiBPOP ai^v, xip^ x6nop ip lUa^ 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


inati^v TW OT^aTor, ngbs t6 slg Xdyovg dXXi^lotg ildBiv, ^|a»« 
^sXv&Uf Bu adr$ nsgl f oy JifKporiQOig avfiq^Bqdmtov nffayindL' 
roiy XQ^K^* avyylveadah. ' O dh *^Qt66i<nog r& tov Kaltjagog 
^Y7^^ d^fix^/yaTO. *AIX* ^XOop diy, Mqnj, ly^ nagA Tby Kai- 
OdiQa, el ixslvov ^X9VK^^' &(^oiTaig ohv ineXvov nag* ifik X9^ 
iXdslPf etn nag* ifA&v OiXei' ngbg toinoig dk, X^Q^9 <rrjaTft5/4a- 
jog »ig T-^jf -dnb t© Kalaag PaXarlav igxolftTjv fiy, oUtb, y* 
&PSV /jieydXijg dandy fjg rs ital noXXr^g dtrxoXtag f^y ajgajt^y elg 
ha vvvdysty Svvatfirjy, *jiXXdi ydp, Iqojy, davfid^^w, xL iy rif 
ifiri raXattcf, l)y iyd) ttaxenoXifiriaa^ o ts KaXaag, xal ol &XX01 
PfOfiaXoi diXovai, 

XXXV. Toiifoy TO) KaXaagi dnayyeXdiyrwy , nqiaSsig ndXty 
ngdg iby ^Agi6SiGXoy, xoi6l8b Xiysiy aHoXg inueiXagf inifiipajo. 
"EnsftiffB fihy ^fiag KaXaag, S ^AgibSiuxB' q}fjai dky ou instdi^ 
^ Toaavta "in* adtov xb xal Xihv 'Pa)/ial(ay B'd nenoydflig, Smie 
inl xr^g ixelyov -bnaxBlag ^daiXia xb xal (piXoy {mb xr^g yeQOvala<i 

: dyayogBvOr^yat^ vvv dyxl xov /d^cv xodxay ^ixBlvna dnodidbpap 
Todyayxtoy elg Xbyovg iXOsXy, xalnBg im* a-6xov dBrjdelg^ 6ag{>iisj^ 
oiixe negl x&y xoiy&y dfopoxigotg ngayfidxaty aHif diaXiysirdai 
diXstg, xavxa aol iniaxiXXe^' ngmoy /jiky, nXelovg x&y rsgfiay&y 
Big xitP raXaxtay ju^ dta6t6d}^Biv JSnetxa di^ xobg ^a^xwy nagd 
aol byxag bfii/lgovg dnodovyai xb, xal xoXg SsxayoXg avyxotgiXv 
&an8g a^ol [f;|fOva<y dnonifinBiy, ^ijt' It» x<ybg 'EdovBlg ^dgll^eiy, 
/uijre ys ixslpoig, fi-j^xs xoXg aijxQy avfi/idxo$g ddlxotg ndXe/aoy 
inttpigeiy oh xBXeitBt, Kal ei fiky o^xta noteXg, ixeXybg xb xal ol 
&XX4>t 'PatfiaXot aol <jpiXo^ nBigdaoyxat diaylye'adat* el dk ftiiy 
[inl indjmy fiky ydg Mdgxov MBoadXa xb xal Mdgxov Jlelaa- 

. yog, 'fi yegovaht x(by 'Patfialoiiy, xby T^g iy xrj FaXaxltf Inagxlag 
9nixgont6aoyxa, xa6g & 'EdoveXg xal xoig a^Twy avfifidxovg, iy 
oaap ye oi 'PmfiaXoi fiii 6Xdnxoiyxo, dSXaSBig diaadt^eiy iy/rjgil- 
aaxo) did xavxa fikv oly xobg 'EdovsTg yup ^nb aov iSgil^ofiBvovg 
ad nBgtbyjBxai. 

XXXVI. 01 fiey xavia x(f *Agto6lax<^ HByoy, *Exstvog S* 
dnexglyaxo, *AXXd dlxaioy xovt ^axiv, %q>7j, iy T^i noXi/iO, xo^g 
xgaxi^aayxag XGty 'fixxijdiyxmy, ontog dv 6o{>Xayxai, dgxBiy ohs 
PoifiaXoh &y ixgdxijaay, o^ ngbg xi^y &XXo)y yydtfij^y, dXX* Bntaf^ 

&y aq>lai dox^ dgxovaiy, '/Ig fiky o^y iy^ aixoXg, xov fi^ iXeV' 
Oigwg T(p anplat HixaU^ X9^'^^^*'i ^^^ iyoxXa>, dtaa^ijatg xoiU 
us dsX nag* ixBlvtay ndaxBty, 01 fiiy ydg Edovelg XT^g xov noXi^ 
ftovT^XVS nstgdaayxBg, xalfidxr^ in* ifiov '^jftTT^diyxsg, inoxeXsTf 
ftot yByiyijyxat, Kal 6 KaXaag fisydXag ft ddixeX, Bang iydddf 
nagayBy6f»Byog, xoig ifioig iiXdxxaas q>6govg, Tovxo d* a^x^ 
^ayyBiXaxB' dig xoXg 'Edovsva* xoitg aidToy bfii^govg odx dnodd- 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


avvTsdivTa da<rfi6v ftoi xax* Miog reX9vaif ndlefnop o^ic iJ^olom 
kt^ a^oig' el dk ^^, «5 fione, or* n6(g<a t6 ngdg loijg ^PmfiaUivQ 
dLdehpmbv hvofia dniasTai aitdtg. **0 d' eniaTilXei fiot^ ^ 
ddixovftivovg M ifiov ro^g 'ESovetg o^ nsqiliftBtai, oitdeig^ Mg»i, 
Sang ^<FVfi6aX&r /u^ o^x ^^^^> iyipsro' SiO& 6n6j dtp a^n^ 
Sox^^ fiol avfiSaXiw. r^dkferat ftkv ydiQ, tiveg oi ai^¥ iftoi 
iixaxafi&x'riioi xb xal iv xoXg onhug ifinetg&raiot. reg/iavol, iv 
'dsxaxiearaQaiv Sloig hsair -bnaldqiot dtafislvapxeg, iv t$ 
noXi/M^ elalv, 

XXXVII. ^Ev Ttt^TO) dh XQ^^^ xavxd X8 t© Kaiaagi dttjy- 
yilkovxo, xal nf^inSeig nagd xe xtbv 'Edovitap xal xibv Tgei/tQOiv 
aijT^ TiXdov xav fihv, fisfjL(p6fievot, or* ol ^Aqovdeg vswttI slg 
tiitf FaXaxlav nsQaiadipTeg xi^y crgoSv ;jfc6^ay iXtjtl^opxOj Xiyop- 
xig 6* &g eiqi^VTjg nagdi rov ^AQtoSlaxov^ xalneq dfii^QOvg aH& 
Sdvtsg^ TVxeXv /u-^ d^vat,vxO' x&f dk Tqevtqiuv, ixaxbv q)vX^g 
Sovtbfav^ Naaoi)d rs xal Ktf*6ijQlov ddeXipwv iiys/idvaVf n^g 
xaTg jov 'Pijvov Sjtfdatg axqaxonsde^aaaOat, xai xa^fxag imx^i- 
qeXv xbv noxafxbv Siadalveiv dLyyiXXovxeg. To^xoig (ihv oS» 
netaOelg 6 Kalaag xoXg Xdyoig, anevcrxioy kavx^ •^yijaozo sjvat^ 
u-^ Tj} ToD ^AqioSliJxov naXaiCf arqaxtf xal xa^Tjg xr^g x5iv 
SovBioiv'x^igbg av/ifiiSdat^gy dvaxBgiaxsgov aixQ d^vaixo drti- 
;|ffity, Toiyagovv dig iidvvffiri xdxtoxa xbv axqaxbv eniomo6t- 
fiBvog, inl xbv *Aqi66iaxov ^Xacre. 

XXXVIII. TqiQv d' 'fifieqibv bdbv aiJr^ ij^iy dHaavxt dntiy- 
yeXdtj^ xbv * AqtbSioxov navxl a-bv t5 axqaxei^axi knl xb x^v 
Befrovxt&va, nbXiv xibv Sexav&v fiByitrxf^v, xaxaXaSstv, dindvaiy 
^dij XB xqt(bv -fifiBqQv bdbv ix ttj^ iavxov X^Q^S nqoBXtjXvdivat. 

Ontag $h ftii xovro avfiSif, Ttqovoririov fidXiaxa slvai 6 KaXaaq 
'fiysXxO' iv Tat^Ti} fiiv y^q t-jJ nbXet n&vx(ov x&v eig xbv ndXsfiOv 
XqiiOlfiOiv noXXii kvriv 6.q>dovia. Adiij xb o5iw guiaei ^x^qooro, 
&(TXB Ttqbg xbv ndXefiOv iniXTjdewt^ir^v elvai. 713 fA^v ydiq rrora- 
fii^ 'AXdovdadovSt^ &g -bnb xivog ^*a<?iJTOU, nBqdafiSavofiivtj^ 
naaa axBdbv nBqiCjfbvvvxat' xb d* in6Xoi>nov fiiqog r^ff n^Xsoig^ 
^ 6 noxaftbg Si^aXelnet, od nXsXov bv ^nivxB axadlav, ^tfftjXox^x^ 
.oqBi TtBqUxBxay &a6* ai xoixov nilgai dfitpoxiqfodBV sig xbv no- 
xafibv xadi^xovat, Tovro d^ tb bqog xoXxog nBqioixodofjiijdelg tJ 
tibXai, <yv}^6{)yvv<ri, xal dxqdnoXiv a^T^g xovxo dnsgyAl^BXtti. 
Enl xa<ixriv fikv dlv xiiv nbUv 6 KaXaaq vvxxbg xb xal ^iqag 
bdeixav ^qfiijaev, aixi\v xb xaxaax^v, tpqovqdiv Maxijaev. 

XXXIX. ^'Ei' xaix'i^ d* aixovxibv inixrjdBlotiv ivexa o^'noXXAg 
^iqag diaxqi6ovxogy ol fjilv a^ov axqaximai, 6ig Blxbg, neql 
T©*' req/Aavibv, dnoXoi xtveg nlev^ ho^g rdiXXovg iiq(tniov. Ol dk 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 

niTERPllBS ORjeCTUS^ I*IB. I. 207 

rsif/iaro^y aT^oig r* iftneigti^ noXifiOv ^dnagSiSiXXeiv n&viug tobg 
SAXovg ivd^^ovg* eavjo^g yovv noXltStxig aitoTg avftSaXelv^ dX)^ 
o^h nai til nq6Quma ft6vov xal Td ^sivdi aiitaip d^d^ara 
dvpr^drivai 6,vix^^^ai' Sot' i» iotHtcop roaovtog i^altprr^g <p66og 
naaar T^y yov Kataagog OTQaridiv nariXaSey, &az* odx dXiyow 
jag&trsadat ndptag toig argaT^f&iag, Kal o^wg nQtaxop 6 
<p66og loZg %b xaftdQZ^tg^ xal joig arqaTr^YoXg, roXg t Ix t^$ 
Putftifg rbv Kaiaaga ward g>tXlav fi^vav dxoXov^tJcFacrci^, ^fu»g 
$h o^ n&vv ngdg todg ivavxiovg dXxlfung olaiv, eviqtv, Ohtot 
fiky y(xQ iiXXog HXJajy nqdtpainy ngoSalMfusvot, dt* ^v ^yayxaioy 
aiplmv elvat tb ^jteXOstP ^Xeyov, tou Kataagog idiopto (rvyxfo^ 
geiy a^toXg M otxov dnUvat^ %ytok di y aM^v, nagixBty <p66o\ 
d6^ay oidx d^Mdrrsg, xcniftevoy fiiv, Ohoi dioHts a;^7jUaW£- 
aadat ntag Ixavoi ^aay, oHie /' iylois rd d6.xgva inixety 
^fivyavto* xaTaxgvnj6fi8yoi 3* ey raTg ag>(by axijyatg, fl t^v 
aip&y ^vfjup^gdiv x€noilwfi{>goyxo, ^x ohy fiax^ x&y oixelotv x6y 
xoi^yby xlydvyoy inoxy^yxo, xal fteaxdi ^y ndyxa xSiy xdtg 
diaO'^ixag noioiyyxmv, ^Ensixa dl xolg re xti^xwy Xbyoig X8 xa* 
tp66oig xal a^xol oi x^ aigaxonidup iy xoXg axgaxt^yixwxdtoig 
iydftsyoi aigaxUbxal X8 xal x^Xlagxot xal tnnagxot hagdxxoyxo, 
ToT&xoty 3* ol f^xToy deiXoi doxely diXopxeg, oi6 xby noXifitor 
iavxo^g ^oxgely, dXA.dc xdg X8 x&y 6diay axBybTijxag, xal x6 xay 
fiBxa^ii aq>5iy xe xal xov *Agu>6laxov iyova(by i&Xioy fiiysdog, ^ 
xal x6 di^uxoXay xrig aixaytoylag dsdUyah %<paaxoy. ^Eyu)^ di ye 
nal x& Kalaagk ^TtT^yystXayf &g 6n6x* dv fiexauxgaxonsdeisodah 
SdXri, xolg xs <ngaxu&xaig id aijfisXa afgeaOat nagayyilhf, 
dnetdiai' ngbg roOro xotg axgaxidraig did x6y ixsivfay {p66oy 

XL. 'Hg fisy oJjy fioSexo 6 KaXaag {p66oy diaOioyxa iy x^ 
axgaxt^f uvyxaXsX niyxag xo^g dgxovxdg xov axgaxBifftaxog, 
^Enel dh avyrjfSovy iexvgwg oidToXg H8fiq>6fAevogy IXe^s xoMh* 
Aydgsg tplXoi, xovxo /nky iftXy fidhata iyxaXQf 3u ^o$ x8 xal 
iq>* &t(^ ifiag dytt, noXvngayfiovBXxe' Ttgmoy ftky ydg tod 
Agio6iaxoVy ifiov ^axaiovxog, iax^Q^S x^g ngdg xo^g ' Ptufialovg 
ifiXlttg inidvfiifi<rayxog, ^naixa davftdtl/af nStg Sty xtg ixsXyoy otfrm 
gadlo}g ngodaOat Soxpitf, IIoXX^ fiaXXoy & ij'cb da^gSi, ixaXyop 
ri}y y ifi^iP yydyxa afttjatyf xal t^v dixaidxtjxa aidx^g xarai^oij- 
aapxa, oUxe T^y ngdg jus, oHxs x-^p ngbg xo^g 'Pwfialovg g>tXlaP 
^agatxif^asiP' ngbg xoi^xotg di ye, el xal OvftQ xe xal dg)go<Ti&Pfi 
*xeurdelg, nbXefioy ^ifuy hni(pigoty xl di/inoxe ohtog b^go^SsXxe ; 4 
Upog y* iyexa negi xa x^g i^sxigag dXxrig, xal t^s ifir^g 
ipeXnti^exe ngoOv^Uag; To&tov ukp tov noXefitov inl xiop 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


ilftetigup naiiguv ijtstQaadfieOa, dndre rutov Maqhv T<n$( xb 
KluSqovg nal TO^g Tovtovo^s ix trig 'IraXlas i^eXdtraPTOSf adg 
^Tov d^UnatPO* o$ at(farimat %(bp ajQajtiy^v ivofAladijvav, 
^ Ensiq&Qijfiev dh nal iv t$ watatnl nqbg jo^s do6h)vg ir rg 
*lTaXl(f Ttokifu^, Xttlrot TtyCtoig Ijt8 ;^^e/a xal ^ didax^i ^v naq 
^iav naqiXadoPf fiiya avveSdlXero* &g t* ix ro^rap g4^^^ 
iati YPG)PM, n6aop ip t^ noXift& '^ iTaq>QO(r^Pij avfiddLXXettti' 
oZg noia fihp ydiq &6ntovg elx^ 7rBg>66ij<T6e , ro^roiy Jinena 
&nXiafiiP€iP re xal pixijt&p ex^orijaaT6. 77^6^ Toiiotg J* 
sxelPOi ahxol ohtoi siaiP ol rsQftaPOl, o%g noXXikxtg oi 'J?X(?i}TfO» 
Old fidpop ip TiJ €rq>&pf &XXA xal ip rtj ixelpotip ai5TUv X^Q^i f^^X^ 
pepix^xaa^p, laonaleXg d' Sfitug tt) 'fifisri^q; axqaxuCf yspiadai 
uil dvpfidiPTsg, El dh -^ xthp r&XXiap ^n6 rov *^Qio6l<nov ^tto 
iKg>o66l, oltoi i^Brdi^oPTsg t6 nqorffia^ s-bq^aoval, xotg rdXXoig 
inl TW noXijii(a fiaxqoxqopii^ yspofiipio ^drj xexfitjxdai, xal otx 
I'r* juaxsladat rdp *Aqi66taxop vofill^ovat, xal didi toSto dtrdxToeg 
ovai, ixetPOP noX^p XQ^^'^^ ^^ i*^ '^^ axqatortid^ xal iiXtbdeat 
xqv6ipta tdnoig diq>P6i iTtideadav &aT8 fiaXXop dtnAtri ts xal 
d6X(0f ^ dqsT^ ts xal aX«r^ a^io^g Pixriaat. El aiirrj fiiPTOi ^ 
dn&t^ xaT^ ipdqG>p 6aq6&qtav ts xal tov noXefiOV ddarjfidPWP 
Rfjlfuaey, ^ xal o8rw i^y "^fisjiqap arqaudip -^TTijaca^a* POftll^ 
ets ; ^AXXdi y&q, iiq>r^j OqaffEigfidXiajd slaiP ol t6p ag>5iP g>66op 
ftq6g TC j6p aXxop xal xdg Ti\g 6dov OTSPdtrjtag &paq>iqoPtsgy 
nsql TS TOV ifiov SioPTOg dPsXnll^siP, xal sftol nqooTdrteiP 
ToXfifOPTeg' TotTtap y&q ifjiol fiiXer xal xd fihp invi-ffisia oi 
Ssxapol ohe "^Asvxoi ^/ilp noqlaovai, nsql Bk Tr[g bdov a-txixa 
ypibasads, ^Ou dh noXXdi diXXa naqd t&p orqatuaTibp Xoyonotsl- 
Tai, xal dii xal drt ifiol t' od netaoPTa*, oiddi ys rd orifAsXa 
Aqovaiy TO&toig o^d* dntoaovp iyia ixnXi/iTTOftaf eld^g, S» 
brtdaoig rd nqlp tooto avpiSrj, TOi&Ttop aitte iyipsTO, ^ 8t» ip 
T$ noXi/io iiv&xV^^^j ^ ^* ^^^ ^^ xaxovqyi^aaPTsg ndPTmg didixot 
^XiyxOtjaap* ifiov dh f^p fiip dixatdrfixa did ftaprbg, T^y d* 
siytvxloiP ix tov nqhg Torbg 'EXSiiTlovg noXifiov iyp^xuTS. ^AftiXsi 
3 inl nXsXop dip diPsSaXdfirjPy tovto vvp naqacni/iofa, xal ix trj^ 
tSTiq^Tjg qtvXaxrig ipdspSs iSeXdaoi' %pa rdxiOta xatafiddGt, 
nStsqop TiiP ald(h ts xal t6 ipdiop, i) tbp g>66op nsql nXsidPog 
ibfisXg noisXads' dp dh xal o^xtog o^slg Sniftat, ^yd> d* Sfimg a^P 
it6p(p, S fidhcfxa da^q&f dsxdxaa xdyfioxt noqs^frofiaf tovt6 xs 
*doqvq>oqix6p ftoi Tdyfia MasTar {roibTt^ fihp ydq t^ Tdy/iaxt 6 
KaXtraq fidXitna ianMa^s, iaxvq&g xs did T^y dqsxiiP iddqqsi 

XLI. TavTa 8ln6PTog tov Kalaaqog, davfiaaxwg ndpxsg ol 
Qtqaxi&tai ustspdi^traP' xal noXXii nqoOvfila a:&roXg xou ^d- 

Digitized by CnOOglC 


IfBodai iPbYiv9to. Kal t6 fd^ dinatov rdyfta J»d t&p x^'^^ifX^ 
jgdQitag aij^, or* totaiit^v nsQi a<p5tp ei/a dd^av, &fiok&jftj'^ 
aar* holfiovg sjrat slg T^y f*^XV^ XiyortBg, ^Ensira dk xal of 
iHot atQuttmat duk ts rlar x^^^^QX^^ '^^^ ^^^ n(^(&JUP 
ta^*difX^p inolfioav^ &<ne to Kaloaqt dialXayi{Ptti* ^oMmns 
tpoSrjdiiPal T6, oHxs T^y diolxt^atr lov noXiftov ini i'^ a<pibw 
yy(&^i}, diUd vij^ Tov a^TOXQ&togog elyat^ vofiiua$ liyovTeg, 
Ta^riiP T^y n(^6g>aaiv 6 Koiioaq dtTtodefdfievogy xal ^»d loH 
dtSiiiantov, ^ n6.VTmv j&p r&JJLiov fnihirja iniaxeva^ T^y 636y 
^Afttpi Td jlf^itta 3tax6aia xal nsPii^xQPta orddia ndiPtodep e'lerd* 
aag, rj rstd^ (cb; «ai Jy t^ ixxXi^a/qi to?; oiQaTKbTatg inta- 
XPT^oajo^ g>vXaxri iPtavOsp aip t$ Cfiqaxs^fAVti d^n^qsp, 'E6do~ 
fialfif d* a^i^ noqBvofUpff &nif(jfy8ihiip oi xatAaxonot^ &g t6 
10V *AqtoSl(nov ajq&javfAa &nb tov t(ap 'Pfofialaip oi nXstop nap^ 
taxoQimp cnadfliop dnixot, 

XLII. 'O d* *Agi66iffTog ri^y rod Kalaagog hpodop ypo^^ 
irtiatatXep adr^* &g pvPj anatdii ^yyitaf^p ^XdaPy 6 nQiragop 
fitfiaapf ixalpup innginof JVbfilZaip ^d^ ikayaPf pvp dxtvd^pfog 
rovro ditPaadah noialp. Toino flip od naqn^TtiOBP 6 Kalaaq* 
90Hpif0P8iP d* ffitf oMp ip6fu^8Py 8u 8 7t(}6TeQ0P laviqi alrij- 
aaPti dfri;^yijo-aTO, tovto pvp ixoinriog ^igxpbTto* dp fiay^v 
t' ini to^TOig iXntdi iyipato, fxixbp t^p Gi^fiSaatP trig aavtov 
aUijaeoi^ yp6pta, nf^ t&p tov Jij/iov t&p ^PtaftaUo> aig ixetpop 
eiiaqyaawiP naiaaodat t^c ^Qamg* ^ filp o1»p tov dMloytu/iov 
^iqa ix ttti&trig naftntala ig^idij. *Ep t€f6t<^ dl &fi(potiff90P 
noJiXobg nqbg diXijilovf nqiaSatg nafiytdptc^p, 6 ^jiqMiatog t^ 
Ktttaagi iniatailap' fiVittpag aig t6p ^taloy^aftbp dnlltag &yeip. 
0o6alodai itkp ydiQy /<^ d6k(^ ^nb tov Kalaaqog naQoloylaijtat' 
dAJt' dfiifotiqovg fieO* InniwP ildalP' diXXtog d* o^x Mq;ti Upat. 
O fiaPTOt KaXuaq oi^ta tbp diaXoy$afibp ngogfAaaat naQaXai' 
navdatf o^ta ya t^v kavtov cuttfqiap tolg ttbp rdXXatP iyx^^QiZ- 
up innavah ^ovXbfiaPog^ SiXtMP '^yi/jaato aJpai, ndptag tobg 
riap rilXup tnnovg dtn ai&t&p dtpnuqeXadat^ xal tolg tov daxdtow 
%<kyficttog atQatahtatg, cig fjtdXiata idd^gai, to^tovg dtagatodai* 
tpu ^p daijai] fidxaadat, q>Q0vqdt,p nQoa<ptXecrtdtjjp Mx^^» jiitoB 
Sk dii tavta nowvPtog^ d<rtaX6p t» t&p tov daxdrov tdyfAatog 
atqattmt&p tig i<pday^ato^ Xiymp* Tbp Kaloaqa nXalop^ ol 
^toXPil^am^y novfyfaada^ {moGxbfiapop fdp yiiq tb dixatop 
x&yfia ip x^q^ doqv<p6(fOv (piiXayyog Kaip^ pvp aig t^v Inn&da 
mM xatdyayalP. 

XLIIL ^Hp Sk ftaydXjf nadtdg, xal ip ta^tff od fuxgbg 
yi^Xotfog, i| faov M d^fMfotiqtap tiop axqatonid^p dq>eat6g' iv 
xa^rjn 3 ta KoHaaq nal 6 ^AqMiatog diaXaxOt^abfiaPO^ ijA^or* 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 

210 C. JUUI CM8AmB 

mxi 6 fiip Kiuaag ro^g lai/rov Inniag &n6 rov ytf^Bi^ftipot 
yi^ldqiov "^arddia navxi/[KOVTa KaiicrrijaeP' o$t8 tov ^AguSlatoh 
inrtsts ix tov taov xajifieivay, ' O dk *AqMiatog n&hv %^ 
Kaiaaqt IniaxstXev, &g Soilotu ^nh j&p tnnuy dutXiysaBati 
xal n(fdg lo^otg ^d^ InTtsig fieff iatnov Hyeiv. *Enel dk 
avprlXdoVf 6 KaXoaq hdintag ^qi€ao tov l6yov *AIX olaOa fdy, 
S) *AQi66iaT8, &g ah ^ts fsqovata xal 6 dri/Mg t&v 'Pwfialfop 
SaatXia rs xal ^g>llov, i7taj8i6oyT6g fiov, iyfij<piaaTO' 6la$a dk 
xal, &g TOvTO od Tolg jvxovaip, dXXd f*6vo$g toCg TroiUd iyad^ 
toTg *Patfialoig inovqyi/iaaai, avviStj' Srt tb o^tb ^evog Cty tw^ 
'Pafialaiv, o^te ye alUay toD ravta alteiy sUXoyov ijifw, ravra 
^fuag Tj T ifi^ xal T^ff avyxli/lxov xSv 'PmfAaimy eteqyeaif^ 
ixrijaa}. Toaavxa fiky ohf ^nh tQy ^Paftatety ed nenovO^g, vvy 
toitoay fiifiyijao, IlgWToy fihy yitq nollal te xal dixauu trig 
twv 'Patfialay nqbg lo^g 'EdovsTg tpiXUxg ahlat diaysydvaa^^ 
ToXXdff T uTdtoXg ^ ysqovata i&y 'Ptaftalmv nfiitg itf/rj<pUraTO, 
^Enetta d* ol fihy 'Edovelg n&oi^g XT\g rakaiiag dvym^xaxoi 
hvxag, xal nq6x8qov tov xoXg ^Patfiulotg g>iXot yavioSaiy dtaye" 
y6yaaiy» Oi dk ^JPotfiaTot xo^g aq>Qy g>lXovg X8 xal avfifi&x^vg 
01$ fi6yoy o-tdky x^g u<p^ dato6(k}X8&y dvixovaiy, diUd xal 
aHo^g avfifiaxlatg xa xal xifialg xal dvpdfieaiy a:dS8ladat €o6* 
loytui, ^A fihy olv ol 'EdovsXg nqlv xov ^Uot xoXg 'Ptoftatoig 
yeyiadai el^oy^ xavta &v xlg ^rtatxa ud^oig &<patq8Xcr6ai Ayi^ 
XV^a$ ; *AXldL xal nqhg xoixotg^ d uov daXadai xc^g ng8G68v(H 
rtgdxeqoy ivexsii&fi^y^ yvp naqlav naq6vxog aoddiofiar nqSnoy, 
ft'i\x8 xoXg 'Edovsvai, ^ijt0 y8 xoXg ixstyay avfiftdxotg niXefnop 
inifpiqety instxa 3* si ftey xo^g ^dtj fi8xdt aov reqfiavo^ 
^onifineadat slg riiv naxqlda /ii^ d^yavai, diUdt ycvy ^{ 
nlelovg Mxt x6y 'Pr^yoy diaSaiysiv diyix8ada$, KaXaaq fikv oIp 
xoaavxa ehtsv, 

XLIV. '0 d* *Agi66iaxog &d8 diniifisUpdijf 6Uya fjtiv ttqdg 
t^g xov Kaifraqog alxi^as^g dLTtoxQtv&fisyogf nolki dh neqt rs 
aTuxov xal xr^g iavxov laxiog fiayaXtiyogo^fisyog. *Ey^ fihy dMi^y 
xbv ^Privovy %<priy o^x aidxoxdXavaxog^ dU* M aix^y fiSxAnefiTtm 
t6g T8 xal TtaqaxXijdelg x&y rM4oy odx ^ysv dh ftayiiloiy 
iXnidmy xa xal d^quv xi^y t' ifiipf x^^^ *^^ '^^ tplXovg di* 
uaxiXiTioy xal ^y {ikv iy ttJ TaXaxlif l/w jfc^^a^, o^tol avpS" 
Xd>qtj<rayj odg xa naq* a^&y Ijjfoi 6fii/lQ0ug, xotxovg aiixdftaxoi 
ftot naqidmxay daojibv dh xax^L x6 ip x^ noXifif^ dtxatop la/u* 
6dy(a^ 8y x&y ^xxijdivxiay ol xgaxi/iaayxag 8l(&6aa& Xa/i6ikye$p 
Kal oix iy^ xoXg TdcXXoigy dU* aidxol fiot ndXafiOP ini^yayxav 
&naaai fdv ydiq at xt^g TaXaxlag dvydfta^g &g xaxaftaxo^^Pctt 
ma avv^XBop^ ifioi xa ^vtaaxgaxansd8^mgPx<K Tai&xag d* bfnog 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


i^ nAaag fuq^ Mnffaa fA&x^ *^^ ttqBfffa. El fih oIp aS0t% 
avfiSdtHetv ftot OiXova^p, iyit uai Mu hotw»g if/u ^j|fea(9o(i* 
ei ^ 6i(ijy]/y n^MQOvrTa&, &d$M6y iuxiP ixalvovg tov t^p daQ» 
fihPy S fiixQ* tov Pvv a^t6ftatok dTTiji'ej'xay, tbXbXp naqanTsXodaK 
Uqbg 7o6TOig d* ^ fi^p i&v 'Patfittloup qnXla ts xat ffvftftaxia 
Uful^p ptoh xal da<pdkeiap, 6XX* o^ 6lA6iiv X9^ naqix^^p. *Hp 
di dUi TO^g 'Patfialovg o t« daafidg adx Ht telriJiUy tUe ngoa» 
Xnqi^fTaPTig fiot dtpearSiaij o^x ^op ^^«iu;, ^ &g j^g tap 
Pufiatap ^lag insO^fitiaa, vvp ii\p ixeivt»p avfifiaxUtP not- 
^tfifow. ^O dh a^ qrf^g fis noH aXiidog TegfiapiOP 8lg ri^p 
FttXaUap dut6t6dZ€$Pf tovro tpa /i* ^aipaXian, 6IX o^x Ipol xiiP 
raXarlap xatuirx^ nom* (laqvbqtop dk^ dfit tbp ntXafiOP nqdtsgog 
a^x dS'^Psyxay Ma fi6pop a^tbp ^iftvpdfi^p, Ilqbg to^Okg 8h 
xal iy^ ip TJ7 raXatlq nq6TBqog ^XBop wp 'PvtfiaUap* %b nqlp 
(dp ydtq (nqartd tov 'Pnfiatup v^p irnxqaxBlag Mend^ots 
adx iit^sp, Tl oIp <r6 fiot OiXetg ; <) tlpog y* ipsxa ip tf 
ifiii x^h^ ^QTS 9 ^^''^ f*^^ Y^ 4 ralatta i/i^, &(r7t9g xal ^ 
ixXtf mp 'PapialoiPf eatlp intxqdrauL' xal &g ftkp al n^UfWP 
rf T&p 'Prnfuximp inaqxi^ ixipi^otfu, od» Apsxriop fAOk alifj 
lArto xal ^fieXg ddtxot iark, i^g i/it^g dqx^g /io$ dpttrtotodfispot, 
'Oti dk <rd qr^g ra^ 'Edovatg <piXovg ts xal avftft&x^g ^6 rfig 
'PufuUup yeQOvalag dro^'o^av^at, odx ofitug 4^Xld$6g ra xal 
dl&fMndg alfit^ &ata fti^ fiP^^xatVf ^ oSt* alg z6p xatA j&p 
*AXXo6q^BiP v&p 'Pufuttap n6XafWP ol 'Edovaig a^&tcHg «^oij-* 
$rjaaPf oifra y^ al ip r^ g^Sxp nq6g fta noXifttp taig 'Pwfiatotg 
uviAfidLxoig ixq^oapto, Jal di fta inopoalPj r^p nqbg Tobg 
Edovaig avfifiaxiap ak nqotpaatibfMaPOP, tov xadatgaip fi %paxu 
ta&itip ti^p orqattAp ixa^p* *j4XX* al /u^ dniXdigg la, xal ib abp 
axq^Lxavfia ipdipda dnaydytig, aZ tad$y St* oix ^ ^^ ^ot 
6JiX &g noXafilo x^^fofwt, JSJfP (Up a' diroxTe/roi, nolXcigj ai 
olda, 8Tt &Qx^vak tar *P»fiaiwp laxvq&g x^qlaoiiatj xal tovto 
in tiap ixalptop dyyaXMP xajifta&op» &ar8 T^y nAptmp roCta^h 
ifftlktp T$ a$ Bapdw dvpi/laofiat xtSadat. *Jip d* dniXBifg ta, 
xal iXavdiqaP fio§ tiiP x^g PaXaxiag dqx^p xaxaXaini^g, iy4 
at laxvg&g ^vx^x^qleofMav i)y fihv f^q ng no^ xaxA iro9 
niXaftog yiptjxap^ r&vrov &pav ta j&v aio n^ov xa xal xird^pov 
0w dtanqdSu, TWcrvra ftlp alnap b 'Aqtbfiiarog, 

XLV. noUA di xal ttqbg to6toig Uayap 6 KaXaaqt dUfAff 
xa§p aixbpf <&c a6 /i^ d^pvino xo6xov x&v nqayfiorog iiftaXaiPt 
Oihe yAq iy^^ Ikptf, &Sff oi 'P(afiaXo$ tobg fiaydXa»g ikpaXtfiwg 
^Xp yayapijfiipovg uvfifi&xovg aldSafUP' nqoiadai' htavta dk 
^ta ffnifil T^ raXattap juSAXSp gov 4) twf 'Pa^fiatmp aJpen* of 
it|y yiif ^Aq^aqvoly nal of 'Pov^yo), Imb KoftPtov ^a6toa 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 

212 c. juui cjBSAias 

Bfafl/iov 'fiirijSivrBgf ofiGtg (m6 T&y ^Pw/ialoiv avveyvfhoBiioaiP^ 
o0ta sis inagx^ay fisiacrjdvTSS, oOti ya <p6govg dnnaxdetrtegr 
Sate Ay fjiiv thv fiaxgdtatov /^d^oy axBity^fusda^ dutaidraiol 
slffiv ol PufjtttToi T^f JTaXarlag igx^*^' ^^ ^^ ^^•' "^^S 'Ponfiaifav 
yegovatocg yvf&fiifv loyil^fbifiedaf XQ^ "f^^ rahxTlaPf ^Pnsg *a%a 
ajQetpdfisyoi diviovofisXadai d^tjxa^sy, iXsvdiffciP ysviadai. 

XL VI. riolld, 3* dkla totavta Uyovxt tiJ Kalaaqt dnijyyiL' 
Bfj, Toiig ToD 'AqioSloTOV Inniag iyyl^eir re i^ bgsi, xai nqbg 
to^g atxov Inneag ngoasXaiivsip , f^Srj is atpsvdovqv te xai 
^xovxilQBiv elg uTdToig, 'O fihv ohv KaXaaq tovto &xoiaag, 
8taXay6/i8v6g t* ina^aato, xai ngbg Toi^g iavrov inniag dps- 
X^tgijosv a^jotg 8h naqi\yyBik69f fitjdkv ^iXog tdtg noXefiloig 
dLPjaqniPttt. Etitaq ydiq KaTSvdet t6 elQtjfievov tdyfia dixtvdipoig 
lnnoftaxy{<rttt^ Sfuag <ydx ^OeXa noieXv, Sttrts roi^g noXefAlovg 
flxttfdivTag d^paadat XiyatP, 96l(^ ip t^ diaXoytafi^ M a^too 
uaQOipladai, ^Enatdii dk ngbg t6 tov Kalaagog arQdiavfJta 
hriyyiXdri^ nolq dXa^oy/qt 6 *AqMi,axog ip t^ dtaXoytafii} XQV' 
adifiavog, ndaijg rr^g raXatlag to^g 'Patfialovg dnsTq^ap, &g ra 
ol ixatpqv iTrneZg elg TO^g 'PfOftaloug &Qfiijcrap, tovto ts rdy 
Xdyop tov Kalaaqog navaar nolX^ fieU^fav nqoOv/ila ta xai 
vnovd^ TOV n&xBudat^ 4) nq6adav^ toZg arqar^dttaig ipiipv. 

XLVIL Metdi dk d(f0 'f{fJiiqag 6 'AqM^axog nqaaSeig nqbg 
xbp KaUraqa ina^iffaxo, Xiyoiy &g naql t&p S)p ^q^apxo diaXi- 
ysaSat '^nqayfiiixfap, x9''\^o* aix$ avyylvaadm, * Edalxo fAhv ovp' 
ttdxov, i) alOtg '^fiiqap T»yd, nqbg xb slg Xdyovg HXXovg aXdslp, 
bql^aip^ 9l yovp xipa x&p savxov nqbg xavxa naq* kavtbp nifA- 
na$p, * O dk KalQaq xaiqbp xov diaXiyeadai aZSig ot^jjf 'SiyeXxo 
ajpai* ^nqbg xo^xoig da xai xtPa x&p naq* kavxoji inix$pdi&pmg 
ixalpfp ni/iiffSiP, xai olopai Sii roXg dyqlotg ra xai ^aqSaqixoXg 
ApSqAa^ xoiixoig intSaXaXp, *AfiiXet.M(kqxop O^Xi^qtop JlqoxiX^ 
Xop, ^&pdqa qonfittXadkaxopf xbp ratov KaSoiqov^ ^ r6Xog 
BaX-^qiog ^l&xxog noXtxaiap noxk i^taxepf did ta xb rr^g 
FaXaxtxrig dwXixxov, rj d$ik T^y avpifiaunp b *Aqt66iaxog rd 
noXXdt ixQ^^^i ifinaiqng l/««i^, xai St* aig aMp ^Sql^etp alxlar 
odx aJxop oi Faqfiapoi' nqbg jorCxOig xo fiax aixov Mdqxop 
Tlxtopf ^iwop noxh T$ *Aq*iStcxi^ yavbitapop^ nqbg aifxbp 
inifiiffarOf roixoig, & Xiyot 6 *Aqt66taxog iLXoOaaPxag, kavx^ jdc 
nuq* ixelpov diftayyiXXe&p nqoaxd^ag, *Exatpovg S' inaidi^ 
(d/iffra xaraXdsp ir r^ oxqatanidm *Aqt66nnog, ndaijg naqoit- 
vifg trig adxov aiqaxtag, Tlpog^ itptj, apaxa nqbg fia ^Xdaxa '^ ^ 
TOO xd^xaaxanaXp ipaxa; "Enaita dh aidfxo^g T^y alxUtP Xiyai> 
httx^iqovptag ix^vai xa, xai nida&g ai^roi^g Mdijaa, 

XL VIII. Ta^ uip TiJ ^iqtf nqo^xlpfiai xa tb Qxqdxav/w , 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


Mttl tstTaqdxovta dxTd» aridia &n6 rod jSiP 'PonfiaMP atqato- 
nidov yf/jioqiov inln^adsv noM{>fiBvog^ ioTQaronsdeiattTo, T^ 
d* ^ategatc^, nq6a<a tov mi^ononidov rov Kalaagog t6 iavtov 
otQdctevfxa ^dteSiSaasv, iv vCf ^z^p rSiv ikn6 re rS>¥ ESovimv 
xal T&v 2eMapQv innijdsUop &7to*kel8iv t6p Kalaaqa. ' O ftiv 
ohp Kataaq iq>* 'fi/jtigag nivts ig>8l^rig ix raixfig ti^f atgati^v 
&g elgfxdxfiP naqaxeTayfAivrjv sIxsp, i'va el SeT^lono 6 ^Aqt66iU- 
tog, dT^yatto t6 aiq&TBVfia <TVfi6dXl8iy 6 S* 'Aqt66iaxog Taitxa^ 
uIp n&aag T&g 'fiftiqag Slag iv xQ axqaxonidfo naxifiaiPft, 
Mad^ixiaxfjv 5* i^fiiqap iTtnofi&xtiQB' Tovfto d* ^v xb ft&XVi 
Btdog, ip ^ fidclicrxa iavxo-dg oi Faqfiapol ^axovp, 'InnsTg fihw 
i^ttxitrxC^i ci^xoZg ^aap, xal neJ^ol fi6tXa iXafpqol xa xal 
aXxifiot, ladqidfioiy o%g ip naatP olroh ol innBig inl t^ c<pQp 
txa(nog afaxijqlq, sflopxo, *Ep flip y^q raXg /idxatg nqftg roixovg 
9{ InitBlg dPBxdtqovP' a^ol dk, st nov xl dstphp ol innBlg n^ur 
Xoisp, avpixqsxop ipxafidw s} dk xal xtg xatqUog Ttli^yalg Cnns^g 
xaxanlnxo^f aixbp ndpxodep nBqttcrxaaap' bI di nov dio$ ^ 
nqocrfoxigoilipocif ^ xaxb dpaxt^qeiP, o^toi ol nB^ol xoaa^rt^ 
4^crap iXaq>q&njxt ^uxb xoTg xiap ihnap Anijq'tfjfiipotg laodq6fio$ 

XLIX. Srtsid^ dh xaxifiadsp 6 Kcuaaq x6p ^jiqMtaxop 
ix xov a\qaxonidov o^x i^i6pxa, d6did)g ^^ inl nXstop rStP 
in$xijd8tmp dnox(aXi6ijxatf nqdaat tb xov xQp raqfiavSiP axqaxo* 
nidov idtop Ttqhg axqaxdnsdop ejpa$ ^bnop, x(bp xaxaox6rt(0P 
6na6iFttg, rq^x^ T^y iavxov oxqartAp diBxA^axo'- xal slg xovxop 
t6p x&nop naqayBPS/ABPog, x&g fihv dio x&^Btg ip 3nXotg xaxa- 
uiPBiP, T^y di xqlxfjp xb axqaxdnaSop xqatCPSiP JtaqT^yyBtXsp, 
Ohxog flip 6 xbnog xixxaqag fibpop axaSlovg dinb t&p noXefiimp 
^Litf^p^ ipxavStt d* 6 *Aqi66iaxog ipdqag fivqlovg xal l^axiflr/*- 
Hovg, xal ndpxag robg Sttniag inifi^axo, ippooitfiBPog xaCxtiP 
xi{P axqaxiAp xoig tb 'Pnfialovg ixtpoS-^astP xal xov xb oxqaxb^ 
nadop xqaxtPBtP xtMQBhp, ^Ofimg d* 6 Katoaq, &g xal xb 
nqdxBqop dtsXi^aro, xAg flip di6o rdSstg xbp noXifitop ditBlqysi, 
xiiP di xqlxijp xb Mqyop djtoxBXsXp naqByy^ifB, Toi^xov di xoB 
atqaxonidov dxvqtudipxog, fiiqog fdp xov avfifiaxixov xal dito 
t&Yfiaxa xaxiXtTtBP' Td ^ diXXa xixxaqa xdyftaxa inl xb fUya 
oxqaxbnBdop dm-^yayBP. 

L. 7^ ^ ^dXBqaUi. 6 Kalaaq, ^g xal nqbadsp dtBPOi^^ if 
&fHfK>X8qoiP xSiP axqaxoniSap xb axq&XBVfia flip i^ifyyaya^ dllyop 
X9 &nb xov fiBy6Aov axqaxonidov nqoBXddiP, xiiP axqax$Ap 
naqBx^^atb xb, xal ' iavxbp ixo$fiop alg (i&XVP toig TtoXafiioig 
naqBtxap, *Enetdii 3* o^ o^xtag et^xobg xov axqaxonidov aqt&p 
mp9la&at xaxBPbtifrB^ naql x^p fiaaijfiSqlap &pi^yay$ rb oxqA-- 

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214 C. JULn CJB8A1U8 

revfta. T&tb d' 6 ^ui^Mioxog fiiqoi t\ toS lavrou {n^ajB^fioto^ 
Tov tA fislor Twy rov Kalaagog arQaiortidap ngoaSiiXlsiVf 
inifuffttto, 'jiftilst i^QOifiirois ifiq>6T8got ifiaxiaarto^ naql dh 
ielXjjy diplaVf nolXSiv &fiq>oiii^av TqmSiinfav^ 6 ^Ai^t66t<nog t6 
kavTov GTQ&jsvfia &vax(5tX8aey. T^ Sk Kaloa^i toig alxftotXia* 
Tovg i^onijdivTt, xlvog tvexa 6 *j4(fi66yJTog o^ avft6Moi il 
arg&ievfjia, a^oi t^v alrlay joirov elvah %q>otaav ot* ol reg* 
fiapol rdg ngaaSslag yvpoinag igonffPf eUaOdai nSTsgop fi&xtiv 
ovv6i7tt8tv Silrtop fifty, 9i o^xi* vvv di xaixag liyBW, od/ oJ6v x' 
Blvah xo^g regfiavo^g, el ngdader vovfiijvlag /adxi^y avv&Ttfo^BVy 
nirqcy* Aal didt ToiiTO t6y *Agi66i(nop o^ avfiSalBiv, 

LI. Trj ftkr oIp ^aTBQttl(f 6 Kataag q>Qovgdiy Ixai^iiv dfupoTi- 
go^g xaTOMn^v rolg axgononiSoig^ n&vtag dh xo^g Inniag in 
Tov crrgatonidov i^ayay^v, ^cror inb tiby nolsfilotv aHo^ 
dgaadat, iva, Stt dliyovg rayfiaTHco^g argantiftag xaid ys t& 
tS)v nokBfiUav nVrfiog bIxbp, toCtoig ngbg B^ir (i6vov i» xoig 
nlayiotg jjf^ijajyiat- aHbg dk rg^xfi ^h^ argatidiv noiija&ftBvoQ, 
fiiXQ^S ^^' f*^"^^ t6 j(by nolBjuUuy utgottdTtBdoy ngofiXdsy, 
*Eytav6& Tot ol ragfiavol AyayMaimg ix tov argatonidov xiiy 
a(pG)y ajgati&v i^t^yayoVf xord ^i/Xti^ tb diira^av iS taov 
diXifiXfay ro^g *j4go6dag^ Toig Magxoftdyvovgf j&^g Tgl66xovg, 
TO^g Bayyioyag, to^g Nrifiixag^ xo^g Stjdovalovg xs, xal to^g 
Sovsifovg, naa&y xb x^y aqtuiv T(ie|ty, ^ij xi,g q>vyrig ihtlg 
iBlTtono, q>ogBloig xb xal dg/iuat nBgiiaxtjaay, xal iyxavda vdc 
yvvaXxag diVB^iSaaay, At dgvTtxd/iByal xb xal x&g x^^Q^S ng^f 
xo^g axgaxtfinag dysgSfiByaiy n&vxag txixsvoy, ^tt^iyxvyxdyoiBP 
fi-fl ffBiyBiyf Big xiiv dovlBiay xSiv 'Poifiaioiy xaxaUndyxag o<pag 
&iX &/ivyai xal iavxalg xal atpicny airtolg, 

LIL ^Evda dii 6 KaXaag hxdaxoig (ihy xdy/aaaiy %nagxov 
iniaxfiUBVy %va ohxoi, [i&gxvgag x^g kxdcnov yivoivxo dLg6xi\gr 
a^tbg dh ix xov Ss^iov xigaxog, xovxo xb fiigog xwy nolBf^lay 
dadsviaxBgoy sjyai xaxid^v, t^^XV^ avyv^^B, ToiaiiXtj S* iyBvix* 
^ fji&x'l' ngSytoy (iky y^g oi 'Pafialot ngodvfiiag xb aifvBrifio 
iaSoyxBg^ xoXg nolBfiloig inidgafioy Mnsixa 8* ol noXifuot 
T^/tora aifxoig dnriXdoVf &axB axoXiiy xoTg Pfojualoig xov x^ 
dxbyxtot Big adxo^g dgniyai, fii^ dovvai. 01 fiiy xoi 'Pa>/uatOi 
B^d^g Td ddgaxa drtogglipayxBg, ix x^^Q^S ''oTg ^lq>Ba& avuxadb* 
ifidxoyxo' ol dk ragfiayol xaxb, xaxi xb adxoTg auyrjdBg, bU 
gBigag aiho^g idiiayxo, Big ipdXayya raxdiyxsg, 'Eyiyoyxo 6 
iyxi$v6a noXKol xQy axgaxuoxQvj of Big t-^v q>dlotyya xwy tzoXb. 
§$Uiv BlQTttjdi^aavxBg, x&g x* 6<Fnldag mdjlay i* xoy x^*9^ 
datBambyxOf xal adxo^g ixlxgataxop. * Hxxi^d&yttBy dk XBixdt f# 
B^yv/Aoy a<f)&y xigag^ xwy itoXa/tlofy, xaxdi xb B^dxyvftop xm 

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Pufiatmv niqag %<f aq>(av 7tXi\d8i laxvgtbg crdio^g entsj^op, 'O 
olv UainXiog Kqaauog vsaviag, hg titnaqxog ^v tow Kaiuotf^g^ 
xovto natavoTf^aag^ ^%u fyxov t&v ev t^ f*&XV ^^^^^ dnti^sro^ 
T^y rqltfjp rd^iy jotg 'Pbtftalotg ^djj novovaiv elg intxovglap 


Lin. ^SlGxe eid^ ol (ihv Pwftatoi Ti^y fi&x^v dLV&qduaav 
ndrtBg S* oi noXifuot ipidoadr re, xal elg ipvyiir Sif^firiaaVy 
oIJt« ngdadsp iaxrjaap, nglp *} n^tg rw 'P^v% ^TSTtaQ&xovro 
iPTSvdBP tnddia dnixort^, iyipovTO' ^ov dXlyoi, i) t^ aq>St9 
d^srH da^govPTsg, tbv noTUftdp diapi/ixeadat insxelQtjaav, ^ 
nXo^aglfOP tivGiP e-dnogi/iaaP'isgf Iv oHoig diBOihOriuav* &g d 
^Aqi66iajog, ^g dxdriop nq6g tJ yH dsSsfiivop e-bq^v, iv aiJi^ 
diitpvys' xal to^g fihv liXXovg ndvxag^ %%tf hTvyxdvoiBv^ oi 
InixBlg xatixmpov. ^Haap 3k dio t^ ^uiqioSiin^ yvvaixeg' r^ 
fdv SovBifi tb yi^og, ^p xal fisd* kavjov ix t^; rBqfAavtxvig t 
*jigi66t<rtog ^fij/a^fii'* ^ dh jVo^cx^ xal rov SaaiXitag Sovnxtopog 
ddeXffii^ ^p 1^6 rov dd6Xq>ov o^Tij; kavr^ TtBfifpdBtvap ip TJj 
FaXaxltf, iyBya/ii^xBi' at ip rat/Ti^ tiJ (pvy^ dfiq>dj6Qai dn^Xopjo* 
tuiP dh dvyatiQap ^ filp iifOPBiOti, i} d* ItUof. ^AfiiXs^ xal 6 
Mdqxog BaXi^Qiog Uf^xllXogy ip ra{Tij t^ <P^y^ ^^^ ^^'^ g>vXaxop 
^q^alnidaigavqbfJLBPog^ Big aMp t6p Kalaaqa^ x^p x^p noXBftifOP 
Innop dt(bxovxa BlaineaBP' iq>* ^ o^x ^tro^ 6 Kalaag, I) in* 
airi^ xf y/xij B^q>Qdp6ti' dpdqa ydq ndarjg xr^g ip xr^ raXaxlq 
inaqxlag aoMpqcpiaxaxop, (plXop 9 eavrqi xal \ivoP' yBPbfiBPOv, 
PVP ix fiip TC»y j^fif^coy xwv noX^filatP dtaertKfdiPxa, naq* kavxQ 
d* hpxa kf&qa, oUxe ya x'^ aidtov dvaxvxl<l^ 'tl xoactixi^g ^doprig ^ 
xixv ^^dxxatasp, ^EXaya (lip ydq ixBlPog, xo^g Psq/iapo^g^ 
aavxov naqbpxog, ndisqop xaxb xavOslij, 1) xal slg dU4)P xaiqbp 
xfjqjjdaltj, xirjqdiaaudair x^ dk x&p xXi/lqaiP aiaqyealq, q^p 

LIV. Ta{>xrig xr^g /*dxv9 naqatp xov 'Pijyoi/ ^tayyaXdalufigt 
ol nqbg xdg xov 'Pijyov hxdag iXtjXvBdiBg Sovavot, aig z^v oq^ 
X^qap x6xa dpax^qr^aav^ o^g ol OUSio*, nXtjalop xov 'Pi^pov ol 
xovPxagfTtBtpodij/iiPOvg htidtdiSavxag, avxvobg a^wp diig>d6iqap 
O dk KaXaaq d<)0 hvl Baqst fiayiaxovg xaxaqyaad/nspog noXi 
uovg, xaxixeqop fiip xi 4) xaxd x^p xov hovg &qap xoi>g axqa 
tt^ag ip xoTg xsifiadloig ixdOioa, xal aHoig Ttxop afaStt^pbt 
tbp %naqxop aniaxTjasp* a^bg di slg x^v ^IxaXiar ^^ it 
ovpddovg notaXadah dn^XOap, 


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1. C. JtUii CiBsanSf 6cc. " Caius Julius Cssar's Commentaries j 

on the War in Gaul." By commentaries are to be here understood 
Drief naiiatives of events, composed in a plain, unambitious style, 
and the principal object of vrhich is to preserve the remembrance of 
events for the benefit of those who may subsequently wish to com- 
pose fuller and more elaborate works. Thus Hirtius, in the epistle 
prefixed to the eighth book of the Gallic Wai, remarks, " CasarU 
commeviarii editi suTUf ne scientia tantarum rerum scriptorilms de- 
esset." Hence the term appears somewhat analogous to our mod 
em expression " memoirs." The corresponding Greek forms ar« 
{tro^^TUf iiro^ntfuiTtcrjtolt and iicopnjfiovtO^ra. Hence Strabo, iif 
speaking of Cssar's commentaries, has, *0 KaXaap h t^ hnoftv^ixaot 
(4, p. 117, ed. Casattb.) ; and hence also the memoirs of Socrates 
by his pupil Xenophon, are entitled SuKfxfrov; iirojivtinovt<)naTa 
Plutarch {Vit. Cas. c. 22) speaks of a work of CiEsar's calieo 
'£^i7/i£f>(d«;, and it has been made a matter of discussion whether 
this was the same with the commentaries that we now have, or * 
distinct production. Rualdus {ad. Plut. Vit. C<bs. c. 22. — Op. ea 
Rdake, vol. iv., p. 85S, seq.) maintains the latter opinion, on th«> 
ground that the ancient writers everywhere quote, from the Ephem- 
crides, passages not to be found in the commentaries. This opinion 
has found many advocates. On the other hand, Fabricius {Bill. 
Lat. 1, 10, 2) contends that there are many lacuna in the book* 
of Cssar oe the Gallic war, as they have come down to our time 
The subject will be rearmed, in oe " Life of Caesar." 
V 2 

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2 1 • Gallia est omnia, dec. " AU Gaul is divided i ito three paits.** 
Gssar here means by '< Gaul*' that part which had not yet beet 
subdued by the Romans. The latter had ahready reduced the Allo- 
broges in the south, and had formed in that quarter what was called 
'' Gallia Provineiaf'* or '* Gallia NarhonennSf** or, as is the case 
in these commentaries, simply ** Provincia." Gonsult Geographi 
cal Index. 

2. Quarum. Svipply partmm, 

3. Tertiamy quiy &c. ^* The third, they who are called in then 
^wn language Celtte, in ours Galli." The order of construction is, 

(ii) qvi appellantur Celta ipsorutn lingua, Galli nostra (lingua, 
incolunt) tertiam (partem). 

4. CeUa. The Celtae mark the parent stem, or genuine GaUic 
race. From the extent of their territory, the Greeks gave the whole 
country of Gaul the name of KtXrun^ {CeUica). Among the earlier 
Greeks, the whole of western Europe, at some distance from the 
shores of the Mediterranean, went by the appellation of the *' Celtic 
land,'' x^ KsXrueii. (Scymn, Ch. v., 166.) Consult Geographical 
Index. The term GaUi is only " Gael'* Latinized. 

5. Lingua, This is not correct as regards the Beige and Celts, 
who merely spoke two different dialects of the same tongue, the 
former being of the Cymric, the latter of the GaUie stock. The 
Aquitani, however, would appear to have belonged to the Ihenan 
race, and to have spoken a language of Iberifui origin. {Thierry 
Hist, des Gaulois, vol. i., Introd. p. xii., seq ) 

6. Instituiis. " In customs.** — Inter se. " From one another *• 
Literally, *' among themselves.** 

7. Gallos ah Aqvitanis, d&c. "The river Garumna separates 
the Galli from the Aquitani, the Matrona and Sequana divide them 
from the Beige.'* With jZum^n supply dividit. The student will 
note, that the singular verb dividit follows after the two nomina- 
tives Matrona and Sequana, as referring to one continuous bound- 
ary, and to the circumstance also of the Matrona being only a tribu- 
tary of the Sequana. 

8. Fortissimi sunt Belga. The same idea is expressed in Ta- 
citus, Hist. 4, 76. — A cultu atque humamtate Proffincia. '< From 
the civilization and mtellectual refinement of the province. ** Cultus 
refers here to the mode of life, humanitas to mental improvement 
and culture ; and hence culms is given by Oberlinus, in his Index 
haHniUUis, as " vita ratio, ah omni ruditate remota.^ The civili- 
sation and refinement of the Roman province was principally derived 
from thf Greek cHy of MaR<«i]i». now Mar^eHU*. (Justin^ 43. 4.> 

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1 . Minime tape eommeant. ** Least freqiiently resort,'^ i. e. , veiy 3 
»eldoin penetrate to these distant regions. — Ad effeminandos ani- 
mos. " To enervate theii minds,*' i. e., break down their warlike 

2. Proximiqrte sunt Germanu. ** And because the/ are nearest 
to the Germans," i. e., are in their immediate neighbourhood. Ac- 
cording to the punctuation which we have adopted, this is the cor- 
-esponding clause to the one beginning with propterea quod. 

3. HdvetH quoque. Because they also dwell near the Germans. 

4. Cum. " On which occasions." — Eos. Referring to the 
Germans. — AtU ipsi, 6lc. ** Or else they themselves carry on wai * 
in the territories of the latter." Jpsi refers to the Helvetii. 

5. Eorum una pars. ^ One part of these main divisions of 
raul." Eorum refers back to Hi omneSf or, in other words, to the 

Belgae, Celts, and Aquitani. As, however, the idea of territory is 
necessarily involved, we may, in order to adapt the phrase to our 
idiom, translate as if there were an ellipsis offinium, thought ^ ^^' 
alky, none such is to be supplied. As regards the remote reference 
which sometimes occurs in the case of Ate and v, consult PerizontuSt 
ad Sanct. Mm. 2, 9 (vol. i., p. 276, ed. Baiut), where the present 
passage comes under review. 

6. Obtinere. " Possess." Obtineo is here used in its primitive 
an 1 genuine sense, " to hold against others," L e., "to possess'* 
or *' enjoy." — JrUtium capit, &c. ** Commences at the river 
Rhone." Literally, " takes its beginning from the river Rhone." 

7. CoTttinetur. *' Is bounded." Literally, " is encompassed" 
or " hemmed in." — Atttfigit etiam, 6lc. " It touches also on the 
Rhine in the quarter of the Sequani and Helvetii." More literally, 
'*on the side of the Sequani and Helvetii," i. e., where these two 
communities dwell. 

8. Vergit ad septentriones. "It stretches away towards the 
north." Literally, " it inclines" or " tends towards the north," 
«.. e., from its point of commencement on the Rhodanus. 

9. Ab extremis GaUut finibus. " From the farthest confines of 
Gaul." By Gaul is here meant the middle division of the country, 
or that occupied by the Celt®, wbo have been mentioned in the 
preceding sentence under the name of Galli. By fines extremi 
Cssar means the boundaries most remote from Rome, or, in other 
words, the northern. 

10 Speetant in septentriones^ &c. "They look towards the 
0ortl: and t^ rising sun," ' e , their country, commencing on th« 

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3 northern bordets of Celtics, faces, or stretches away io the ntirtA 

and east. 

11. Et eampartem Oceam, &c. " And that part of the Atlantic 
Ocean which is next to Spain," i. e., in the immediate vicinity oi 
Spain, and washing its northern coast. The referonce is to the 
lower part of the Bay of Biscay. Ae regards the force cli4diu this 
passage, compare the common form of expression esse ad uibenit 
" to be near the city,'* and Cicero {Ep. ad Fam. 16, 2), Castra 
ad Cyhistra loeam. ** I pitched my camp in the neighbourhood of 

12. Spectat inter ^. '* It looks between the setting of the sun 
and the north,'* i. e., it looks northwest ; it faces towards that point 
Moras thinks we ought to read in for inter ; but the Greek para- 
phrase sanctions the common lection : i^^ ii ri /iera(d *Apicr«y r 

13. OrgeUnix. This name is said by Celtic scholars to mean 
"chief of a hundred hills," from or, "a hill," ced, "a hundred," 
and righf " a chief." (Compare Thiarry, Hist, det Gauhisy vol. ii., 
p. 289.) 

14. Marco Messala^ &c. "Marcus Messala and Marcus Pim. 
being consuls," i. e., in the consulship of Marcus Messala and Mar- 
cus Piso. Supply mstenliftttt. The date is A. U. C. 693, B. C. 61. 

15. Regm atfiditate induettis. " Led on by a desire of enjo3ring 
the chief authority." Regm is to be here regarded as equivalent 
to regnandi. — Nobilitatis. The higher class of chieftains are meant. 

16. Civittiti. "His state," i. e., the people. By cwitas are 
here meant all the inhabitants of a district or state, under one and 
the same government. This usage is very frequent in our author. 

17. De fenUnia suis. " From their territories." Fines, in the 
sense of " territories" or " country," is of very common occur 

^rence in Cssar. 

18. Jmperio poUri. " To possess themselves of the sovereignty,' 
i. e., to rule as masters over the other Gallic tribes. 

19. Id hoefaciliust <S&c. " He persuaded them to that step the 
nuire easily on this account." The order is, persuasit id eis facil- 
flit hoc. — UfuUque loci natura continentur, "Are confined on al. 
sides by the nature of their situation, ' i. e., are kept in, are pre- 
vented from vandering far. 

20. Monte Jura. The name, in Ce.tic, is said to mean " the do 
main of God," from Joa, an appellation for the Deity, and rag^ the 
domain of a chieftain or ruler The term appears a very appropriate 

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mie to be applied by a barbarous people ^o a lofty mountain-raiige. 3 
Jonsult Geographical Index. 

21. Lacu Lemanno. Now the Lake of Geneva, Strabo givet 
the form A*fdv»a, the Greek paraphrast Atftdv^t, 

22. Minus late. ** Leas widely,'* i. e., than they could baT» 
ir'shed. — Homines hellandi cufiU. ** Men (like themselves) food 
of warfare." 

23. Pro multUudinef dec. '* They thought, besides, that they 
possessed narrow tezxitories, consideijng the extent of their popuU 
tion, and their high character for war and bravery." More litendly, 

< narrow tenitories, in proportion to the number of inhabitants," dec' 

24. Qui in longiiudinem, dec. ** Which extended in length," dec 
Cluverius condemns the inaccuracy of this measurement, both as 
regards length and breadth* (Germ. 2, 4.) But we mi^t bear in 
mind that Caesar, when he vrrote this, had never been in the land 
of the Helvetii, and followed, therefore, merely the rude estimate 
funushed him by some of that nation. C»sar makes the length of 
Helvetia forty-eight geographical miles ; the true distance, however, 
from Geneva to the Lake of Constance, is only forty. {Mannert, 
vol. ii., p. 2l4.) 

l.Hisrebusadduett. '^ Induced by these con8ideiations."—iii ^ 
jtrofidseendum. " To their departure." 

2. Carrorum. " Of wagons." This term has two forms for the 
nominative, earrus and carrum. Cssar employs the former, and 
the author of the commentaries on the Spanish war the latter (c. 
6). The word is of Celtic origin, and denotes a kind of four- 
wheeled wagon. Compare the German Karre, In later Latinity 
the neuter form prevailed. (Adehmgy Gloss. Med. et Inf. Lot. vol. 
ii., p. 231.) 

3. Sementes quam nuudmas facere. " To make as extensive 
sowings as possible," i. e., to sow as much land as possible. 

4. In tertvwm amvum, &c. " They fix upon their departure for 
the third year by a law," i. e., they fix upon the third year for their 
departure. The term lege is here employed as denoting merdy the 
assent of the general assembly of the nation to the proposition of 
Orgetoiix. It is analogous, therefbre, in the preset instance, to 

6. Ad eas res conficiendas. The repetition d this phrase here 
« extremely inelegant, though it may be cited as one proof, among 
others that might be adduced, of Cssar's having hastffy vmtten these 
tommentanes, either at the close of each day, or else very soon after 

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A the occtirrances detailed in them. Obeiliiiiis saggesto ai ea j^ 
place of ad eat res conficiendas ; but the emendation, though neat, 
rests on no MSS. authority. 

6 Regrmm vbtinuerat. "Had enjoyed the sovereign power." 
(Compare note 6, p. 8.) The sovereign authority vras not generally 
hereditary i^ng the Gallic tribes, but was conferred by the people 
on the one whom they judged most worthy. 

7. A senaiu PopuU Ramani. " By the senate of the Roman 
people/* i. e., by Uie senate of Rome. We have here adopted the 
reading of the oldest and best MSS. The copyists have been mis- 
led by the common form, S. P. Q. JR., i. e., senatu poptdoque Ro^ 
numo, and have introduced it here, where it does not at all apply, 
for the title of ** andau** was conferred by the senate, not by the 
people. Compare book 4, c. 12, ** amicus ah sefiabi nostra appel- 
latust** and 7, 81, ^*cujus pater ab senatu nostra amicus erat ap- 

8. Occuparet. The student will observe that the leading verb is 
in the present tense, persuadet, and yet the verb following is in the 
past tense, occuparet. The rule that operates in such cases is 
given as follows by Zumpt, L. G. p. 822. ** When an historian 
uses the present for the perfect aorist, to transport his reader back 
to the time of which he is speaking, he often joins an imperfect 
with this present, which in sense is past." 

9. Pfincipatumobtinebat. "Enjoyed the chief authority.'' The 
phrase prinapatum obtmere applies to one who is the leader of 
his countrymen, but without the name of king. Thus we have in 
Lactantius, de fals. rel. 1, 13, " Primus Uranus eminere mter 
cateros potentia cceperit, et principatum habere, non regrmm.** 

10. PerfaeUe factu esse, dec. " He proves unto them that it 
was a very easy matter to accomplish their designs," i. e., that the 
accomplishment of their intended designs would be a very easy 

11. Quin totius GaUuB, dec. " But that the Helvetu could do 
the most of all Gaul," i. e., were the most powerful state of aU 

12. lUis regna eonciUatmuril. " Would gain for them' the sov- 
ereignty in their respective states." 

13. Etj regna occupaio, dec. " And they entertain the hope, that, 
if the sovereign power be seized by each of them, they can make 
Jbemaelves matters of all Gaul, by means of its three moat power- 
ful and valiant communities." The three communities here r» 

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temd to are the Helyetii, Sequani, and Aedui, and the intended ^ 

change is to be brought about after Orgetorix, Casticns, and Dum* 
noriz shall have seized upon the sovereign power in their respective 

14. FirmisnmoB, Some of the early editions read fortissimos, 
bit it is a mere gloss, explanatory offirmUnmos. 

15. Totius GaUuB fotvri. The verb poHri governs the genitive 
or ablative. Cicero, whenever he employs it to express the acqnisi 
tion of sovereignty or political power, uniformly joins it with a geni- 
tive. Caesar, on the other hand, sometimes employs the genitive, 
as in the present instance, and sometimes, as in chap. 2, joms the 
verb to the ablative of imperium. 

16. Ea res. " This design." — Per indicium, " Through in 
formers." Literally, " by a disclosure" or " information." 

17. Morihu suis, ''According to their custom." Referring 
to the established usage of the nation in such cases. — Ex nnculi* 
causam dieere. ** To plead his cause in chains," i. e., to answer 
the charge in chains. Ex vrnculit, literally, " out of chains," i. e., 
" from the midst of chains," encompassed all the time by them. 

18. Damnatum pcenantf &c. The order is, oportebai pcmatn^ 
lU erenuaretuT ignij sequi (eum) darnnatum, " It behooved the pun- 
ishment, that he should be burnt by fire, to attend him if con 
demned." More freely, ** His punishment, in case he were con 
demned, was to be burnt to death." Urere is simply " to bum," 
but cremare, '* to bum to ashes." The punishment here mentioned 
was usual among the Gauls and other barbarous nations in cases 
of high treason. 

19. Cauta dicHoms. '* For the pleading of his case." Ditiio 
causa is generally applied to the defendant in a cause, and means a 
full explanation and defence of his conduct. — Ad judicium. ** Tc 
the trial." 

20. Omnem stuun famiUam. " All his household." The refer« 
ence is to his domestics, and all the individuals employed about hit 
private a£fairs. FamxLia, in its primitive acceptation, denotes all 
the slaves belonging to one master. 

21. Oheratos. <* Debtors." The torm oicBra/iw properly denotes 
one who, being in debt to another, is compelled to serve the latter, 
tad in ibis way discharge the debt by his labour and services. 
Compare VarrOf L. L. 6, " lAber^ qui suas operas tn serntute^ pro 
peeunuLf quan debeatf dai ; ditm scbseret^ nssus voeaiWt et ab ^ 

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^ 22. Eodem, "To the same place/' i. e., the pkce of tmh*- 

Per eos, ne causam dkerai, &4:. ''By thiiir means be reacuefi 

himself from the necessitj of pleadmg hia cause." More liteiaUy, 

*' he rescued Lmself, so that he should not plead his cause.'* His 

slaves uA retainers rescued him out of the hands of his judges. 

23. Incitata, "Incensed." More literally, "aroused." — Jn$ 
$uum exsequi. " To enforce their autliority." Literally, " to fol- 
low out their authority," i. e., to carry it onward to its destined 
end, namely, the punishment of Orgetorix. 

24. Magistratiu, " The magistrates," i. e., of the HeWetii. — 
Cogerent. " Were collecting." More literally, " were compelling 
the attendance."' 

25. Quin ipse *ibit dec. " But that he laid violent hands on 
himself." Literally, " but that he resolved on death against him- 

g 1. Oppida sua ommoj <S&c. Plutarch mentions the same circum 
stance. {Vit. C(M. c. 18.>— Prff&r qtLod, Elegantly put for 
prater id quod. " Except what." 

2. Difmum reditionis. "Of a return home." This is commonlt 
cited as an instance of a verbal noun governing the accusative, ac- 
cording to the rules of earlier Latinity. Domum, however, is here 
construed like the name of a town. A better example of the accu- 
sative, governed by a verbal noun, may be obtained from Plautus 
{Amph.\, 3, 21), " Quid tibi euraiio est hatui remV* 

3. Trium mensmniy &c. " Ground provisions for three months," 
I. e., meal or flour. The Greek paraphrast employs the teim SK^ra. 

4. Eod^ usi amciUo. " Having adopted the same design," i 
e., having formed the same resolution of leaving home. 

6. Trans Rhenum. On the banks of the Saavus and Danube, 
where they continued to dwell for about 130 years. This country 
on their leaving it, took the name of Deserta Boiorum. {Plin. H 
N, 3, 27.) 

6. Receptos ad se, dec " They receive, and uniie to themselves 
M confederates." A participle and verb, in such constructioniy 
■le to be translated as two verbs with the connective conjunction. 

7. Quibus iHnenbus, The noun to which the relative refers is 
sometimes, as in the present Instance, repeated after it, e^>ecially 
in Gssar. It appears to have been the style of legal documents. 
{Zumpt, L, G. p. 237.) 

8. Vix q%uif &c. Supply parte after qua, " Along which a sin- 
gle wagon could with d^eulty be led at a time." The student 

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ffiU Doce the use of ^ua parte in tiie feminme, ahhoogh the neuter Q 
geadery unaan {iter), precedes. Instances of this are far from un- 
frequent. Thus, Cie. pro Cacin, c. 8, " Ad ornnes vUroitus, qvM 
aduri poteritJ** — C<u, B, G. 5, 44, " Per Alpes, qua proxmum iter 
erat," 4tc. 

9. Ul "So that."~ProAs^e possent, "Gould prevent a 
pMsage." / 

10. Provinciam noMtram. " Our proTince." Referring to the 
Roman province in the south of Gaul. Consult Geographical In- 
dex. — ExpedUius. " Readier," i. e., containing fewer difficulties 
and im)iediment8. 

11. AUobrogunit qui nuper pacati erant. They had been sub 
dued by Caius Pomptinius, the praetor, and their territoxy now 
formed part of the Roman province. Adelung makes the name 
AUdbroges denote " highlanders," from AL "high," and Broga, 
"land." {MithridateSf vol ii., p. 50.) mth this O'Brien nearly 
agrees in his Irish-English Dictionary, deducing the term from Aill^ 
"a rock," and .Sro^, " a habitation." 

12. Vado transitur. " Is crossed by a ford," i. e., is fordable 

13. Ex eo oppido, " From this town a bridge extends across to 
the Helvetii." The bridge began, in fact, a little below the town. 
— Some translate pertinet " belongs," Which is altogether errone- 
ous. The Gred| paraphrast gives the true idea : *A^* ft {Ttpotat) 

14.- BoTio ammo. " Of a friendly mind," i. e., well disposed. 

15. Diem dicunt. "They appoint a day." More literally, " they 
name a day." — Qua die. Consult note 7. — Omnee conveniant. 
*^ Aft are to assemble." 

16. Is dies. The student will note the change from the femi- 
nine qua die to the mascuIinS form. The common rule, that diee 
ia masculine when it is spoken of a particular or specified day.; but 
feminine when referring to duration of time, is not sufficiently 
exact : exceptions may be found to it in many writers. {Zumpt, 
L. G. p. 41.) 

17. Ante diem quintum, &c. " The fifth before the Kalends of 
/Ipril.". This answered to the 28th of March, the Kalends of April 
oeing the first of that month. It must be remembered that the 
Romans, in computmg their time, always included the day from 
Which, and also the day to which, they reckoned. In this way the 
Jith of March became the 5th oefore the Kalends of the ensuing 
aonth. Consult the article KaLenda, in the Arch«ological Index 


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5 A« regaids tb« phraae aiUe diem panhim Kaleniatf ifc Wj b» 
zemarked, that the ezpression is idiomatic for die panto ante Ka- 

18. Lucio Pieone, <&c. A. U. C. 696, B. C. 68. 

19. Ab urhe* ''From the city/' i. e., from Rqme. Ca98ar, pre- 
vioufly to the expiration of his consulship, had obtained fiom the 

^^)eople, through the tribune Yatinius, the provinces of Gallia CisaJ- 
pina and Illyricum, with three legions, for five years ; and the senate 
added Gallia Transalpine, with another legion. He set out fix)m 
the city, as appears from the context, in the early part of the spring. 

20. Quam niaximu potest itineribus, ** By as great journeys as 
possible," i. e., with all possible speed. Compare (he Greek par- 
aphrast, i&( ^i^varo rdxtora, 

21. Galliam ulteriorem. "Farther Gaul," i. e., Gaul beyoiul 
the Alps, or Gallia TrMisalpina. 

22. Provincue totty Xc. '* He orders as many soldiers as poe- 
table from the whole province," i. e., commands the whole province 
to furnish as many soldiers as it could. Literally, *^ he commands 
to the whole province as many," &c. 

23. Omnino, " In all."— Le^ una. " But a smgle legion." 
The legion, in the time of Polybius, contained 4200 men, to whom 
were added 800 horse. Xipaius thinks that Gsesar's legions did 
not much exceed this estimate. {De Mil. -KoQ^ lib. 1, dial. 6.) 
Consult remarks under the article legiot in the Archsological Index. 

g I. Ad Genevam, **Near Geneva." So Roma means "in 
Rome," but ad Romam, " near Rome." 

S» Certiores faeti aunt. "Were informed." The adjective 
cerius has frequently the meaning of " sure," " well acquainted," 
&c. Thus, foe fne, oro, ut sim eeriuSt an. " Inform me, I en- 
treat, for a certainty, whether ;" ana again, certi sumua, te hoc 
feeieee, "we know well that you did this." Hence arises the 
phrase, '* ekrtiorem faceref " to inform," " to make acquainted,** 
as refeiring to information on which reliance may generally be 

3. Prvndpem locum ohtinchant. " Held the chief place," i. e., 
they were at the head of the embassy. Compare note 9, page 4. 
-^Verudodius, This name is derived, by Celtic scholars, from ver^ 
"a man," and dacht, or docht^ "speech," as indicating a public 
speaker or ontor ; and, though given by Cesar as a proper name, 
may have been only, in fact, an appellation for one of the leaden of 
the enibasBv. {Thierryt Hiet. dea Gtmkm, vdl. ii., p. 297.) 

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4. Sibi esse in ammo, **,That it was their intention." — Sins 

uUo mdUfiew. ''Without doing any hann.*' — Ejus volunUUe. 
—With his consent." 

5. Oecisum, Supply /umm, and so also after pulsum and miss 
»m. The event alluded to in the text ha^ taken place forty-nine 
yeazs previous. A Cimbio-Teutonic horde, the same that were 
afterward defeated by Marius, after devastating central Gaul, united 
with the Helvetii; and resolved to attack the Roman province simul- 
taneously at different points. The Tigurini, a tribe of the Helvetii, 
under the command of DivicOj undertook to invade the territory of 
the Allobroges by the bridge of Geneva and the fords of the. Rhone 
a little below this city. The rest of the Helvetii, together with their 
now allies, moved south. This plan of operations compelled the 
Romans to divide their forces. The Consul Cassius hastened to 
Geneva, while his lieutenant Scaurus made head against the CimbrI 
and Teutones. Both commanders were unfortunate. Cassius and 
his army were cut to pieces by the Helvetii on the borders of the 
Lacus Lemannus, or Lake of Geneva ; while Scaurus was defeated 
and taken prisoner by those whom he had endeavoured to oppose. 
lAv, EfU, 65.— Oro». 6, 16.— TWeny, Hist, des Gaulaisj vol. ii., 
p. 200, seq. 

6. Sub )ugum missum, '* Sent under the yoke.*' Two spears 
were placed upright in the ground, and a third one was laid across 
them at top, forming what the Romans called jxigum. Under this, 
they who were admitted to surrender upon these terms were com- 
pelled to pass without their arms. 

7. paia fwcvkaJte, <* If an opportunity were afforded them."— 
Temftratwros ab injuria^ &c. " Would refrain from injury and 
outrage." Literally, "would restrain themselves." Supply se 
after temperaturos. 

8. Ut spatiam intercedere posset, " In order that some space o. 
time might intervene." — Diem sumturum, ** Thft he would take 
time." Dies is here put, not for the natural day, but for an indef- 
inite period of time. Compare Davies, ad •se, 

9. AnU diem, &c. <' On the day before the Ides of April." Th 
Ides of April fell on the 13th of that month. The date here mea 
IS consequently the 12th. As regards the idiomatic expression an. * 
dtem, compare note 17, page 6. Consult also, for remarks on tb 
Roman month, the article Kalenda, in the Archaeological Index. 

10. Qm influmeny 6cc. The Rhone actually flows into the La 
o£ Geneva ; but Caesar, being unacquaintisd with the cOuntrv abov 

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Q the lake, imagined that the lake flowed into or formed the ilfei 
l%ere is no need, therefore, of the emendation adopted by some 
editors, who read quern in flymen Rhodanum infltut, i. e., " into 
which the river Rhone flows.'* Besides, flumen Kkodcarmmy making 
Rhodanum an adjective, agreeing with flumen^ is not in Cssar'a 
osual style. 

\\, Ad montem Juram. It will be remembered that there were 
only two ways by which the Hehetii could leave home ; one b> 
the fords of the Rhone into the Roman province ; the other by tne 
narrow pass between Mount Jura and the Rhone, and which led 
through the territories of the Sequani. Of these two, that which 
ed into the proviiice most required the attention of Cssar ; and as 
he could not expect to keep off the vast numbers of the Helvetii by 
the small force which he had with him, he drew a wall along the 
lower bank of the Rhone, in .a line with the fords, from the point 
where the Lake of Geneva emptied mto that river, to the spot where 
the Rhone divides, as it were, the chain of Jura into two parts, and 
forms the pass abeady mentioned between the river and the moun- 
tain. This narrow passage, moreover, would only lead the Helvetii 
into the territory of the Sequani ; whereas the other, by the fords 
of the Rhone, would have carried them at once into the Rinnan 
province. Consult the plan at page 7 of the Latin text. 

12. MUlia passuum decern novem. " Nineteen miles in length." 
Literally, " nineteen thousand paces." The Roman passusy or 
*<pace," was 1 yard, 1.85375 ft. ; and as 1000 of them went to the 
miUiare, or " mile," the latter was equivalent to 1617 yds. 2.75 ft. 
We have given the reading of all the early editions. Vossius, re- 
garding the length of the wall as too great, omits novem, entirely on 
his own authority, and is followed by many subsequent editors. 
But the Greek paraphrast has Uarbv Kal irivTijKovra S69 ordSia, which 
favours the reading decern novem. Besides, what prevents our sup* 
posing that the" wall was carried on until it reached some part ol 
the chain of Jura, and had passed beyond, all the fords 1 

13. Castella communit, "He. carefully fortifies retloubts." 
Communire is equivalent to valde munire. — Se invito " Against 
his wiL." Literally, ** he himself being unwilling." 

14. Quam constituerat. " Which he had appointed." The at 
lusion is to the day before the Ides; 

15. Negatt se more, &c. " He declares that he cannot, con- 
sistently with the usage and example of tbe Roman people,'* &c., l 

., thatitwa an unusual and unprecedented thin^ for the Roman 

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people to grant any one a passage through their province. — Ezemr- g 

plum refers to the hehaviour of the Humans on similar occasions. 

16. Ostenddi. ** He shows them plainly,*' i. e., he explicitly de- 
clares. — Ea spe dejecH. " Disappointed in this hope." Literally, 
** cast down from this hope.'* 

17. Navilnu jundiSf dec. " Some by means of boats connected 
ogether, and nomerons rafts constracted for the purpose,'' i. e., 

some by a bridge of boats and by numerous rafts, &c. Before tut- 
mbus we must understand o/n. The common text has it expressed 

18. Qua minima,^. ** Where the depth of the river was least." 
— Si perrumpere possent, <* If they could force a passage." — Ope 
rig mwdtiane. " By the strength of our works." Alluding to the 
wall which had been constructed between the lake and Jura, to 
gether vnth its ditch and numerous redoubts. 

19. Propter angrtstiae, '< On account of the narrowness of the 
pass." — Sua spotUe. " Of themselves," i. e., by their own appli 

1. Uteo deprecatorey &c. " In order that, he being the inter- *} 
cessor, they might obtain what they wished from the Sequani," L 

e., through his mtervention or mediation. With impetraretU supply 
hoCj as referring to the passage through their territories. The com- 
mon text has hoc expressed. 

2. Gratia et largitione, <&c. "By his personal influence and 
liberality could accomplish a very great deal among the Sequani." 
With poterat strpply facere. 

3. In matrinumium duxerat. ** Had married." Literally, ** had 
led into matrimony." The Romans said ducere uxarem, " to marry 
a wife," because the female was conducted, as a part of the cere- 
mony, from her father's house to that of her husband. Hence i2u* 
eere uxorem is for ducere uxorem domunif literally, " to lead a wifo 
home." So again, in spcfaking of a female taking a husband, the 
Latin writers employ the verb rmbo. Thus rmbere viro, " to marry 
a husband.'* Here the ellipsis is nubere se viroy literally, " to vej. 
herself for a husband,*' alluding to the bride's wearing a flame* 
coloured veil during, the marriage ceremony. 

4. Novis rebus ttudebat, " Was aiming at « change in the gov 
emment,'* i. e., was plotting a revolution in the state. Literally, 
" was desirous of new things." 

- 5, Suo sibi benefido obstrietae. ** Firmly attached to himself 
or reason of his kind offices towards them.*' He wished to bav« 

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232 NOTES •/( IHK FXR81 BOOK. 

* tlwM itaf 68 under strong obligations to himself^ in oider that ibuy 
might aid him in his ambitiofb designs. 

Q. Rem, ** The afbir,'* i.e., the negotiation. — Den$, Refemng 
to both parties, the Helvetii and Sequani. — Sequamj ne, dec. ** The 
Sequani, not to prevent the Helvetii from using this route,*' i. e., 
the Sequani, to give hostages not to prevent, d&c. 

7. Casari reTiunciaiur, *<Word is brought to Cesar.*' Re» 
nunciare is properly applied to intelligence, that is brought to one 
who had been previously expecting something of the kind ; and it 
IS therefore the very term that is required here. Compare the re- 
mark of Forcellini : '* Renunciare proprie adhibetwr^ cum rmncmm 
idkujus rei exapec^anH afferimusV 

8. QwMcmtas, "Which stote." Refernng to the Tolosates. 

9. Jd sifieret, dec. "Should this be done, he clearly saw it 
would be aiiended with great danger to the province, that it should 
ttave for neighbours a warlike race," &c., i. e., ft>r it to have in its 
umiediate vicinity a warlike race of men. The race alluded to are 
ihe Helvetii. 

10. Locts p^ilwtailmst &c. " In an open and very fertile tract 
«f country." 

11. Eimumtwifi. Referring to the wall that had been con 
ttructed between ihe lake and Mount Jura. — Legatum, " His 
lieutenant.'* The nnmber oilegatiy or lieutenants-general, depended 
en the importance of the war. 

12. In Italiam. " Into Italy," i. e., into Hither, or Cisalpine 
^ul. Compare chap. 24, where the two legions here mentioned 
are said to have been levied " in Gallia cUericreJ* — Magma iivner 
iRtJ*. ** By gr^ journeys." 

13. Quaproximum iter. " Where the route was nearest," i. e., 
shortest. With qua supply parte. Thus, Martial, 3, 91, 6, " Qua 
forte euharet, qtiarunt,** and again, 7, 73, 6, " Die qtta te parte 
tequiramy (Palaxret, EUips. Lot. p. 140, ed. Barker.) 

14. Compluribus kis prcdiis pidsis. " These having been routed 
in numerous encounters." Polysnus (8, 23) makes mention of a 
stratagem employed by Cssar against these mountaineers. Under 
cover of the morning mist, he led a portion of his forces by a circu- 
itous route to a part* of the mountain which overhung the enemy's 
position. On a sudden a shout was raised by those with him, and 
was answered by the rest of his troops below, on which the barba- 
rians, struck with tenor, betook themselves to hasty flight. What 
PoSyvnus adds, however, that Ctraar crossed the Alps on this i» 

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tamsm, wimoot toy fighting (XaSrap ^tfwx*^ ^ 'AXirnr inpiSaKn)^ 7 
appears from the present passage to be incorrect. 

15. Citerioris PromncuB. ** Of the hither province/' By cite- 
Hor promneia the Romans meant Cisalpine Gaul ; by ulterior pr<h 
frineiOf Transalpine. Both epithets were need with reference to 
Rome. — Extremitm, Supply oppidmm. 

16. JRi^ahtm auxUium, Supply iticen^M. " Stating."— /to «« 
•mm temporey &c. *< That they had so deserved at aL tjmes of the 
Roman people, that their fields ought not to be ravaged," dtc., 1. e., 
that» on account of their constant fidelity to the Romans, they did 
not deserve to have their fields ravaged, &c. 

1. Neeestarii et consanguinei. '*The friends and relationa of g 
the Aedui.'' By neeetsdriij among the Roman writers, those are 
meant to whom kind ofiSices are, as it were nuetsarily., due, either 

on account of friendship or kindred. 

2. Remonstrant. ** Inform him." Equivalent here and else 
where to narrant. — Sibi prater agri, du;. " That nothing was 1^ 
them except the soil of their land^" i. e., except the bare soil, except 
a devastated country. The genitive relipii depends on nihU, 

3. Ommbus fortunU socwrum consumtis. ** All the resources 
of his aUies having been destroyed," i. e., their fortunes having be- 
come completely ruined. 

4. Santottos, The MSS. vary between SarUanes and Santonosy 
but the better class have SarOOTios. Both forms are in use. In 
the same way we have TeuUmi and Teutones. Compare Cortius, 
€d Lucanf 1, 422, " Gaudetque amoto Santomu hoete.^* 

5. FTumen est Arar. '* There is a river called Aran" Now 
the Same. Consult Geographical Index. 

6. Incredabili letdtate. ** With wonderful smoothness." More 
literally, "with a smoothness exceeding belief." — ludicari-non 
possit. ** It cannot be determined." 

7. Id transibant. " Were now in the act of crossing it."»-l4n 
tribus. ** Small boats.'^ These were formed of trees hollowed 
out Compare Virgil, Georg. 1, 266, " Caoat arbore lintres.** 
The Greeks called them /iovtffvX«t. {Veget. 3, 7.) Compare also 
Livy (31, 26), ** Novasquemlias primum GaUif inchoanteSf cava 
iarU ex singulis arhoribus." 

8. Tres jam copiarum partes, &c. >" That the Helvetii had by 
^s time conveyed three parts of their forces across this river," 1. 
e., three fourths of their whole force. Partes is governed by duxisse 
In composition; ani fiamen by trans. So the passive voice tram* 

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y dud may take an accosatiTe, which, in reality, howerer, dependa 

upon trans. Thua Belga Rhenum mUiquitut tradueii. {Zumpt, 

L. G. p. 260.) 

9. De tertta vigUia, ** At the beginning of the third watch," 1. 
e., at midnight. The Romans divided the night into four watchea 
each of three hours. The first began at six o'clock in the erenxig: 
according to our mode of computing time ; the second at nine 
o'clock ;^he third at midni^t ; the fourth at three o'clock m the 

10. Jmpeditos et inopinanUs. " Encumbered with their baggage, 
and not expecting him." — Aggressus. Plutarch {Vit. Cos. 18) 
says that it was Labienus who attacked the Helvetii on this oc- 
casion ; but, accoiding to Cesar's account, which, of course, is to 
be prefened, Labienus had been left in charge of the works along 
the Rhone. Compare chap. 10^ 

11. Is pagiis appellahahir Tigurinus. " This canton was called 
the Tigurine," i. e., that of the Tigurini. Pagiis here takes the 
place of parSf which had been pieyiously used in speaking of this 
diTision of the HelvetiL For the etymology of pagus, consult 
Blomfield, Gloss, in Prom. Vinct. v. 20, p. 106. 

12. In quaiuor pages. CeUarius gives these four cantons as 
follows : TiguriTULSf Vrhigenus, Ambromcus, and Tugenus. The 
first two we obtain from Cssar, the remainder from Eutropius 
Orosius, and Strabo. The only one of the four which is at all 
doubtful is that styled ptigus Ambronicus, since the Ambrones 
were of German origin. {CeUarius, Geog. Aniiq. vol. L, p. 222. 

-Mannertf vol. ii., p. 215.) 

1 3. Hie pagus unas. " This particular canton." — Lueium Cos 
9ium constdem. Consult note 5, page 6. 

14. Consilio deorum immortalium. **In accordance with the 
counsels of the immortal gods," i. e., by their special providence. 

15. Prirtceps pcenas persolvit. " Was the first to suffer punish- 
ment. Compare chap. 41 of this book, ** Princepsque derttna 
hgio per trihwnos mUitum ei gratias egit^* 

16. Quod ejus soceri, dec. " Because the Tigurini, in the sune 
battle in which they had slain Cassiuq^had ako slain his lieutenant, 
Lucius Piso the grandfather of Lucius Piso, Cssar's father-in-law.* 
Cssar, after having been divorced from Pompeia, whose chaiactei 
had suffered in the affair of Clodius and his violation of the rites of 
the Bona Dea, took, as a second wife, Calpumia, the daughter of 
Lucius Calpurnius Piso, and procured the consulship the next yeai 

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or Yob &ther-iii-law, he himself having held it the year preceding. Q 
Sneton. Vit. Cos. 21.— P/»/. Vit, Ccu, 14. 
17. Consequi, " To overtake."— In ilrore. " Over the Arar." 

1. Cum u2, &c. " When they perceived that he had effected in 9 
a syigle day what they themselves had with veiy great difficulty ac- 
complished in twenty days, namely, the crossing of the river." 
Literally, '* namely, that they might cross the river." Ciacconius 
thinks that the words tUflumen transirent are a gloss, and not C» 
sar's. In this he is clearly wrong, as they appear to have heen 
sdded hy Caesar for the sake of perspicuity. 

2. Cujus legaiumiSf <&c. " At the head of which embassy was 
Divico." — Dux Hdvetiorum. Compare note 5, page 6. — Belle 
Caasiano. ^* In the war with Cassius," i. e., in the war in which 
Cassius was the commander oppose<^ to them. 

3. Cum CiBsare agit. ** Treats with Csesar," i. e., addresses 
Caesar. Compare the Greek paraphrastj IXc^e roidh, 

4. AtqUe ibi futures, "And would remain there." Compare 
the Greek paraphra8t,>ca2 iiuX lUvaSfnv. 

6. Veteris incommodi. " The old overthrow." Alluding to the 
defeat of Cassius. — Hdvetiorum, Referring in particular to the 
Tigurini, who defeated Cassius. 

6. Quod improvisOf &.c. " As to his having surpirised one of 
their cantons." — Ne 6b earn rem, 6lc. ** He should not, on that 
account, ascribe anything too highly to his own valour, or greatly 
despise them," i. e., " he should not attoibute the defeat of the He!- 
vetii altogether to his own valour, nor look down with contempt on 
them." With tnbueret supply quidqv/im, 

7. Quam dolo. The common text has eontendsrent following 
after dolo. We have rejected it as a mere gloss, in which light i* 
is also viewed by Gruter, Davies, and Oudendoip. Bentleyrecom 
mends nUercTUuret eontendererU. 

8. Ne commUtereL ** He should not bring it to pass." Mora 
freely, " he should not cause." — AtU memoriam proderct. " Or 
should transmit the remembrance of such an event to posteri^." 
The conclusion of this speech is in full accordance with the boast- 
ful and arrogant character ascribed to the Gauls by ancient writers. 

9. Eo tibi minuSf &c. " That he felt the less hesitation as to 
ilie course he was to pursue, because he well remembered," 6cc. 
Literally, " that less doubt was given him on this account, because," 
&c. CfBsar means that the very circumstances which the Helvetii 
had mentioned for the purpose of intimidating him had only m 

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9 duced him ^ nake up his mind more pzomptiy on the question, 
whether he would conclude a peace with them or go on with the 
wax. For that the defeat of Cassiue bad happened undeservedly to 
the Romany, and he was resoWed to avenge it. 

10. Atque eo gravius ferre, &c. '*And that he felt the v^n 
indignant at them, the less thej had happened in accordance with 
the deserts of the Roman people," L e., that he resented them the 
more strongly, as they had happened undeservedly to his countiy- 
men. — Eo gravius ferre. Literally, " that he bore them the more 

11. Qui si alicujus, &c. The relative qui has here Popuh Ro- 
' mam for its antecedent. " For that, had they been conscious to 

themselves of having done any previous injury to the Helvetii, ic 
would not have been difficult for them to be on their guard against 
the latter ; but that they were misled by this, because they were 
not aware that anything had been done by them on account of 
which they should fear ; nor, on the other hand, did they think they 
ought to fear without cause." Cssar means, that the Romans, on 
the occasion alluded to, were rather surprised than defeated by the 
Helvetii. For they were not conscious of ever having wronged 
that people, and, of course, expected no danger from them, and had 
made no preparations to oppose them. 

12. Quod si. "Even if, however." — Veteru^ eontumelut. 
" Their former insult," i. e., the affiront put by them upon the Ro- 
man name in th^ overthrow df Gassras. — Num eftam, &c. " Could 
he also lay aside the remembrance of recent injuries 1" The order 
is, fium eiiam posse deponere memoriam recerUium injuriarum t 

13. Quod tentassent. " In that they had attempted." More 
freely, ** in their having attempted." — Quod gloriarerUur.^ " That, 
as to their boasting." — Quodque admirarentur. " And as to their 
wondering." — Eodem pertinere. " Both of these things tended to 
the same effect." Were of a similar tendency, i. e., only tended 
the more surely to provoke his anger. 

1 4. Qtio gravius homines^ &c. '^That men may feel the heavier 
affliction from a change of circumstances," i. e., from a reverse tA 
fortune. — Quos pro scelere, 6cc, The order is, eoncedtre interdum 
secunddores res et diutumiorem impumtatem MSf quos vellent ulcisci 
wo scelere eorum. 

15. Cum ea ita sint. " That although these things are so," i. 
, although this is the case. — Vti ea, qua poUiceantur, &c. " In 

order that he may perceive that they mtend to fulfil their promises.'* 

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. .» fliat he may peieeiye their siacerity by the thct of their giving 9 

ftostaget. The promises referred to are, that they will go into such 

Dart of Gaul as Cesar may appoint, and will dwell there for the 

*ime to come. 

1. EjuM reiy dec. ** That the Roman people themselves were a ] Q 
proof of tiiat custom." Alluding to the defeat of Cassius. 

3. Quern ex omm promncia. The Roman infantry were always 
excellent, but their cavahy were comparatively infirm. Hence we 
ind them generally employing the cavalxy of their allies, and, in par 
•icular, Gallic horsd. Cesar's cavahy was composed at first of 
Gauls, afterward Gennan horse were also added. 

3. Qui, eujpdius, &c. <* These, having pursued the enemy's 
*ear too eagerly."' — Ntmissimum agmen. That part of the line of 
narch which is '< newest" to a pursuing enemy, since they first 
.ome in contact with it. 

4. - Alieno loco. *' In a disadvantageous place." Alieno loeo is 
ised in this sense in opposition to suo loco, which denotes a favour- 
ible place. Sdlust, B, I b^.^Lh. 42, 43. 

5. SublaH. <« Being elated." So B. G. 5, 37, " Hae tnetona 
mhlatus AnUnorix,^^ and B. C. 2, 37, " Quibus onrnUnu rehus tub- 
latus,^ — Audacius gubsistere eceperunt, " Began to make a bolder 

6. Sktis habebai in prasentia. " Deemed it sufficient for the 
^^lesent." — Rapinis, dec. " From rapine, foraging, and laying waste 
the country." The common editions ondipabidaHonibus. ■ Vossius 
first removed it fifom the text. It was restored by Davies, and is 
found in good MSS. 

7. Nostrum primum. " Our van." Supply agmen. Cesar's 
uxtention vms to join battle with the Helvetii, before they should 
proceed much ferther through Graul and reach the territory of the 
Santones. His object in following them for so long a period was 
to get the enemy on disadvantageous ground, and then engage and 
conquer them. The Helyetii constantly avoiding a general action, 
Cesar left the line of march, aAd betook himself to Bibracte, for 
two reasons : one was in order to procure com for his army ; the 
other was to impress the Helvetii with the belief that the Romans 
were fleeing, and thus to induce them to hazard an action. This 
latter event actually happened as he expected it would. Compare 
chap. 23. 

8. iTiterim quotidie, 6cc'. " Meanwhile Cesar kept daily impor* 
tuning the Aedui for the ooro which they had promised in the 

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1 name of the state." Flagitare is precisely the veib to e employed 

here, since it denotes an earnest and reiterated demand, accom 

panied with reproaches. The historica] infinitive is here used ir 

place of the imperfect ,/Za^tto^a/. It serves to impart more of 

animation to the style than the ordinary imperfect would ; and, be 

ing frequently employed by historians^ it gets its name of the his 

torieal infi^tive. Some, however, supply an ellipsis of capit on 

eaperuntf according as the context requires ; but this is unneccs 


9. Propter f rigor a. " On account of the severity of the climate. ^ 
The plural is here employed to impart additional emphasis. Th« 
climate of Gaul was much colder at the period wheji Cssar wrote 
than that of modem France is at the present day. The change has 
been brought about by the drying up of marshes, the cutting down 
of forests, and the more general cultivation of the soil. These 
forests and marshes covered at that time a \ii\^ portion of the 

10. Svh septentriomlms. " Under the north,'' i. e., towards the 
north. Cssar here speaks of Gaol in its relation to the more 
southern position of Italy. 

11. Suppetebat, "Was at hard.'' Equivalent to ad nuumm 
9ratf or the simple aderat. 

12. Eo autem frumentOy &c. " Besides {mtem) he was unable 
to make use of the com which he had brought up the river Arar in 
vessels,* for this reason {propterea), because the Helvetii, from whom 
he was unwilling to depart, had tumed away their line of march 
from the Arar." Subvehere has here its primitive meaning, " to 
bring up firom a lower place to a higher." 

13. Diem ex die dtuiere Aedui. ** The Aedui put him off from 
day to day." More literally, " protracted the a£fair (L o., the bring 
ing of com) from day to day." Jhicere is here the hi^orical infini 
tive used for the imperfect. Compare note 8, above. 

14. Conferri, comportarif dtc. " They told him it was collect- 
ing, bringing in, on the road," i. e., they assured him, at one time, 
that the com was getting collected by individuals ; at another, that 
these individuals were bringing it in to some place specified by the 
magistrates, in order to fomi the requisite supply for the Romans ; 
and, at another time again, they told him it was actually on the 
road to his army, and near at hand. Compare the Greek paraphrast, 
who uses idpol^toBai for confcrri, and SytoBai for comportari, 

15. Se diutus dud. " That he was put off too lon^ " — Fm 

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menAim. The Roman soldien had no meal or bread served out to JQ 
them, but merely so much grain, which they had to pound and make 
into bread for themselves. Thus Lipsius remarks, " Nolebant cu 
riote et ab professo opifice panem coctum sumi, ted subitarium, et 
quern sua manu mile* parasaet,^* (De MU. Rom. dial. 16.) Com- 
pare Sallust, B. I. 45. 

16. Qui summo magistratv. praerat. " Who was invested with 
the chief magistracy." Magittraiu is the old dative for magistror 
tui, a form of frequent recurrence in Csesar. Compare Struve, Lot. 
Deilin., &c., p. 36. 

17. Vergobretum. Glesner, in his Latin Thesaurus, gives this 
word a long penult, but the Greek paraphrast has it short, Bt^dSptros- 
The term is derived, by Celtic scholars, from Fear-go-breith, equiv- 
alent to vir ad judicium, i. e., " a man for judging" or " trying 
cases." In Celtic, fear is " a man," go " to" or " for," and 
breatam, " a judge." Pellc^r, in his Dictionary of the Breton 
(ongue, gives breut and hrawd, '* a trial." 

1. Tarn necetsano tempore. " On so urgent an occasion." — J J 
Eorum precOus additctus. Compare chap. 11. 

2. Quod nt destitutus, " Of his having been left unaided by 
them," i. e., not having been supplied with com. 

3. Quod arUea tacuerat propomt. ** Discloses what he had pre- 
viously Concealed." Taceo is one of those intransitive verbs which 
obtain a transitive force, because an action exerted upon another 
object is implied though not described in them. {Zumpt, L. G. p. 

4. Plurimum valeat. " Is vpry powerful." The subjuiytive is 
employed, as indicating the sentiinents and conviction of the speaker, 
not of the historian himself. So poasint, immediately after. . Com- 
pare Crombie, Gymn. vol. ii, p. 10. 

5. Piioa^ " Though private individuals." The earlier edi- 
tisns and ve^ many of the MSS. have privatim, " in their private 
capacity," which is not by any means a bad reading. R. Stephens 
first gave privati. 

6. Hos. Referring to these same individuals. — Seditiosa atque 
tmproba oratione, '* By seditious and wicked speeches." — Fi/^ 
mentum. " The com.*'* 

7. Si jam, &c. " Adding, that, if they (the Aedui) cannot 
hold any longer the sovereignty of Gaul, it is better (for them) to 
sobmit to the dominion of Gauls than of Romans," i. e., it is better 
lor them to obey the Helvetii, Gauls like themselves, than total 

V • 

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] I tirangen, like tli6 Romans. Omnare it hen equTalent to ibtouM 

tenere, for the Aedni had at one time, as Cesar himself informs ns 
(chap. 43), enjoyed the dominion over all Gaul. Compare Danes, 

8. Neque duUtare debere, &c. '< And that they ought not cc 
entertain a doubt, but that," &c. Some editions omit debere. 

9. Ab iUdem. " By these same individuals," i. e., the prmUt 
mentioned above. — Quaque. " And whatsoever things." For et 

10. A 9t. ** By himself," as Vergobretus. — Quod neceesaanoj 
&c. " As to his having, being compelled by necessity, disclosed 
the affair to Cosar, he was well aware at how great a risk he did 
diis." Necessario coachu is here eipiivalent to necessitate eoachu, 
. 11. DesigTiari. "Was meant." Literally, <*was pointed at." 
• — Sed quod, &c. " But since he was unwilling that these matters 
should be disclosed, so many being yesent," L e., in the presence 
of so many. Pluribus, literally, '* a larger number than ordinary.'- 

12. Quarit ex solo ea, " He inquires from him in private about 
those things." Solo refers to Liscus. — Dicit liberius, &c. " Lis- 
cus thereupon etpresses himself with greater freedom and boldness." 

13. Complures atmos, dec. " That he had, for very many years, 
fanned the customs, and all the other public revenues of the Aedui, 
at a low rate, because, when he bid, no one dared to bid against 
him." By portoria the Roman writers mean the duties paid for 
goods imported or exported ; hyvectigaUA the public revenues gen- 
erally. Those who fanned them were called redemtores or puMu 
earn, and the revenues were said in this way esse redempta, " to be 
contracted for," i. e., to be farmed. 

14. Lieente. From the deponent liceri, not from the intransitive 
verb liceo. Several MSS. have illo dtcente, and some editors in- 
cline to the opinion that this is the true reading. Ti^Venice edi- 
tion also gives dicente . 

15. FaeuUates ad largundum magnas, " Extensive means foi 
the exercise of Hberality," i. e., for bestowing presents and rewards 

16. LSrgiter posse, '< Exercised a powerfiU influence." Equiv 
alent to esse potetUissimum. — Hujus potentus causa, <' In i>rdei 
to maintain this influence." Literally, " &x the sake of this influ- 

12 !• CoUocasse. " He had given in mamage." Supply nupfum, 
which is expressed with coUocasse immediately after. CoUocare 
in this sense is a legal expression. — Iimviii ex HehetUst 6cc. K» 

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Ind mairied the daughter of Orgetorix, as ha» been stated in 22 
ckap. 3. 

3. Fmere et cupere HelvetUs. *' That he lavoured and wished 
well to the HelTetii." Cupere is here eqiuTalent to bene vette^ as 
eotuntas occurs in the next chapter for benevoletUia. 

3. Oduse etiam suo funrnne, *< That he hated also on his own 
acccont," i. e., cherished a personal hatred towards. 

4. In ofOiquum loeum, &c. " fiad been restored to his former 
degree of influence and consideration,*' i. e., had been reinstated in 
his former influence, 6cc, 

5. Si quid aceidat Romanu, &c. '* That if anything adverse 
happen to the Romans," i. e., *' if any disaster in war befall them.'* . 
• — Summam in spent venire. " He entertained very great hopes." 

6. Jmperio Populi Romani, <* That, under the sway of the Ro- 
man people," i. e., as long as the Roman people possessed the 
chief authority in GauL 

7. Reperiebat etiam tnquirendo, &c. The ellipsis, in this sen^ 
tence, after inquirendoy gives it somewhat the appearance of an ir 
regular construction, and has occasioned considerable trouble to 
many editors. Supply as follows : inquiretido (prcBlio equestri ad- 
verso), quod pretlium equestre adversum, &c. '* On inquiring into 
the unsuccessful engagement of the horse which had been fought a 
few days previous." The words understood are to be rendered 
fully, and quod prcelntm equeetre advereum is merely to be translated 
" which." The common text has in quarendo. 

S. Equitaiupraerat, <* Was over the CMolry." f^ui^iUu is here 
the old form for the dative. Compare note 16, page 10. 

9. CeriiesinuB res aecederent. "The most undoubted £u;ts were 
added." — Quod. '* How that." Cesar here proceeds to give an 
enumeration of the facts to which he refers. 

10. Injuseu suot dec. " Without his own (Cesar's) orders, and 
those of his (Dumnorix's) state, but ^en without the knowledge 
)f the latter." Ipeis refers to the Aedui. 

11. Quare in eum, dec. " Why he should either himself punish 
aim, or order the state (of the Aedui) so to do." When omtiuul* 
vertere is used, with the preposition in, as in the present case, it 
always denotes that the condiut deesaed reprehensible has been 
aarefully inquired into previous to its being punished. 

12. Vduniaitm. << Affection." Vduntaa is here equlvalesi 
to heneeoUnHa. So, in the 6th book, chapter 4, we have, " Cujm 
tgreg^tm in se wluntatem perspexiteet " GompaTO the remark Oi 

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12 DonatuB {ad Terent. Phorm. Prol. 6, 80), " Voluntatem pro fawn 

13. C4uum Valerium Procillum. This name is written variously 
in the MSS. Some give TroadUunif others TrauciUum. Tht 
Greek paraphrast has UpoaicOXov. — Prindpem GoUub Provincue 
'< A leading man in the province of Gaul." Prindpem is hert 
equivalent to t?i{dr primoret. 

14. Cui sumtnam^ &c. " In vvhom he was accustomed to place 
the highest confidence on every occasion." More literally, " thr 
highest confidenr.e in all things.'' — In coneUxo GaUorum. Com- 
pare chapters 16, 17, and 18. 

15. OttendU. Some editors omit ostendity because eommoneja 
ctt precedes. But its presence is necessary for the meaning. 
Cssar " reminds" (comnumefacU) Divitiacus of certain things that 
had been said in the council, and now '* shows" him other matters 
that were not previously known to the latter. 

16. Stne ejtts offensione animi. " Without any offence to hiit 
(Divitiacus's) feelings." — Ipse. Referring to Cssar. — Civitatem. 
The Aedui. 

13 I. Ne quid gravitu, &.c, ** That he would not determine any- 
thing too severe against his brothejr," i. e., would not pass toe 
severe a sentence upon him. — Ela, " That those things which 
Cssar had mentioned." 

2. Propterea qtwdj 6ui. " For this reason, because, at a tmit 
when he himself could effect a very great deal by his influence .ai 
home and throughout th^est of Gaul, and his brother very little by 
reason of his youth, t}» latter had become powerful through his 
(Divitiacus*8) means, which consequence and power he was now 
employing," &c. Opibtu and neyisy following after cretisset^ are 
boUi implied in that verb. Nervis is here employed in the sense o< 
« power," the metaphor being borrowed from animals whose strength 
lies in their nerves. 

3. Ei. Referring to Dumnoriz. — Jpae. Divitiacus. — Eum 
locum apiicUuB apud eum. "Such a place in his friendship." 
Apud eum, i. e., apud Casarem. 

4. Faciat, The conjunction tU is elegantly understood. — Tanh 
ejus apud set &c. '< He declares that his (Divitiacus's) influence 
with him (Cssar) is so great, that he will pardon both the injury 
done to the republic and the affront offered to himself, at his desire 
and entreaty." Literally, " to his wish and prayers." 

6. Adhibet. <* He brings in." Compare the Greek paraj^hraat. 

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m2 Ix^nv wapaKaSitv. — Propomt. ** He lays before him." — Omnes 1 3 

suspiciones. " All grounds of eusficioD..^^-^DiviiiaeofriUri. " On 
account of his brother Divitiacus." 

6. Dumnorigi custodjBS ponit* " He places spies over Dumno- 
X." The Greek paraphrast translates custodes too literally : h fv\aK% 

7. Qualis esset natura moniis, &.c. " He sent persons to ascer- 
tain what might be the nature of the mountain, and what its ascent 
by a circuitous route," i. e., what sort of a mountain it was, and 
whether iRould be ascended, by a circuitous route, from behind. 

8. FaciUm esse. Supply ascensum. 

9. Legatwm pro praiore. *' His lieutenant with prstonac 
IMCwers." By a legaius pro pratorej in the time of the republic, 
was meant a lieutenant, having charge, under the auspices of a pro- 
consul or conunander, of part of an army or province, and exerci- 
sing, when necessary, prstorian powers or the functions of a prstor. 
The expression, as applied in the present case to Labienus, is a 
singular one, since he is elsewhere in these commentaries simply 
called legaius. {Spanheniy de usu et prast. NN. p. 560.) At a 
later period, in the time of Augustus, by a legaius pro pratore was 
meant the'govemoi of a whole province. {Dio Cassiusy 43, 13.) 

10. Et iis ducillks. <<And with those persons as guides." — 
Aseendere. Labienus was to take a circuitous route, and ascend 
the mountain in the rear of the enemy, so as to fall upon them by 
surprise when the signal should be given from below. Count de 
Cnss^, after praising the plan of attack, finds fault with Cssar for 
not havmg kept up the communication with Labienus by means of 
couriers, who could have informed him of all the movements of his 
lieutenant, and for not having agreed beforehand upon some signal, 
which was to be given by Labienus when he should have reached 
the summit of the mountain. These simple precautions would have 
prevented the failure of the plan. 

11. 7n Marci Crassi, " In that of Marcus Crassus." Supplv 

12. Summus moms. ** The summit of the mountain." The 
relation expressed by of in English, is frequently denoted in Latir 
by an adjective. So imus mons, " the bottom of the mountain ;' 
timor extemus, " the fear of foreign enemies," &c. 

1. Ipse. "And when he hunself," i. e., Cssar. Compare th( i4 
Greek paraphrast, xal roi Kateapos iiptarSros. 

2. Eguo admuso. " With his horse at full gallon." Admissr 


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1 4 is here oq livalent to condtato. The Greek paiaphrast ha« tf^ifwn 

T^ Imry, " with his hone ail in a foam." 

3. A GaUicit armis atque insigmbus. " Bythe Gallic arms and 
ensigns.' Oberlinus and others understand by iruigwibug, in this 
passage, tne ornaments of the helmets ; but the reference nndonbt- 
edly is to military standards. The Gre^ panphrast also faToors 
the same interpretation, expressing insigrdbushj mi^itlm. 

4. Snbducit. " Draws off.*' — Ut erat et praceptum. Since 
he had been instructed." — Ipsius. Referring to Cassar^ 

6. Prope, The Oxford MS. gives propter j which Uudendoip 
thmks was the original and genuine lection. 

6. Midto denique die, ** At length, after much of the day had 
passed." Equivalent to " cum multum diet processerat,^^ as it is 
expressed by Sallust B. I. 51. 

7. Quod rum vidittetf &c. " Had brought back to him. intelli- 
gence of what he had not seen, as if it had actually been seen by 
him." The Greek paraphrast expresses this very neatly, S ohtc ttU* 
&f Uiiv iirayyetXat. — Sibiy i. e., Casari. 

8. Quo consuerat intervallo, " At the' usual distance." More 
hterally, " with the usual interval," i. e., between his own army 
and theirs. The full expression is (eo) interMllOf quo (intervallo) 
consuerat (sequi). 

9. Quod omnino, &c. ** Since but two days in all remained 
until the time when," &c. — Exerciiu, The old dative for exerei- 
tui. — Metiri. Compare note 15, page 10. 

10. Ret frumentariaf &c. " He thought he must provide for a 
supply of com," i. e., make arrangements to procure it from the 
Aedui, on whom he relied mainly for his supplies of grain. The 
full expression is, eibi prospiciendum esse, 

11. Decurionds equitum GaUorum. **A captain of the Gallic 
horse." A decurio, at first, as the name imports, commanded only 
ten horse ; and there were three of these officers in every turma or 
troop of thirty men, makmg the whole number in the turmoj inclu- 
ding the Decurionee, thurty-three. (Varro, L, L. 4, 16.) In the 
time of Cssar, howeVer, a change had taken place. 1%e twrma 
now consisted of thirty-two horsemen, and the whole were com- 
manded by one decurio, who retained the old name, although more 
Shan ten were now under his orders. Consult Vegetius, S, 14, 
" Triginta duo equites aJb uno decurione, sub uno vexiUo, reguii" 
iur^" &c. 

12. Discedere a se. ** Were departing from them," i. e.; were 

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tmung ofl; and changing their route. Jhseedere ia the mipeifeet of J^ 
the infinitive. — SuptrioribuM locis oeaipatu. " Although the higher 
grounds had been aeized by the^l" L e., by the Romans. — Quod 
re frumentaria, &c. ** Because they trusted that the Romans 
could be cut off from their supply of com,'' i. e., flattered them 
selves with the hope of being able to accomplish this. 

13. CoMtUo. Compare the commencement of chap. lO.^-A no 
eissimo agvune. Consult note 3, page 10. 

14. Animum advertit. ** Perceives. " The same as animad 
vertit. The expression id anifnum advertit is nothing more than 
vertit animum ad id. Several examples of the use of animum ad' 
terto for ammadDerto are given by Gronovius, ad Ia9. 28, 14. A 
familiar instance occurs in Sallust B* J, 93, '< Anitimm adwrtii 
tochleiu,*^ dec. 

15. Jn colle medio, dec. " Drew up, on the middle of the hill, a 
tciple line of. the four veteran legions, in such a way as to place 
above him, on the very summit, the other two legions which he had 
levied very recently in Hither Gaul, and all the auxiliaries," i. e., 
he drew up his four veteran legions on the slope of the hill, in three 
tines ; and then placed above them, on the top of the hill, the two 
new legions, on whom, as consisting of recent levies, he could less 
safely rely ; and along with these last he stationed also the auxiliary 
forces. The student will observe that the lines here spoken of are 
not to be considered as composed of one continuous rank, but as so 
many lines of cohorts, and that each cohort had its flank-companies, . 
if we may so speak, of veliteSf or light^armed troops. Compare the 
remark of Count de Criss^, " a chaque eohorte itaient see manehee 
de viUtes." 

16. Quas in Gallia dUriore, dec. Compare chap. 10. By GaUia 
eiterior is meant the northern part of Italy. Compare note 13, 
page 7. 

1. Et eum, dec. *<And ordered this place to be guarded by J 5 
those who stood posted in the upper line." The reference is to 
those on the top of the hill. Eum, i. e., eum locum^ means the 
place in which the baggage was. 

2. Coi^erhMsimaaeie, " In very close array ."-*PAa^aii^£/a«<a. 
**A phalanx being formed." According to Orosius (6, 7), the 
German phalanx consisted of a large body of men in close array, 
with their sliields locked over their heads. This would resemble 
the testudo of the Romans. The Macedonian phalanx, on the other 
hand, was an oblong battalion of pikemen, consisting of sixteen in 

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1 5 flank and five hundred in front. The whole, number, of caurse, wm 
8000. The amount of the German phalanx is not given. The 
phalanx of the Helvetii most pipbably resembled that of the Ger- 

3. Svh primamj &c. '* Game up close to our front -]me." 

4. Suo. Supply equo. — Omnium, Governed by equis. Com- 
pare the Greek paraphrast : wf&rov ftiv rbv iavroSy hrtira it rod; wdvrmif 

5. Omnium, Referring both to his soldiers and himself. — E loco 
superiore. " From their higher position," i. e., from the slope of 
the hill. 

6. Destrictis. A more accurate form than districtts. — Impeium 
Jecerunt. "Charged." 

7. Gallis magTio, 6cc, " It proved a greathinderance to the Gauls, 
as regarded the fight, that, several of their shields being transfixed 
and fastened together by a single blow of the javelins, they were 
unable, as the iron point had bent itself, either to pull it out, or, 
their left hand being thus impeded, to make battle with sufficient 
advantage. So that many, after having for a long time tossed their 
arms to and fro, preferred flinging away the shield from their hands, 
and fighting with their persons unprotected by it." The student 
will bear in mind that their shields were locked above their heads, 
and lapped considerably over one another. Hence a javelin cast 
down from a higher place would pierce, of course, through more 
than one, and in this way fasten them together. Compare note 2. 

8. Pedemreferre. ** To retreat." Literally, " to cany back the 
foot." Some editors insert Helvetii afler ctzperuntt but this is suf* 
ficiently implied from the context. 

9. Agmen hostium claudebant. ** Closed the enemy's line of 
march," i. e., brought up the rear. 

10. Ex itinere, &c. " Having attacked our men as we pursued^ 
on their open flank," i. e., on their right flank, which, on account 
of its not being covered by the shields of the soldiers, was more 
open to attack. Caesar was guilty of a great error in pursuing the 
Helvetii on their retreat, without observing the Boii and TuliDgi, 
who acted as a body of reserve, and who attacked him in flank as 
he passed by, and then began to surround him in the rear. He 
should have ordered the two legions posted on the top of the hili 
to follow immediately after him, and in this way might have opfxced 
the attack of the Boii. 

11. Romani eonver^a signa^ dec. '< The Romans, having faced 

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•iHmt» advanced against the enemy in two divisions," 1. e., the Jg 
rear rank, consisting of the third line, faced about and advanced 
against the Boii and Tulingi, who were coming up in the rear ; 
while the first and second lines continued facing towards, and made 
head against, the Helvetii, who were now coming down again from 
the mountain to which they had retreated. The two divisions were 
composed, the one of the third line, the other of the first and second 

12. AncipUi pradio. " In a divided conflict.*' This engagement 
IS here called ancepa, because it was fought in two places, i. e., be- 
tween the first division and the Helvetii, and between the second 
division and the Boii. The phrase ancvpiii proUia coomionly means, 
" in doubtful conflict.*' 

13. Alteri, " The one party,** L e., the Helvetii, who had come 
down again from the mountain. — AUeri. The Boii and Tulingi. 

14. Hora sepiima. The Romans divided the natural day, from 
sunrise to sunset, into twelve hours, which were, of course, of dif- 
ferent lengths at different seasons of the year, being shorter in winter 
than in summer. The seventh hour will coincide with our one 

16. Aversum hostem. " The back of a foe,*' Literally, " an 
enemy turned away," i. e., in flight. Compare the Greek para- 
phrast : vMth U v^arov IStw rdy troMfuov iiSvvfjOrt. 

16. Ad multam Tioctem, "^ Until late m the night.'* 

1. Mataras ac tragulas svijiciebant. " Keptf plying lances and ] (| 
lavelins from beneath." By ma$ar<B are meant a kind of Gallie 
lances, of greater weight than the ordinary spear ; and by tragtUa, 
light javelins, with a strap attached, b^ which they w^e thrown. 
Strabo (4. p. 196, ed. Ccuaub.) calls the tnatara iraXroS r2 iiioi, and 

the Greek paraphrast renders mataras by iraXra. Hesychius makes 
mention of fiaidptis, which he defines to be irXar^rffMi htyx'^ita, and 
adds that the word is a Celtic one. The Spanish matary *^ to kill," 
and the old French term nuUrasser, which has the same meaning, 
appear to be dedaced from the same root with matara. Compare 
Adelung, Mithridatest vol. ii., p. 64, and Ghst. Med. et Inf. Lai- 
vol. iv.,* p. 597. 

2. Orgetorigia JUia, Plutarch {Vit, Cos. c. 18) informs us 
chat the very women and children fought on this occasion till ther 
were cut to pieces. 

3. Nidlam partem. The accusaUve, by a Hellenism, for the ab 
Vative. Coiisiilt Vechner, HeUeiwlex n. 257. Gudendorp, Grvtai^ 

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I g aiid many other critics, yeiy pxopeiiy regud tiie exprasnoi], nuthm 
partem noeHs itinere inUrmUso, w tautologicat, and a mere gloea 
of the adrerb eontinenter in the previous clause. It is omitted^ 
besides, in the Greek paraphrase. 

4. Qui si juvissentj dec. '<JPor that, if they should aid them, he 
would regard them in the same light in which he did the |ielyetii,** 
i. e., as enemies. The full construction is, se haJbitwrvm illos (scil. 
Lingonas) eodem loco quo habeat Helvettos, 

5. Qui, ewm. ** When these." — Atqiteeot in eo loco, dec. " And 
when he had ordered them to wait his airiyal in the place in which 
they then were, they obeyed." Eos refers to the whole of the Hel- 
vetii, who were ordered not to retreat any farther, but to wait 
Cesar's coming up. Hence we see the force of essent in the sub* 
junctive mood, and the literal meaning of the clause qwo turn essemt, 
"where they were said to be." If Cssar had written qxLO twih 
erant, it would hare referred to the ambassadors merely. 

6. Eo. Refening to the place where the HeWetii were when 
they sent the ambassadors, and where Cssar had ordered them to 
remain until he should come up. 

7. Verbigenus. Some commentators are in favour of Urbigenus 
as a reading, and they suppose the original, or Celtic form of the 
name to hare been Vrhegoew, from Urba, a town of the Helvetii, 
mentioned in the IHn, Anton., and gow, a tract, or district (i. e., 
" a district near Urba"). The true form, however, is Verbigenus. 
Compare Oberlin. 7id loc, and the authorities there cited. 

8. OccuUari. " Be concealed," i. e., from Ciesar. — Aui omnino 
ignorari. « Or altogether unknown," i. e., remain wholly unno- 
ticed. — P^ma node. " As soon as it was night." More literally, 
" at the beginning of the night." Some have prima noetis vigUia^ 
others prima noetis (scil. hora). 

9. RescOt. The verb rescire is generally employed when we 
come to the knowledge of anything whicb has been sought to be 
concealed from us, or which is unexpected, &c. Compare the 
remark of Aulus Gellius, 2, 19, " Aliter dictum esse rescivi, out 
rehire, apud eos qui diligent er loeuti sunt, nondum invemmtts, 
quam super his rebus, qua out occvlto eonsUio latuerint, out contra 
spem optnionemiM ^isu/vencrmt.*^ 

10. Quorum per fines' ierant, &c. The order is, tmperamt Aw, 
per fines quorum terant, uti, &c. — Si sibi purgati esse wXhU. 
*• If they wished to be free from all blame in his eyes.** 

11. JMuoios in memerv tolium hi^bail. <*He treated iImb* 

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i brought backy as eneiiuefl," i. e., either caused them to be put ] g 

to death, or sold them as slaves ; most pi:obably the latter. 
' 12. Omniiua fructUnis amissis. ** All the productioiis of the 
earth being destroyed.*' Some editions read frugihus, but less 
elegantly. FruUiu is more extensive in meaning than frugss, and 
denotes not only the grain, but all the produce of the fields in gen- 
eral. Compare Broukkus. ad TibulL I, 1, 35. 

13. Ipsos. Referring to the Helvctii, Tulingi, and Latobrigi. — 
RestUutre. "To rebuild." Compare chap. B. 

1. Vacare, " To remain uninhabited." Plutarch {Vit, Cos, c. p 
18) makes mention of, and bestows just praise on, the policy of 
CsBsar, in compelling the Helvetii to reoccupy their countiy. 

2. Boios, petetUHms AedviSy <&c. The construction is, " co»- 
ccisit Aeduu, pttenaibua \U coUocarent Boios tn 3ui* fimbusy quod 
illi (sell. Boii), cogrtUi erant egregia vktuU,,^ — QiMbu* illit &c. 
The common text . has merely a semicolon after amcesnt, but a 
fuller stop is required. Translate as follows : " Whereupon they 
gave ihem lands, and afterward admitted them to an equal partici- 
pation of rights and freedom with themselves." More literally, ** re- 
ceived them into the same condition with respect to rights and free- 
dom as they themselves were in." Compare the Greek paraphrast : 
To^Toig idv oiv ti *£^v«i( rdrt juv x^Spov t^xav itttira ^ iKtvBipnf n 
Koi abrovdjutvs &{ iavroiit hnbfvmr. 

3. Talnda. "Lists." Literally, " tablets." The term /aittte, 
as here employed, denotes any hard material, especially wood, on 
which characters were inscribed. The Roman tabula were of wood 
covered with wax, and the instrument for writing was a atyhUj sharp 
at one end and rouni or fiat at the other. The round or fiat end 
was used for rubbing the wax over when a correction was to be 
made. Hence the expression of Horace, atepe stylum vertas, " turn 
the stylus frequently," i. e., " be frequent in your coirections ol 
what you write." , 

4. LUeris Chracu confecta. " Made out in Greek characters." 
It is a very disputed question among philologists whether Cassar 
here means to ascribe to the Helvetii a kiv>wledge of the Grreek 
language, or only an employment of the Greek characters. The 
latter is undoubtedly the more coaect opinion. .Cssar, it is true, 
in the sixth book (c. 14), speaks of the Druids en^loyin^ the Greek 
letters in their private and public transactions, but here agam the 
reference appears to be merely to the characters of the Greek lan- 
guage, not to Gretk words themidvee. 9o again, when Sirabi 

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1 7 ihfoims u (4, p. 181, ed. Cat.) that, a little before his own age, (iw 
custom pieyailed in Ganl of yrxiting the fonna of agreements, &c., 
in Greek (rA mtfM^mia 'E>X«wot2 yyi^wwi), he cannot mean the 
Greek language by 'EXX^Mffri, but only the letters of the Greek air 
phaoe'c : the words were Celtic, the characters were Grreek. Strabo 
likewise states the source whence this knowledge of the Greek 
characters was obtained, namely, the Phocean colony of Massilia, in 
the south of Gaul. Even supposing, therefore, that the Gallic 
tribes, in the vicinity of this place, had acquired a familiarity with, 
not merely the written characters, but the language of the Greeka 
themselves (a supposition far from probable), the same cannot cer- 
tainly be said of the more northern tribes, and among them of the 
Helvetii. It will be remembered, too, that Cssar, on one occasion 
. {B, G. 5, 48), sent a letter to his heutenant written in Greek char- 
acters, lest it should otherwise, if intercepted, have been read by 
the Nervii. Now this certainly would not have been the case had 
the northern tribe just mentioned been acquainted even with the 
Greek characters, for Cssar's letter was composed of Latin words, 
expressed by Greek letters. 

5. Ratio. " An account," or ** estimate." — Qui numerus. 
Foi qfiis mimerus. — Eorwm qui arma ferre possent. Neatly ex- 
pressed in the Greek paraphrase by the single term orpanttrSv. 

6. Summa erat. Ancient authorities differ as to these amounts. 
Plutarch (Vit. C<m. c. 18) makes the whole number 300,000 
{rpidKovra nvpidias.) Polyaenus (8, 23) gives the number of the 
Helvetii at 80,000 {iKrCi inpiddai). Strabo states that 400,000 Gauls 
perished, and that the rest returned home (4, p. 193, ed. Cos.), 
The discrepance is occasioned, no doubt; by the errors of the copyists. 

7. Capitam. Best rendered here by our English word " souls.'* 
Thus, '* two hundred and sixty-three thousand souls of the Helvetii '* 

8. Censu hdbito. " An estimate having been made," i. o., an 
actual, enumeration having taken place. The term census is here 
employed in its general sense. In its Roman acceptation, it meant 
a review of the people, and a valuation of their estates, together 
with an estimate of their numbers. 

9. Gallia. The division named CeUiea is here meant, since 
J^gica was at this time preparmg for war. 

10. InteUigere sese, dec. <* Adding, that although, on account o. 
former injuries done to the Roman people by the Helvetii, ne 
(Cssar) had inflicted punishment on the latter in war, still they 
themselves were sensible^ that this had happened no less to tho ad- 

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fntage of the land of Gaul, than to thdit of the Reman people.** ]7 
Supply dicmtet after graiulatum, whidi is, in &ct, heiirever, con- 
tained in it. The student will observe the donhle genitiYe, in the 
expression tn/untf HdveHoTum popuH Ronuad, wheie popuU is 
governed by HdveHonum, In constractions of this kind one of the 
genitives is oonunonly aef»M in its meaning (to borrow a grammati- 
cal expDession), and the other panwe. Thus, in the present in> 
stance, Heheiwrum is active, and popuH passive. (Compare Ptri 
mnUus, ad Sana. Mm. 2, 9. — ^Yol. i., p. 209, ed. Awer.) 

11 Terra GalluB. Fm terra GalHea. Gcmpue Hiriius, Bdt 
AJr. 8, **Naimfue nuUum portum terra Africa/' and SaJbut^ 
^ragm. Hitt. 4, ** Dua CUUlia fnuUereay Those critics are wrong, 
therefore, who seek to reject terra from the text. 

12. Ex magna copia.. ** From the large number who would in 
that event present themselves," i. e., in case the Helvetii obtained 
tiie empire of iGraul. 

13. Stxpeadioriaa, ** Tributary.'' By etipendiarii the Roman 
writers, strictly speaking, mean those who paid a certain sum an- 
nually in money ; and by veeHgalea those who rendered, as tribute, 

certain portion of the produce of the ground. The latter generally 
oaid a tenth of com (rfiv Mtc^ftlmy) and a fifth of other produce 
(rSr ^rcMftlmr). Compare CmniM, ad Suet. ViL JuL e. 20. 

14. Indiemcertam. *' For a particular day." — Seae habere, 6ot 
** Tbaft they had certain matters which they wished to ask of him, 
in accordance vnth the general consedt," i e., if the general cott* 
sent of tfieir oountiymen could be first olltained. 

1. Ne qttU enuneiaretj dee. << That no one should disclose tfaear ] g 
deliberations, except those mito whom thisoffioe should be assigned 

by the assembly at Isge," i. e., tiiat the result of their delibeiations 
should be communicated to C»sar by mdxviduals whom the general 
•assembly should autiwrise so to do, and by no otheis. Compare 
the Greek paraphrast : /iniha AXov, $1 fdi red; M vdnwv rffy T4Kkm 
frl rodr* «lp«r»dc, rtStra rif Tahapt, inayytkitt, 

2. Eo coneUio ixmieao. " When the assembly, so summoned, 
had been held and had broken up.*' Compare the (Sreek paraphrase 

3. Quiantefu€rantadCasarefn. '< Wfaci had been with Cbow 
«■ the previous occasion.** Ad is here oqmvalent to apod. Cioo- 
oonius and Scdiger regard these words as a mere interpobtioiL 
Bentley pioposes venerant for fuerani. As regards the use ^of od 
for apud, consult DrakeitttorDh, ad Lh. 7, 7. 


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I g i. Secrtto. The common text has tecteto in occuUo^ which cai* 
not possibly be correct. Oudendorp, indeed, endeavours to de.eii4 
the common reading, by making sccreto refer to the absence of ail 
who might otherwise overhear the conference, and oeeuUo to the 
secret nature of the place where the conference was held; but 
Bentloy, with far more correctness, regards in occulto as a mcie 
gloss, and we have therefore xejected it. 

5. Non minus se id^ &c. '* That they strove and laboured no 
less anxiously to prevent what they mig^t say from being divulged* 
than to obtain what they wished." 

6. FacHones. '^Parties." FaOio, aecwding to Festus, was 
originally a term of good import, ** honutum vocabtdwn,'** and de- 
noted merely a certain class or order oi persons. Its meaning oi 
^ party" or '* faction" arose at a snbsequent period. Compare 
UmdeTf ad loc. 

7. Principatum tenere. " Stood at the head.** — Hi. Refemng 
(o the Aedui and Arvemi. — PotetUaiu. " The superiority." Po- 
teatatus is rather an uncommon word, but still is to be met with in 
some good writers. Thus Livy, 26, 38, ** Aemulo potentatus inim 
ieus rem Annibali aperit," and Laetaniius {Dio. Inst. 6, 17). 
" Opes istas et htmmes et poteniatus et regno, ipsa condemnet." 

8. Sequamsque. The Seqtumi are here mentioned as having 
been the allies of the Arvemi. In the sixth book (c. 11) the Se 
quani are said to have been . at the head of one of the two great 
parties, and no mention is made of the Arvemi. 

9. Horum. "Of the flatter." Refening to the Germans. — 
Posteaguam agros, 6lc, ** That, after these savage and barbarous 
men had grown fond of the lands, and manner of living, and abun- 
dance of the Grauls, a larger number had been brought over." 
Copia is generally used in the plural for " forces," and in the sin- 
gular for " abundance" or " plenty." But sometimes, as in the 
present instance, the plural is used in the sense of ** abundance.** 
Compare Oudendorpt ad FroniiTL 2, 1, 18. 

10. ClienUs, "Dependants." Referring to the petty states m 
alliance with and dependant upon their power. When the t^rm 
elienUs is applied in these commentaries to the retainers of individual 
dueftains, those persons are meant who are elsewhere called an*- 
haeti or soldurH. Compare book 6, chap. 15 and 19. — Semd atqu$ 
Hanm. "Repeatedly." Literally, "once imd again." 

tl. H&spitio. Th» reference is to public hospitality. (Vhent 

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Mtwn was entided to ihis, their umbassadors were allowed a pkce ]Q 

of honour at public spectacles, and were splendidly entertained. 

12. Unum se. '* That he alone." Divitiacus alludes here to 
Himself. • 

13. AuxUium posttUatum. He did not, however, succeed in his 
application. (B. G, 6, 12.) His visit to Rome is incidentally re- 
ferred to by Cicero {de Dvo. 1, 41), from whose language it i^pears 
tsat Divitiacus was one of the order of Druids. 

1. Qui easet. " Which was, according to him." The tubjuno- |C| 
trve is here employed to express the sentiments of the speaker, not 
iiiose of the writer himself. The same remark will hold good with 
respect to the other subjunctives in the course of the speech. 

2. Quibus locus, &c. " For whom a settlement and habitations 
^ere to be procured." 

3. Neque enim, &c. " For neither was the Gallic territory to 
be compared with that of the Germans, nor the mode of living hero 
lo be placed on an equality with that of theirs." The meaning is, 
that the Gallic territory was far superior in point of fertility to the 
German, and that the Gallic mode of life was more refined and civil- 
ieed than that pursued by their German neighbours. The unusual 
mode of expression by which this idea is conveyed (it being more 
customary to plac^ the inferior object 'in the first clause), has led 

^lacconius to emend the sentence as follows : ** Neque enim confe- 
rendum esse cum GaUico Germanorum agrum.*^ But we may 
easily conqeive, that one thing may be so far superior to another as 
not to admit of a comparison with it, and hence the ordinary lectior. 
is correct enough. 

4. Neque hancy dec. Some editors, not attending to the pecu- 
liar force of hie and ilU, make hanc refer to the Germans, and ilia 
to the Gauls. Hie always relates to that which is near or belongs 
to the person speaking; Ule to some remoter person or object 
Zumpt, L. G. p. 244. 

5. Ut semel. " When once," i. e., " as soon as," 

6. Ad Magetobriam. " In the vicinity of Magetobria." The 
place here alluded to is not known, and hence much uncertainty 
prevails about the true reading. Almost all the MSS. have Adma 
getohruB as one word, which Oudendorp adopts. The early edi- 
tions give Atnagetohria, with which the Greek paraphrast agrees, h 
rjl ^AfLoytroSpt^. Oberlinus, however, whom we have been induce^ 
to follow, prefers ad Magetobrtam, and thinks that traces of the an- 
cient name may easily be recognised ir the modem Moigte 44 

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}g BroUf at the confluence of the Arar and Ogno, near the village oi 

PontaiUer, This opinion derivea strong support from the ciicum- 
stance of a fragment of an ancient urn having bpen obtained from 
the bed of the Arar, near the place just mentioned, in the yeai 
1802, on ^trfaich the word MAGETOB could be distinctly traced. 
Compare Oberlinust ad Joe. 

7 Et in eo8 omnia exempla, 6lc, "And exercised upon them 
121 manner of cruelties." The expression exempla erudatusque is 
put by an hendiadys for exempla cruciatuum^ and exempla itself is 
eouivalent here to gemera, 

8. Hominem esse barbarum, &c. ** That he was a savage, pae- 
eionate, hot-headed man." Jracundus denotes one who is quick 
tempered and passionate, iraius one who is merely angry at some 
particular time. / 

9. Nisi si. This form is used occasionally by the best writers, 
with the same force merely as the simple Tiisi. Thus, Ctc. Ep. ad 
Fam. 14, 2, **Nisi si quis ad mephara scripsit,^* and Ovid, Ep. 
Her. 4, 111, **Nisi si manifesta negamus." Consult Oudendorp, 

10. Ut domo emigrent. ** Namely, emigrate from home." — 
FcrtanamquBj qtuBcumque acddaty &c. " And make trial of what* 
ever fortune may befall them," i. e., submit to w]}atever fortune, &c. 

11. Htec. Alluding to the disclosures he was now making. — Non 
dulntare. Supply sese. 

12. Atque exerdtus. "And that of his army," i. e.,.the weight 
which the presence of his army would give to his interference in 
behalf of the Gauls. — Deterrere. Supply eum, referring to Ario- 
vistus. — Ne major multitudoy &c. " So as to prevent any greater 
number of Germans from being brought by him across the Rhine.'* 
Literally, " in order that any greater number of Germans may net 
be led across the Rhine." 

13. Ah Ariovisti injuria. " From the outrages of Ariovistua.** 

14. HaJbita. " Having been delivered." — Urns ex ommbus St- 
putnos^ dee. Hotomamras thinks it altogether incredible that the 
Sequani, who had invited Aiiovistus into Gaul against the Aedniy 
and who had been accustomed to wage continual wars with them, 
should now be found acting m concert with the delegates of the 
latter people. The cruelty and oppression of Ariovistus, howeveit 
which the Sequani had experienced in a still stronger degree than 
even the Aedui, had very -naturally brought about ihis result, and 
«nited in one conomon cause those who had previously been i 

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smuuM to «ach other. It will be seen, moreover, from chap. S^t |9 
that the Seq-iani were desirous of rentoring to the Attdui the hoe* 
tages which ^hey had in their po38e8si m oeAnging to taat nation, ii 
Ariovistus woulc^llow this to be done. 

15. Respondere. The historical infinitive, for the impeifect m 
fondtbant. So pemumerej at the end of the sentence, for perma 

16. Exprimere. "Extort." Some more recent MSS. and many 
editions have potaerU instead of posset. This, however, is altogether 
erroneous, unless we read expromere. The phrase expromere voeem 
IS applied to one who speaks, but exprimere vocem to one who com' 
peUi another to speak. 

1. Hoe. «0n this account." — Prtt rehquontm. This is tho Of} 
reading of the Oxford MS. The common text has quam. 

2. AbsmtU. "Even when absent." — Tamen fuga faadUu 
iaretur, " The means of escape were nevertheless afforded," i. e. 
they still had it in their power to escape his cruelty by flight. Some 
editions have tantumt which is an inferior reading. 

3. Quorum oppida omniaj dec. This is explained a Uttle farthei 
on vrhere Ariovistus states (ch. 44) that he had settlements in 
Gaul granted by the people of that country themselves. These set 
tlementa were the towns which he had first got possession of b> 
agreeing to garrison and defend them, and which he subsequently 
retained in order to keep the Sequani and other Gauls under his 

4. Omnes eruciahis, "All kinds of cruelties." — Essent per- 
ferendi. The grammarians mentioned by Ruddiman {Instit. L, O, 
vol ii., p. Z52) read esset perfereftdum, making erueiatus the accu- 
sative. Compare Ramsham, L, G. p. 373. 

5. Gallorum ammos^ dec. " Strove to cheer by words the spirits 
of the Gauls." Compare the Greek paraphrast, roO; raXXovf 

6. Benefidc suo. " By his former kindness towards him." Cb- 
ser had, during his consulship the year previous, obtained for Ario 
vistus, firom the Roman senate, the title of " King and friend.'* 
Compare Dio CassiuSf 38, 34 : Plutarch^ Vit. Cas.c. 19, and chap> 
ters 35, 42, and 43 of the present book. 

7 Secundum ea, &c. " Besides these statements (on the pan 
of the Gauls), many circumstarces induced him to think that thif 
■flair ought to be considered of and undertaken by him." Thm 

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^Q pi^position 9ecund»m has here a meaning derived directly fronk it» 

primitive force of following after something which has gone before. 

8. Multa res. The reasons here assigned are all a mere pre- 
tence. Caesar's real object was to subjugate the whole of Gaul, 
and the present state of affairs between the Gauls and Ariovistus 
afforded him a favourable opportunity of interfering in the political 
concerns of the country, and of taking the first step towards the ac' 
oomptishment of his object. 

9. Fratres ccnsanguineosqtie, '* Brothers and kinsmen." Com 
pare Cte. Ep, ad Att, 1, 19^ and Ta/nt, Arm, II, 25. 

10. Paulatim autem Germamos, &c. " For the Germans, more- 
over, to become gradually accustomed," &c. — Periculosum. Sup- 
ply esse. " Was fraught with danger." 

11. Siln tempertUuros. "Would restrain themselves." TVm- 
perarej with the dative, signifies " to set bounds to anything," " to 
moderate," or " restrain." With the accusative it means " to regu 
late" or "arrange." 

12. Cimbri Tmtomque. Alluding to the famous inroad of these 
barbarian hordes upon the Roman territory. Consult Hist. Index*. 

13. Pr€Bsertim cum Sequanos, &c. "Especially since the 
Rhone alone separated the Sequani," <Slc. Bentley thinks that 
from praserHm to dmderet is the interpolation of some later hand. 

14. OccurreTidum. "He must thwart." Supply esse sibi. — 
Tantos sptritus. " Such airs of importance." Compare the Greek 
paraphrast, & yaip *Apt6Snrros d^Twg vnept^pSva. 

15. Uti aliquem locuniy &c. " To name some intervening place 
for a conference on the part of each," i. e., where a mutual con- 
ference might be held. 

16. Et summis utriusque rebus. " And about matters of the 
greatest importance to both of them " Bentley thinks that, on 
account of the presence of utriusque m this clause, it should be 
thrown out of the previous one {utriusque colloquio). Caesar, how- 
ever, often repeats the same word after a very short interval. 

17. Si quid ipsi, &c. " That if he himself had need of anything 
from Cssar he would have come to him." Opus est is either used 
impersonally, in wHch case it has, like verbs of wanting, an ablft- 
tive ; or personally, and then the thing wanted is in the nominative. 
This latter construction is most common with the neuters of pn- 
DAuns and adjectives. Zumpt, L. G. p. 299. 

21 1. IHe. "That commander." Referring to Caesar.— iS«. The 
ablative. Suppiy the preposition a. Compare the Greek paraphrast* 

ir«o* iuoS. 

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2. Sine magna commetOu atque emoUmento. ** Without gxeat 2I 
eipenditure of means and great trouble." Commeatus kas here a 
general reference .to supplies of all kinds, including also those of 
money, or, as Plautus terms it {Pseud. 1, 6, 9), ** commeatus ar- 
gentanus,^* — Emolimentum, in this passage, is equivalent to labor 

or moLiiio. For, as enUi is " nitendo efficere aliquid,^^ and num 
therefore the same as laJ>or or ^pera, so emoUri is ** molisndo efficere 
aliquidy" and emdimentum the same as labor ipse. Consult Moms, 
ad loc. The Greek parapfarast well expresses the Latin terms in 
question : S»e9 /ayd^ Imtdvns rt «a2 iroXX?; dc\oXUS' 

3. Quid negoHi. " What- business." — In sua Gallia. These 
words depict very forcibly the arrogance of Ariovistus. Florus (3, 
10) gives the reply of the German leader as follows : *^ Quis est au- 
tern Casar 1 Si vuUy venial. Quid ad Ulum quid agat Germanic 
nostra 1 Num ego me interpono Romanis ?" 

4. Quam bello vicisset. The student will again mark the use oi 
the subjunctive, as referring to the sentiments of the speaker, noL 

hose of the writer. 

). Iterum ad eum, &c. Csesar^s object, in sending these ambas- 
sadors a second time, was purposely to irritate Ariovistus, and leac 
him on to some act of hostility. 

6. Quoniam tqflUo suo, &c. " That whereas, after having beer, 
treated with so much kindness by himself and the Roman people 
(since he had been styled king and friend by the senate, during his 
own (Caesar's) consulship), he was now making such a return as 
thiGT to himself and the Roman people, as, when invited to come to 
a conference, to make a difficulty about con^lying, and to think that 
it was not necessary for him to speak and inform himself about a 
matter of common interest, these were the demands which he (Cae- 
sar) had now to make of him." 

7. Quam. For aliqtuim. — Deinde. " In the next place." 

8" VdtuntcUe ejus. "With his full consent." Ejus refers to 
Ariovistus. Vduntaie sua would have referred to Caesar. 

9. Sese. In the common editions, the pronoun is omitted here, 
in consequence of its occurring again after the parenthesis. But 
its presence is requisite in both places for the sake of perspicuity 

10. Marco Messaloy. &c. A. U. C. 693, B. C. Bl.—Senatus 
eensuisset. " The senate had decreed." Grotius {de Jure B. et P. 
3, 3, 10) shows that Caesar Limself was not free from blame when 
he brought this war upon Ariovistus. There certainly was no need 
sf any formal argument on thj^s point, as the case speaks for itself 

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21 I- ObUnerei, «*Mis^hold»'' x. e., might govern for tk^ 
time being. Compaie note 3, page 6. 

12. Quod commodOf ^. <* Shauld, as far as he could iJxj 80co»> 
listently with the interests of the republic, protect," 6lc.i i- «>f 
fhould take care that, while he was protecting the Aedui and the 
other Mendly states, none of the more important interests of the 
Roman people were jeopardized by the step. Quod is used in this 
(iauae for quantum. Consult Sanctius., Min, vol. i., p. 696, where 
te present passage is quoted among others. The grammatical 
instruction is, dtfendertt Aeduos, <S&c., secundum id quod possei 
factrey &c. Compare the Greek paraphrast, Iv fa^ y« a{ 'FmfuSoi 

13. Item. " In like manner." Some MSS. have idem, which 
Scaliger adopts, and in which he is followed by several subsequent 
^^tors. The true readmg is item. — Victis. " Their vanquished." 

-Non ad alteriuSf dec. " Not accordmg to the dictates of another, 
rA2i their own [Measure.'* 

14. Quemadmodum, &c. ** In what way they were to exercise 
bbii own rights." Uteretur refers back to Populo Romano, — In 

to jure. " In the exercise of his rights." 
'5. StipeTtdicaios. Compare note 13, page 17. 
16. MagTidm Casarem, &c. ** That Caeaai was striving to dc 
imn a great injury, since he was endeavouring, by his coming, tc 
render his revenues less valuable to him." The student will mark 
the force of the two imperfects, facere (the imperfect of the infini> 
tive) and faeeret. He will note also the use of the subjunctive 
after the relative, as indicating the reason or cause of the previous 
assertion. Ariovistus had imp9sed a certain tribute on the Aedui, 
the payment of which was secured by hostages ; Cssar reijuired 
these hostages to be given back, an act which, according to Ario< 
vistus, would weaken his chance of a faithful payment of the tribute, 
and would render it less valuable, because less certain than before. 

22 ^' -^^y^*^- " Without just cause." — Si in eo manerent, dec. 
" Ic case they remained steadfast in that which had been agreed 

2. Longe iis, dec. " The title of brothers, given them by ihe 
Roman people, would be far &om proving any assistance to them,^ 
i.'e., would not save them from punishment. A metaphor bontfvred 
from things that are far off, and consequently unable to lend any 
effectual aid. 

** Quod sibi dec ** That, as to the menace which C«sar had 

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imptoyed towaids lum, namelj, that be would sot oreilook ^ 22 
iQziea done to the Aedoi," dee. ^ 

4. EToerciiatissimi in armis. Compare TaeihtSy Germ* 14. 
** Nee Mrare terrain out extfeetare annum tarn faeiU |?«r«iMwem. 
^uam vocare hostes et mlnera mereriy 

^ 5. Inter eamoe qnaiuordeeim, '* During fourteen yean.*' Aa 
mter signifies the meohun Mtween two extremes, so, when applied 
to time, it expresses the interval between the commencement and 
close of a given period, and may, therefore, be rendered by " while" 
Jt " during.*' BiUler>9 Latin Prep, p. 70. 

6. Harudes. Compare chapter 31. 

7. Tremri autem. Supply vemehaTtt nuntiaium, 

8. Pagos centum Suevorum. "That the new levies from tlie 
hundred cantons of the Suevi." The Suevi, Recording to Cssv 
{B. G. 4, 1), formed a hundred cantons, from each of which a thou« 
sand warriors were annually levied to make war abroad. The force 
mentioned m the text vnll amount, therefore, to 100,000 men* We 
must not, however, fall into the error of some, wl8> regard it as the 
entire military strength of the Suevi. 

9. Qui conareniur, "Who were endeavouring, as they said." 
The student will mark the force of the subjunctive here, as refer- 
ting to the statements of those who speak, not of the writer Imnself 

10. Vehementer commotue, " Greatly alarmed." — Nooamamu. 
" This new body." — Minus facile resisti posset. " He might be 
less easily withstood." The reference is to Ariovistus 

11. jRe frumentariaj &c. " His arrangements for a supply e' 
com being made as quickly as possible." This is very neatly ex 
pressed by the Greek paraphrast : &i kiw^Oti rdxiaru t^ erpmtk 

12. ConUndere. "Was hastenmg." — Profecisse. "Had ac 
complished." This is the reading of one of the best MSS., and is 
adopted by Oudendorp in his smaller edition, Oberlinus, Lemaiie, 
and others. The common text has procesaisse, which arose piob 
ably from a gloss. Bentley conjectures profectum esse, 

13. Summa facultas. " A very great plenty." Facultas is 
here equivalent to eopia. Most of ihe copyists, not understanding 
this, substituted difficult€is, which produces a directly opposite 
meaning. Only a few MSS. have the correct reading /ocu^m 
The early editions give the erroneous lection. 

14. Ad dueeytdam beUum. " For protracting the war."— -Focv^ 
totem " Means." The recurrence of this term, after so short •• 

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22 interva., led GnsTius to suspect that facuUas in the prenoua ptn 
of the%entence was a mere inteipolation. It would appear rather 
40 be one among the mai^ arguments that might be adduced, in 
>avour of the opinion that these commentaries were hastily penned 
vn the spot. 

15. Dvins. No MS. has Dubis, All are more or less cor- 
kiipted here, and read AdduabiSf Alduadubis, Aldtiadusius, Adduor 
dttlnsy or Alduasdubis. Amid this farrago of uncouth forms, Gel- 
la^ius, following Strabo, Ptolemy, and other authorities, gave Dulns 
as the true reading, which has been receired ever since. (Geog^. 
Antiq, 2, 2, 17. — Vol. ii., p. 136, ed, Schwartz.) Whence the 
conuption in the MSS. originated is difficult to say. Oberlinus 
thinks that the earlier name of the river was AdAua or Aldua, anc 
that some of the copyists placed its more recent name in the margin 
of a MS., in this form, a/. Dubis, that is, alias Dubis^ from a blend- 
mg of which two pames, through the ignorance of subsequent copy- 
ists, the strange forms above cited arose. Moebius, on the other 
hand {BihC. Cr^. HUd. 1824, p. 232), ingeniously suggests, that 
the true reacnng may have been quod fiumen adductum, ut circma 
circumdactumf omitting the name of the river altogether. The 
opinion of Oberlinus, however, is certainly the better of the two. 

16. Ut aremo eircumducittm, . ** As if traced round it by a pair 
df compasses,'* i. e., as if its circular course had been traced by a 
pair of compasses. 

17. Sexcentorum. B'AnyiJle (Notice de la GauU, ip. 694,) ihuikM 
t&at we ought to read here MD in place of DC (i. e., mille et qyin- 
gentorum instead of Bexcentorum), because the base of the mount- 
ain in question actually measures 1600 feet. The MSS. and early 
editions, however, are all the other way. Perhaps Caesar means 
here, in place of the ordmary foot, the pace of two and a halTfeet, 
which would reconcile the text with the actual measurement. 

18. Quajiumen intermitHt. " Where the river intermits," i. e., 
tooaks off from its circular course, and ceases to flow round the 
place. Ciacconius thinks that we ought to read here qtui a flu- 
mine intermittiturt because we have, in another part of these com- 

' ^ mentaries (7, 17), ** ad earn partem qua intermissa a flumine ei 
pahide,*' and again (7^ 23), " intermissa trabes.'* But all the MSS. 
give the received reading, and intermittitur is here employed is. aa 
intransitive sense. Consult Oudendorp, ad loc., and VerJinerf Hel- 
lenoleXjp. 59, seq. 

19. ConHnet. " Occupies," i. e., covers, or fills up. — Contm 

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gant. * Touch it," i. e., the bank. Supply Mm, icil. rtpam. 22 

Achaintre takes ripa for the nominatiTe plural, agreeing wfth con- 
Hngant, and makes radices the accusative, governed by this verb. 
Our construction, which is the received one, is far preferable. By 
it, rip<B becomes the genitive and radices the nominative. 

1. Hunc mums drcufndatus, 6[c. "A wall thrown around it 23 
makes a citadel of this mountain, and connects it with the town." 
Compare the Greek paraphrast : roSro Si r) Spot rotxos iripioiKo6ofai$As 

ffl w^i ov^Hywoiy Kal iuc^Amikiv aiHii roSro impyd^tToi, The student 
will take care not to make hunc depend, in construction, on drcum 
datuSf as some recommend, for then the wall alone will form the 
citadel, and not the mountain ! Some remains of the wall are stil 
to be seen at the present day. 

2. Noctamis diurmsque. The more usual order would have 
been diumis noctwrnisque, and Oudendoip actually adopts this 'in 
his smaller edition. But Caesar places noctumis first in order here, 
as more stress is to be laid upon it in the idea that we are to form 
of his rapid movements on this occasion. Compare Ramshomf L 
G, p. 628, and Daehne, ad loc. * 

3. Ex peratnctationej 6ic, *< From the inquiries of our men, 
and the statements of the Gauls and traders, who assured them,'' 
&c. 'PradUabarU here implies a positive assertion, made in order 
to impress another with a full belief of what we say. 

4. VuUum. " Their look."— ^ctemocttiorttm. "The fierce ex 
pression of their eyes." Compare the Greek paraphrast, ri itivA 
uhr&v hpdftara. 

6. Triburtis mUitum, " The tribunes of the soldiers." These 
Tv^ere ofiicers in tbe Roman army, who coiynanded a part of the 
tegion, generally a thousand men. They had also charge of the 
woika and camp. There were six in every legion. Consult Archae- 
ological Index. — Prafeetis. " The prefects." There were various 
kinds of prafecti in the Roman army. Those here meant, how- 
ever, are the prefects of the allies, who answered to the tribunes ol 
the soldiers among the Roman troops. 

6. Urhe. Rome. — AmiatiiB causa. These were the young no- 
bility to whom Plutarch aUudes {Vit, Cos. c. 19), and who, accord 
ing to him, had entered into Caesar's service only in Bbpes of living 
luxuriously and making their fortunes. 

7. Quorum aHust dec. " One of whom having assigned one ex- 
cuse, another another, which they said made it necessary," dec. 

8 Vultitm Jmgere. " To command their countenance,"* 1. e., 

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23 praaerve theiz comiteDaoce in ito natural sUte, bide fimm yy^m Ma 
fear which secretly mfluenced them. 

9. Vulfo totis castruj &c. " As a general matter, wills were 
made thiougtiont the whole camp." Soldiers most commonly made 
their wiUs by word of month, while girding themselves for battle 
and srich a will was called testamentum in procinciu factum. (Con 
•nit Instit. Jtutin, L 2, t. 2.) On the present occasion, however, 
their wills were formally made in writing, as appears from the 
literal meaning of obsignabantur, ** were sealed.'* 

10. Magnum usum. " Great experience.'*— -CmhinoRM. A 
centurion commanded, when the legion was full, a hundred men, 
as the name itself imports. There were two m each maniple, and, 
consequently, six in each cohort, and sixty in each legion. 

11. Quique equUatu praerant, ** And those who were in conn 
mand of the cs^alry." Exercitu for exercitui^the old dative. The 
^«c«ru)n«< are here meant. Compare note 11, page 14. 

12. Qui se. ex hisy &c. ** Those individuals of this latter class, 
who wished themselves to be regarded as less timid than the rest 
of the army, declared thtft they did not dread the enemy, but feared 
the narrowness of the roads, and the extent of woods which inter- 
vened between themselves and Ariovistus, or else, with respect ta 
the com, that it could not be supplied vrith sufficient readiness.'* 
By kia are meant those, *' qiU magnum in castrisummhabebant." 
With rem frumentariam supply quod o^ and compare Perizoniua, 
ad Sanct Min. 2, 5. — ^Vol. l, p. 222, ed, Bauer. 

J3. Ut satis commode, &c. The conjunction tU, when joined m 
construction with a verb of fearing, such as timeo, metuo, &c., re- 
Quires in our idiom y^e addition of a negative ; while fte, on the 
other hand, when similarly construed, has an affirmative force. 
Thus tirneo ut faciasy ** I am afraid you will not do it ;" but timeo 
ne facias, " I am afraid you will do it." The explanation is as fol- 
lows : Timeout facias is, literally, " I am afraid, in order that yon 
may do it," L e., I want yon to do it, but am afraid you will not ; 
and, on the other band, Timeo ne facias is, literally, " I am afraid 
lest yon may do it," L e., I do cot want you to do it, but am al&aid 
yott will. 

14. Signa ftrri. <* The standards to be borne onward," L e. 
ibe troops to march forward. — Bicio audientss. " Obedient to the 
oidcir." According to Dio Cassius (36, 35), Csssar's soldiers pro- 
DOQDced the war an unjust and unauthorized one, and alleged that 
ft had been merely nadertaket. by their commander to gratify his 

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«wn ambitkros viewi. The^ threatened ako to abtodon him unleae 23 
be changed his intention of attacking the Gennana 

15. Nee propter Hmorem signa laturos. '^ And would not ad* - 
vance in consequence of their fear." 

16. ConooctUo eofuilio. *' A. council of wax being called." Dio 
Cassius states (38, 35) that Cssar would not call an assembly of 
the soldiers, from a well-grounded apprehension lest his troops mig^t 
break forth into open tumult, and commit some act of violence. 

17 Omniumque crdinum, &c. '* And the centurions of all ranks 
bemg summoned to that council." On this occasion, then, all the 
centurions in the army (there were sixty in each legion) were called 
to, the council of war ; whereas, on ordinary occasions, the council 
was composed of the commander-inrchief, the legati or UentenantSp 
the tribunes of the soldiers, and only the chief centurion of ea^ 

18 Primumf quod, &c. "In the first place, for presuming W 
think, that it was for them to inquire or deliberate, either in wha^ 
direction or with what design they were to be led." liteFaUy 
" because they thought that they must inquire," &c. 

1. Postulatis. Compare chap. 36. — AequUaU. <* The fairness.*' 2 

2. AiU cur de sua virtuie^ die. " Or why should they despair 
either of their own valour or of his prudent activity 1" 

3. Factum ejus hosHs periaUum, &c. " That a trial had beec 
uade of this foe within the memory of our fathers," i. e., in tht 
days of our fathers. Compare the Greek paraphrast, hrl r&v liutripm 

4. Factum tHam, S\y^\jf perieuhML — Nuper. Fourteen yeair 
previous. — Servili tumultu. *' During the insurrection of thr 
slaves." Literally, ** during the servUe tumult." The Romans 
rpplied the woid tumultus (a much stronger term than beUum) to t 
fni in Italy or an invasion of the Ganls. The allusion in the tez^ 
is to the war of Spartacus the gladiator. (Consult Historical In- 
dex.) Among the gladiatcm and slaves, who flocked to the standi 
aid of this leader, were many of the Gennan race, and hence the re> 
mark of Cesar. 

5. QuQs tamen, dec * And yet these laat the experience and 
disciplines which tney nad received team us, assisted in some fo 
spect." Alluding to their training as gladioton. 

6. CoTistantia. *' A firm and resolute spirit." — Inermos, Mort* 
m accordance with the usage of Cssar than inarmes. At first ^ 
Htforgents were without arms to any great extent, and hence, horn 

A A 

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24 their being sn badly furnished with them, they are here calM " an> 


7 Suis. Referring to the territories of the Helvetii. — SlonniL 
Referring to the Germans. 

8 Adversum prceiium etfuga Gallorum. Compare chap. 31. 

9. Neque tvi potestatem fecisset. ** Without having given them 
an opportunity of coming to an engagement with him.'* Factre 
potestatem sui means generally, " to allow one's self to be approach- 
ed," ** to allow access to," &c. 

10. Ratione et eonsUio. *'By stratagem and cunning." — Cut 
.rohom, &c. "That not even Ariovistus himself entertained any< 

hope, that our armies could be ensnared by that same stratagem,- for 
the exercise of which there had been room against a people barbarous 
and unskilled in warfare." 

11. Qui 87tum timorem, dtc. **That they, who ascribed their 
fear to a pretended alarm relative to provisions and the narrowness 
of the roads, acted presumptuously, since they appeared either to 
distrust the official qualifications of their commander, or to dictate 
unto him." — Hoc sibi esse cura. " That these things were a care 
to him," i. e., that he had not neglected these things. 

12. Brevi tempore fudicaturos, " Would soon have an oppor* 
tunity of judging.'* 

13. Quad rum fore, &c. ** That, as to the soldiers being reported 
to be about to disobey his orders,** dec., i. e., as to the report which 
had reached him of the soldiers intending to disobey his orders. 

25 !• Scire enim, &c. ** For he knew, that either, in consequence 
of some mismanagement of an affair, fortune had failed those com- 
manders with whom an army was not obedient to orders ; or else, 
that the charge of avarice had been fastened upon their characters, 
in consequence of some act of misconduct having been discovered." 
— In place of conjunctam some read convictamj in the sense of 
" aperte demonstratam,^^ as in Ovid {^Met. 13, 89) we have "/urw 
cmmctasy Compare MeTiken, Obs. L. L. p. 199. 

2. Perpetua vita. *' Throughout the whole of his past life."-* 
FeUcitatem. ** His good fortune." 

3. Itaque se, dec. " That he would, therefore, immediately do 
what he intended to have put off to a more distant day." ReprO' 
sentare is a legal term, and denotes *' to do a thing before the 
time." Thus a person is said sdutionem reprasentare, who pays 
the money before the day It is from this general meaning 4hat liis 

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veib also ootains the signification of doing a thing immediately 2ii 
CoUaturuJs is used here in the sense of dilaiurus. 

4. Decima legume. The legions were called first, second, See, 
from the order in which they were raised. — PrcUariam cohoftenu 
'* A body goaid.'' Among the Romans, the general was nsuajy at- 
tended by a select band, called eohors pratoria, so called, according 
to Festus, because it never left the commander, or, as he was called 
in early Latin, the preetor (i. e., qui prtait exercUtti). 

5. Princeps. In the sense of prima. Compare note 15, pige 
8. — Ei groHas egit. ** Returned thanks to him/' — Quod ie se, 
&c. " For the very high opinion he hieid formed of them, and as- 
sured him," &c. 

6. Primorum ordiimm centuriones. ^ The centurions of the first 
centuries," i. e., the centurions of the first maniple of the Triarii, 
the c^itnrions of the first maniple of the Piincipes, and the centuri 
ons of the first maniple of the Hastati. — Egerunt uti Ca^ri satis- 
faeerent. " Strove to excuse themselves to Caesar/' 

7. Neque de sumrna belli, dec. '* Nor had thought^ that any de- 
cision respecting the management of the war appertained to them, 
out to their commander," i. e., nor had thought, that it was for them 
to decide upon the best mode of conducting the war, but rather for 
their general. 

8. Satisfaclione. "Excuse.*' — liinere exquisite. "The route 
having been reconnoitred." — Vt miUium aanplius, &c. "And 
found to be such, that, by means of a circuit of more than fifty miles, 
it would lead his army through an open country," i. e., that, by 
taking a circuit of somewhat more than fifty miles, he might lead 
his army along it through an open country. The student will ob- 
serve, ^t, in order to connect the clause- u/ amplhis, &c., with 
Uinere exquisito, a new verb must be introduced in traiulating, 
which is easily implied from the general fotce of the participlo ex- 

9. Qwinqudginia. Some read quadraginia The Grreek para- 
phrast hat a ntunber very wide of the truth, namely, 1260 stadia, 
equiva^en; to something more than 156 Roman miles. 'Afifl rk 
y(Kia SiaKdata xal 'Ktvr^nvra ordita. 

1 3. Quod antea de edloqvM postulasset, dtc. !* Stating, that, as 
o his previous demand respecting a conference, this might now be 
carried into effect through his own means, since he had come 
nearer." ♦ 

11. Exisiimare. We have here given tnereadmg of Ondendotpi, 

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25 in place of exisHnuarei, the common lection. So also iicere m t^ 

preTiouB clauee, instead of liceret. 

12. Sanitaiem. "A juat way of thinking." Literally, "a 

sound mind." Compare the Greek paraphrast * vw^wir l^^Sn aMw 

OQ 1. Alia roHoMsenon ease veiUurum, <* That he ^ould not come 
upon any other terms." — Interposita cauaa toUL ** To he thwarted 
hy the interposing of any pretext," i. e., to be thwarted on any pre- 
tence by Ariovistus. 

2. Gallorum eguitatui. The cavaby in Cssar'a army were all 
Gauls. He was afraid, therefore, lest, if attacked during the con- 
ference by the German horse, they might not prove a sufficient pr»> 
tection for his person. Many editions have equitalUf the old form 
or the dative. 

3. CommodUnmum csae atatuUf &c. ^ He deemed it most ex- 
pedient all their horses having been taken from the Gallic cavalry, 
to mount on them the legionary soldiers," dsc. The adverbial form 
eo is equivalent here to in eos (scilj eqttos,) By the legionary sol- 
diers are meant the regular ooops of the legion, as distinguished 
from the vdiUa, 

4. Nim inridicuU. " Not without some humour," i. e., humof - 
ously enough. Compare the Greek paraphrast, iartUw n IfBtyian. 

"Ei. "For that legion." 

5. Nunc ad equum rescribare, <* Now enrolled them among the 
cavaky." When soldiers were first enlisted they were said gcribi, 
their names being entered in the roll of the legion. If they were af- 
terward transferred, from the corps into which they had been enrolled, 
to some other part of the service, they were said rescnbi. The hu- 
mour of the remark made on the present occasion consists in soppo- 
smg, uiai a reguUr promotion had taken place to the rank and pay of 
cavairyl When the change of service was from the cavalry to the 
mfantry, it was a military punishment ; but, on the contrary, a mili- 
tary reward when the £90t-soldier was transferred to the hnrse 
For another explanation, consult PetUt Oh». 1, 6, and Gronmnu, 
ad Senec, de Bene/* 5, 6. 

6. Tumidu* terremu toHs grandis. '* A rising ground of con- 
siderable height^" Literally, ** a mound (or bill) of earth.* — Cob- 
irit utruqtu. Referring to the camp of Cflsaai and that of Afio* 

7. Ex equis, « Qn horseback." Compare the Gieek foim ol 
•ipresaion,^^* Tinrmr. — Denoa. The Gieek »«nnhiaat ha^ Mo, u 

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It Im vnd in liis Latin MS. teiot ini^actt of iZmot. It it hic^y im- j|^ 
ptobftble that only two would be biought to the conference on either 

8. Commmtframt, " Recounted."— QiumI. «How that"- 
Munera amplunnuL It waa coatomaiy, with the Rimiana, to aend 
preaenta to thoae whom the aenate had honomed with the title of 
king. Compare Lh. 30, 15. 

9. Pro mAgnis hominum qfficUs. ** In return for important aer- 
dcea on the part of individuala." — Slum, cum neque adiium, dec. 
" That he ( Arioviatna), although he had neither the meana of deaenr- 
nig them, nor juat canae to aajc for them,'* dec. Aditum mm haben 
impliea the abaenco of a^iy aemcea onlhe part of Arioviatua towards 
tLe Roman people. Compare the 6zplanati<m given in the lnie% 
hatimtatU appended to the edition of Obeilinua: ^^Aiiium non 
habere ad aliquem, nullia meiitia eaae, ob qua piecaii aoatineaa." 

10. Quuni veteree, &c. ** What old and just causes of alliance 
eziated," d^:. The Aedui were the firat among the Ganla thai 
unbraced the friendship of the Romana. Compare Sirdbo (4, p. 
192, ed. Cos.), Ol ii *lL6oSoi kuI ovyYmts 'Tvftalwv itwftdfyvn, lui 

citua {Ann, 11, 26), " Prtmt Aedui senatonim in wrhe ju9 adeph 
sunt. Datum idfoederi antiquo, et quia soli GaUorum fratemitalu 
nomen cum Populo Romano ueurpant," Conaolt also Diad. Sie 

11. Ut omm tempore, &e. '* How the Aedui had ever enjoy- 
ed,'' dee. 

1 . Sui nikU, *< Nothing of their own." Equivalent to ntkU sm 27 
piris, auctorUatis, opum, or diiionu. — Auetiores esse. " To be 
still farther advanced." 

2. Quod vero ad amidiiam, d^. *' Who4hen could bear to have 
that taken irom them which they brought with them when they ob- 
tained the fiiendship of the Roman people 1" i. e., to aee them rob- 
bed of what they poaaessed before they became the £den3a of the 
Roman people. literally, <' for that to* be taken from them whidi 
Uiey had brought to the fidendsbip," dec. 

3. Postulamt devnde eadem, dec. ** He then made the aame de- 
mand which he had commissioned the ambassadors to make." 

4. De suis mrtutibus muUa pradieamt, " He spoke much and 
boaatfoUy about hia own merita.*''—jSa2 rogaituiif dec. ** But on 
being leqneated and aent for by the Ganla," L e., by the Arvemi 
and Sequa»l Compare chapter 31. 

A a2 

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27 &• Ab tpsis. " By the Uauls themselyes. — Stipendntm eapefp 
" That he exacted tribute." 

6. Omnes GaUia civitates. Exaggeration. Only the Aedui 
and their allies fought against him. 

7. Idque 9e, 6lc. *' And that he had sought it with this expec- 
tation." Id here ^fers to the friendship of the Roman people. It 
would have been more perspicuous to have said earn, but the MSS. 
all give the other form. 

8. Stipendium remUtahirf 6lc. " The tribute due him is to be 
withheld, and those who have surrendered to him are to be with* 
drawn from their allegiance." 

9-. Quod nrnltitvMvzm, &c. " As to his leading a multitude of 
Germans across the Rhine into Qaul." 

10. Bed d^enderit, " But had warded it off," i. e., had acted 
merely on the defensive. DefeTtdere is here taken in its primitive 
sense, as equivalent to propulsare. Compare B. C. 1, 7, " Cofir 

elanumt legumis XIII, qua aderat, mUiies sese paratos esse 

imperatoris sui triiunorumque plehis injurtas defendere.y 

11. Se prius in GaUiam vemsscy &c. Here again Aripvistus 
(kiseiy defends his conduct. The Roman commander Bomithis 
aad conquered the Arvemi long before the German leader came 
mLO Gaul. 

l)b. Quid sibi veUet 1 &c. By sibi Caesar is meant, by suas pos 
sessiOTies the possessions of himself, Ariovistus. — Provindam suanij 
^Lc. * That this part of Gaul was his province, just as that other 
was ours." The student will mark the force of the pronouns here. 
Hanc refers ta the quarter where Ariovistus now is, illam to the 
distant Roman province in the south of Gaul. 
^g 1. Qui in suo jure, dec. " Since we interrupted him in the en 
foyment of nis right.*' 

2. Quod jratres, &c. ** As to Caesar^s saying that the Aedui 
had been styled bretheid by the senate." — Bello AUobrogum, dtc. 
The Dauphin editor is wrong in supposing that the war here meant 
is the one in which Domitius Aenobarbus and Fabius Maximus 
were employed against the Allobroges (Fhrus, 8, 2.) It is rather 
the one which Cneius Pontinus successfully waged against the same 

3. AuxUiQ.Populi Romani, <&c. '' Had derived any assistance 
from the Roman people." — Vebcre se suspican, 6lc. "That he 
has strong reason to suspect that Ciesar, having pretended friend- 
ship for. the Aedui, inasmuch as he keeps an army in Gaul, keeps 

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ft there, in fact, for the purpose of eroshing him (AiioTistus)/' i. e » 28 
chat Gssar, under the pretence of friendship towards the Aedni, 
merely %eeps an army in Gaul to crush him, Ariovistus. 

4. Qui fdsi deeedat» *' That, unless he depart.'* Qui for UUf 
. as it begins & clause. 

5. Quod si eum interfeeerit, dec. It cannot he supposed, that 
this was a mere idle boast on the part of Ariovistus. Cssar already 
oad at Rome many violent political enemies, who were eager foi 
his destruction. — Oratum esse facturum. " He would do an agree- 
able thing," 1. e., would be doing a favour to, &c. 

6. Ejus morte redimere posset. " He could purchase by hisi* 
(Caesar's) death." — Sine uUo ejus laborsj &c. "Without any 
trouble and haziurd on his part." Ejus again refers to Cssar. 

7. Mvlta ah Ccssarey &c. **Many arguments were urged by 

~ Caesar to this effect, why, namely, he could nctf desist from his pur-^ 
pose," i. e., to show why he could not, &c. 

8. IgTiovisset. "Had pardoned." The Romans were sitid 
•* to pardon" a conquered people, when they allowed them to retain 
their freedom, to enjoy their own laws, and create their own ma- 
gistrates. On the other hand, a state w^ said to be reduced to a 
Roman province, when it was deprived of its laws, and was sub- 
iected to the control of Roman magistrates, and to the payment of 
a certain tribute. " 

9. Quod si antiqutssimum, <&c. " If, then, the most distant period 
ought to be regarded," i. e., if the question was to turn upon the 
claims of earliest possession. — Si judicium senatuSf 6cc. " If, on 
the other hand, the decisioii of thd senate ought to be taken into 
consideration, then was it right that Gaul should be free, since they 
had willed that this country, after being conquered in war, shou' 
still enjoy its own laws." 

10. Ad nostros adequitare. With most of the compound verl 
the preposition may be repeated with its proper case. This is ofiea 
done to impart strength to the expression. Compare the remazkt 
ofPerizanius, ad SancL Min. 3, 3. — ^Vol i., p. 408, ei. Bauer. 

11. laiii. We have adopted facit and recipit on the recom 
menoauon o. Oudendorp, although imperamt follows. This chang* 
of tense is elegant and frequent among the historical writers. Cob- 
irjlt Oudendorpt ad loc, 

1. Perfidem. "Under cover of plighted &ith." Compare tha 29 
explanation of Morus : " propter Jidem datam et aeceptam,** ' Some 
commentators however, give ver in this clause the force of contra^ 

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^g relying upon tho Greek paisphraet, U)^ h r^ iiakayMit^ h^ «ImI 
wtvoflgOtu, Per, however, has rather the force of contra in corv 
position, as perfiduSf perjurus, &c. > ^ 

2. Posteaquam in mUgut mUUum, &c. ** A^ivt it was spresii 
abroad among the common saldiers/* — Omni Giumi, 6cc. '* Ha4 
mterdicted the Romans from all Gaul.'* 

3. Impehtmque m noatros, &c. All the editious andMSS. hare 
feeistenty which we have changed, nevertheless, iufecisse. As the 
text stands in the different editions, it cannot be correct Some oi 
the MSS. and earlier printed copies give ut oetore diremissetf but 

'later editions rejected the conjunction until Davies restored it. Ai 
Clark, however, very correctly remarks, lU ought rather to be placed 
before fecissent ; while, on the other hand, if it can be omitted before 
this verb, it can just as well be omitted before diremisset. In order 
to remove the difficulty, therefore, we haye retained ut before di 
remisset, in the sense of quomodo, <* how," but have changed /s- . 
oiitent to feciste, so as to have a double construction in the same 
sentence. Translate as follows : " and that his cavabry had made 
an attack on our men, and how this circumstance had bioken ofi 
the conference." Oudendorp conjectures vi diremisset for ut di- 

4. Injectum est. '*Was infused." The Greek version has 
iwifv, which induced Wasse to conjectme inna^um est for injectum 
est {Add. ad SaU. ip, 398.) y 

6. Neque perfecta essent. '< And had not been brought to^ 
conclusion." — Uti out, &c. Supply ^ postulans. 

6. Ex suds aJiquem. The common text has ex suis legatii aU' 
quern, but we have rejected legatis on the suggestion of Bentley. 
This emendation is supported also by Uie Greek version, which has 
merely, riva rfir £roro9. 

7. Retineri non poierant, d&o. " Gould not be restrained from 
casting." — Caiufii Vaterium ProeiUum. Already menticmed in 
chapter 19. 

8. Cimtate dtmatus erat, ** Had been presented with the rights 
of citizenship." Foreigners, on whom this favour was conferred, 
prefixed to their own name the pr€Bnomen and nomen of the indi- 
TJdual, through whose influence the privilege in question had been 
obtained, and regarded that person'ever after as their patron. Thus 
Gabuxos, the fadier of Procillue, assumed the name of Gains 7ale> 
me Cabums, having taken the firat and second names of Caius Vn* 
lenos Flaccus, his patron. 

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9. Qua multa jam^ &c. '* Of winch ArioTiBtas now, firom kmg 29 
ImM, made frequent use," i. e., which he now spoke fluently.-^- 

tet quod in eo, &c. " And becanse the Gennans could ha^e no 
.notiye to inflict any personal injniy in his case." 

10. Qui hotfitio Aruni^ dec. " Who had enjoyed the hospi- 
tality of AriOTistus," i. e., was connected with him by the ties of 
hospitality. As the ancients had not proper inns for the accommo- 
dation of trayellers, the Romans, when they were in foreign coon- 
tries, or at a distance from home, used to lodge at the houses of 
certain persons, whom they in return entertained at their houses in 
Rome. This was esteemed a very intimate connexion, and was 
called koipitiumy or yu# hospUii. 

11. Qua dieeret Arianstua. ** What Ariovistos might have to 
say." — CoTielamamt, " He called out in a loud tone and demand- 
ed." — An tpeadandi causal ^^Wbb it to act as spies 1" liter 
ally, " was it for the sake of spying!" 

12. PromooU, «He moved forward." Compare the Greek. 
vp«Mrv«c. — Postridde ejus diei. ** The day after that day," i. a., 
the day following. Compare the Greek, rfi d* hvrtputf. — Fritter 
tastra Casaris. ** Past Cesar's camp." 

1. Ex eo diCt d&c. " For five successive days after that day."— 3|| 
^ro castris. " Befbre his camp." — Potestas, " An opportunity ** 
Ifore literally, ** the means of so doing." 

2. Genus hoe erat pugna, d&c. " The following was the kind of 
battle in which the Germans had exercised themselves," i. e., to 
which they had trained themselves. 

3. Quos ex cmm copiay dec. ** Whom they had selected from 
the whole army, each horseman one, for his own protection." Com 
pare TaeiiuSf Germ. c. 6. 

4. Hi, si quid erat durius, dec. '* These, if anything occurred 
of more than ordinary danger, ran to their assistance." Hi refers 
to the foot-soldiers. — Si qui. For si quis. — CircutnsistehtmL 
** Stood around to defend him." * 

6. Longius. « Farther than usual."— CsZerJiw. "Withgiettw 
speed than ordinary." 

6. Exereitatione. *< From cimstant practice." — Ut juhis eqwh 
^nim, dec. '* That, being supported by the manes of the horses, 
Ihey could equal their speed," i. e., could keep up with them. 

7. Ne diutius commeatUf dec. It is a question for militaiy men 
to decide, whether Cesar should have allowed Ariovistus to 'match 
past his camp, and cut off htt commnnioition with the qwrthr flwi 

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3Q which his supplies were to come. It is probable that his object, m 

dela3ring a general action, was to accustom his men, in the meatt 
while, by a succession of slight encounters, to the looks of so for- 
midable a foe, as well as to their manner of fighting«> 

8. Aeieque triplici instructa. " And his .army being drawn up 
in three lines." Literally, " ^ triple order of battle being arranged. '' 
— Prifiuim et secundam acieniy &c. ''He ordered ihib first and 
second lines to remain under arms." Compare Yegetius, ], 25, 
*< Si hostis incumbat, turn omnes equates et media pars pt4^*^im ad 
puUandum impetum ordhiantur in acie ; reliqiU post ipsosy auctis 
/ossisj muniurU casira." 

9. Circiter hominum, &c. ** Light troops, about sixteen thou- 
sand men in number." The term expeditus refers to the celerity 
of their movements and the lightness of their equipments. Most 
commonly, however, in our author, it merely means unencumbered 
by baggage. 

10. Partem auxiliorwn, 6ic. ** A part of his auxiliaries." The 
forces sent by foreign states and monarchs were called auxilia. 

11. Institute SIM. "According to his custom." InstiUUwm, 
here refers to a custom or practice, in accordance with some settled 
resolution or design. 

12. A majonhus. "From the larger one." Supply castns 
The larger camp was the one first pitched. Many MSS. and edi- 
tions have castris expressed. 

13. Prodire. " Come forth to battle." 

32 1* Acriter utrinquey &c. Dio Cassius (38, 48) informs us, that 
Ariovistus came near taking the camp of the Romans on this oc- 
casion : iXiyav xal rd x^pdicwfux airSv tlXe. The xop'^'^w/'c of Dio is 
the castra minora of Caesar. Dio adds, that the German leader, 
elated with his success, disregarded the predictions of the Germaii 
females, and came to an action with Caesar. 

2. Pralio. " In a general engagement." 

3. Matres familia, Tacitus {Germ. c. 8) states, that the aiv 
dent Germans believed there was something sacred and prophetic 
in the female sex, and that, therefore, they disdained not their advice, 
but placed the greatest confidence in them and their predictions. 
He speaks of Veleda and Aurinia in particular, as having been held 
in the highest veneration. The females among the Germau, who 
pretended to the gift of prophecy, were called Alruna. (i. e., Alraur 
nen). Muratori gives the name as AlrunauB (vol. i., p. 370), and 
Jomandes, AlyrwnvMt (de Reh. Get. c. 24) Com^iare Adelimg, 
Gloss. Med. et Inf. Lot. vol. i., p: 18S 

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4. Sm-tibus et vaiianoHombus, « From lots and soguies.-^iSx 32 

MM. " Advantageously." 

5. Non esse fas. ^* That it was not the will of heaven." Fas 
denotes what is in accordance with the divine law and the roles of 

6. Omnss oloarios, " All the aiudliaries." The allies were calAd 
tUrii from their being generally placed on the wings (joJUb) of an 
army when drawn np in order of battle. 

7. Pro castris minoribus, ** Before the smaller camp." — Pro 
hostmm numero. " Considering the number of the enemy." — Ut 
ad speciem, dec. ** That he might make use of the auxiliaries for 
appearance," i. e., to make a show with them. 

8. GeneroHm. "By nations," i. e., by tribes. Compare the 
Greek paraphrast : xari ^^kas- 

9. Rhedis et carris. ** With chariots and wagons." Both of 
these are Gallic terms. The rheda was a kind of four-wheeled 
chariot for travellingi and was introduced among, and much used 
by, the Romans also. The rheda appear to have carried the fleaniheB 
of the Germans, the carri their baggage and provisions. 

10. Eo, " On \heae."^Passis aimlms. « With dishevelled 
iocks." Passis from pando. Most of the MSS. have mambus in- 
stead of crirtilntSf and the Greek paraphrast appears to favour this 
reading, since he has, rig X^^*'f *P^ *^^ orpaTi^Tas iptydfuifot. But 
passis crimbus is the more usual form on such occasions. Perhaps, 
however, Cassar joined them both, passis mambus crirUbusque, as 
in the 48th chapter of the 7th book. 

1 1 . Casar singvUs hgiombusy dec. " Cssar placed a lieutenant 
«nd qusstor over each legion." — Quastorem. The office of the 
provincial quss^r was, to see that provisions and pay were fur 
nished to the army, to keep an account of all moneys expended, &c. 

12. Eos, Referring to the lieutenants and qusestors. — A dextro 
cornu. " From the right wing," i. e., of his own army. — Minims 
Armam. "Weakest." Literally, " least strong." 

13. Itaque hostes, dec. "And so suddenly an ^ rapidly," dtc. 

14. Rejectis pUis. " Their javelins being flung aside." Com- 
pare the Greek version, rd Sipara ^m^^tan-a. 

15. Phahmge facta. The German phalanx, as has iHadybeen 
remarked, was analogous to the Roman testudOf the men being io 
clo^e array, with their shields locked over their heads. (Compon 
note 2, page 15.) It will be observed, that as the Germans foo^ 
hy nations, on this occasion, there was as many phalanxes as na- 

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32 ^>»D') bence the vm ofpUlangas, tie plnnl fonii, in the naa m^ 

16. Qui in jhaltmeaa, ^ " Who leaped upon the i^ialanxes, 
ind tore ofif with their hands the shields of the enemy, and wounded 
them from above," i e., they tore away the shields which the 
efiemy heM above their beads, and then stabbed downwards. The 
soldiers who did this, kept moving about on the top of the shields 
which formed a kind of roof beneath them. Oppian, in speaking 
of the warHrteedfjnakes it ascend with the chariot npon the top of 
such a testodo, a plato of which may be seen in Ltpsins, PoUorc 
ib. 1, dial 6, 9ub. Jm. 

17. A Mtnistro conuL *< On the left wing." The reference is . 
to the army of ^be enemy. Their left was ^described above as 
weakest. — A dextro conw. Alluding again to the (German army. 

33 1. Equitatu. Old datx7e.^^ExpedUior. " More disengaged," 
L e., more at liberty. The Crassus here mentioned was the son 
of Marcus Crasslis, and lost his life, along with his father, in the ex- 
pedition against the Parthians. His movement on the present occa- 
sion gained the day for the Romans. 

2. Nequepnu8t &c. "Nor did they cease to flee until," &c. 
Prius and qvuun are separated by tmesis. 

3. Repereruni. The common text has peiienmt, which appears 
to have arisen from reperierunt, a faulty reading in one of the MSS. 
Heinsius conjectured pepererunt, of which Bentley approves : but 
tiie best MSS. Lave reperennU. 

4. In his fuit Arionistus. He died soon after in Germany, 
eitiber of his wounds, or through chagrin at his defeat. Compere 
B. G, 5, 29, *^Magno esse Germanis dolcri AriooisH mortem.* 
Plutarch says, that the number of killed in this battle amounted to 
ei^y thousand. 

6. Dua fuerunt, du:. The Grermans in geiieral, accoidmg'to 
Tacitus (Germ. 18), had but one wife each. In the case of theix 
chieftains, however, who were anxious to strengthen and enlarge 
their power by ^Eunily alliances, mote than one wife was allowed. 

6. Dtuerai, '* He had married." Compare note 6, page 8. 
"^UtreDque in ea fagd perierunt. The common text has uiraqu§ 
M sa fiiga perOi. But the MSS. are the other way. 

7. Filia. Nombative absolute, unless we understand eranL 
Bui this would be far less elegant. 

9. Trie eaUms vtfi^tef. "Bound with a triple chain."— hi 
ifammO^umremiwdiit "Fellin wtlh CiasarhiaiMlf.'' 

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9. Nefue epi» cdULtniUUef dtc. " Nor had fortuae at all dimm- 33 

iflhed, by the sixffenngs of such a man, the great pleasure and rejoi- 
cing which prevailed.'* More literally, " taken away anything from 
80 great pleasure and rejoicing." 

10. De se ter tortious, <&c. " That the lots had been thrice cou- ^ 
suited respecting him.'' Tacitus {Germ. 8) describes the German 
mode of divining by lots as follows : " They cut a twig from a fruit- 
ree, and divide it into small pieces, which, distinguished by certain 

marks, axe thrown promiscuously upon a white garment. Then the 
priest of the canton, if the occasion be public ; if private, the master 
of the family ; after an invocation of the gods, with his eyes lifted up 
to heaven, thrice takes out each piece, and, as they come up, inter- 
prets their signification according to the marks fixed upon them. Il 
the result prove unfavourable, they are no more consulted on the 
same aftalr that day ; if propitious, a confirmation by omens is still 

11. Beneficio. " By the favour*" 

12. QtioM Ubii, The common text has ubi in place of UbUf and 
he advocates for the former insist that Ubii must be an enoneous 
eading, because the people of that name were too far removed from 

the seat of war. A singular specimen of critical acumen ! just aa 
if the relative position of the Ubii and Suevi had anything to do 
with the theatre of the war between Cssar and Ariovistus. A 
stiong argument in favour of the reading Ubii may be obtained ftom 
the sVdi chapter of this book, where the Treviri, the immediate 
neighbours of the Ubii, came to Cssax with the mtelligence, that the 
Suevi were endeavouring to cross the Rhine in their vicinity. The 
Ubii, moreover, as appears from another part of these commentaries 
(4, 3), were old enemies of the Suevi. Davies, Clarke, Oudendorp, 
and many other editors, declare in favour of UbU as a reading, 
which was first given by Khenanus and Hotomannus on conjecture 
The Greek paraphrast has also oi OI6101. 

18. Proximi Rkenum. " Next the Rhine," i. e., on the banks 
of that river. There is an ellipsis heih of the preposition ad. Com- 
c»re lAuretvus, 2, 134, " Proxtma sutU ad mreis principiorum.** 

14. Duobus, The Helvetian and German. — Tempus aniti. 
*< The season of the year."— Htiema. << Winter-quarters." The 
Irinter-quarfcers of the Romans were strongly fortified, and furnished, 
IMiticnlariy under the emperors, with evexy accommodation like a 
city, as storehouses, workshops, an infirmary, dec. Hence fimm 
them many towns in EuTO|>e are supposed to hai s hod dieirtiiigm 1 

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^ in England pardeularij, those whose names end in center or cMMier 
Compere the remarks of Adelungf Gloat. Med. a Inf. Lai. t<A 
ii, p. 371, 8. v. Ciuimm. 

16. In citenerem GaUiam. Graul soath <^-the Alps, or, the 
northern part <^ the Italian penlqsula, otherwise called Cisalpine 
Gaul.— >ild anwenhu agendas. "To hold the assizes/* The 
goremors of provinces generally devoted the summer to their mili- 
tary operations, and the winter to the civil part of their administrar 
tion, which consisted in presiding over the courts of justice, ^Mumt^ 
oatHions, legolnking ttjcAs, du» 


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1. Cum Mset C<t8€ar, 6ui. The date is A. U. C. 697, in the 3/ 
eoDsuUhip of Publins Cornelius Lentulus and Quintas Metelhis 
Nepos. — Crehri rumored. "Frequent reports.'* Compare the 
GreeK version, mxtai ^fyyiyjai. 

2. Dixeramus, Compare book 1, chap. 1. — Conjurare, ** Were 
combining," i. e., were forming a confederacy. — Omni Gallia. 
Celtic Gaul is here meant, in colltiadistinction to Belgic. 

3. Partim qui, "Some of whom." — Ut. "As, on the one 
aand." — Ita Populi Romani, &c. " So, on the other, they bore it 
impatiently, that an army of the Roman people should winter in 
Gaul, and the thing begin' to grow into a custom." Literally, 
" should winter and grow old in Gaul." Compare the explanation 
of Donatus, ad Terentj Hec. prol. t. 4, " InveterascererUt i e., in 
cansuetudinem venireTU." 

4. Partim qui moinlitate, 6cc. " Whde others of them, from a 
natural instability and fickleness of disposition, were desirous of a 
change of government," i. e., were anxious for a revolution. 

5. Ab nonnuUis ttiam. Supply soliicitarentur, referring still to 
the Belgas. — Qui ad conducendosy &c. " Who possessed means 
f(Mr hiring troops." 

6. Earn rem comequt. " To effect that end," i. e., to usuip 
governments. — In imperio nostro. "While we held the chief 
power in Gaul." 

7. In interiorem GaUiam. "Into inner Gaul." Oudendoip 
pre%s uUeriorem^ the reading of several MSS., as more in accord- 
ance with the phraseology of Cssar. But interior, here, has pre- 
cisely the same force as ulteriorf with the additional advantage of 
its applying, with more force, to one who was to pass from northern 
Italy into farther Gaul, or, in other w3i^% penetrate into the interior. 

8. Quintum Pedium, A grandson of Julia, ibe aiiter of CsBter 
Consult Historical Index. 

9i Dot rjegotiwn Senonilms, " He directs the SenoDee." More 

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35 literally, "he gives a commission.'' — (lit cognosearU. "To 
tam." ^ 

10. Conttanter. " Uiiiformly."~JfawtM cogt. * That bodies 
of troops were raising." — Exercitum condtici. " Thai an army was 

11. ProficUceretur. The con.mon text has duodecimo die before 
froficiaceretur. As these words, however, are wanting in most 
MSS., and as they are utterly at variance with the rapidity of move- 
ment which characterized the operations of Caesar, vve have ex- 
cluded them from our edition. Oudendorp conjectures primo die 
or primo qwoque die ; Frotscher, propere. The Greek version has 
&t rdxitrra livat. Most oi *h^ editors who retain duodecimo die 
enclose the words between brackets. 

12. Celeriusque omnium opinione. " And sooner than any ex 
pected." — Quiproximi Gallia^ <Sv- " "Who are the nearest of the 
Belgae to Celtic Gaul." Compare the Greek version : U xdvrw 
tSv BtXywf vX^aialraroi t^s TaXartas oIkovvt€s. * 

3g 1. Neque te cum Belgis^ &,c. "That they had neither agreed 
vTith the rest of the Belgae," i. e., entered into the confederacy 
along with them. 

2. Germanosque, These are enumerated towards the close of 
chapter 4, namely, the Condrusi, Eburones, Caeresi, and Psmani.— 
Cis Rhenum. Referring to the southern bank of the Rhme, on 
which several of the German tribes had settled. 

3. Furorem. "The infatuation." — Fratres consangianeoaque 
suos. The Remi are here speaking of the Suessiones as " brethren 
and kinsmen of theii own." — Potuerint. Still referring to the 
Remi. — His. Referring to the Belg«e who had combined against 
the Roman power. 

4. His. The pronoun now refers to the two ambassadors from 
the Bj&mi.-'Quantaqu^. " And how powerful " — Sic reperiebat 
" He obtained this information." Literally, " he thus found." 

6. Magnosque spiritus in re mUitari. " And great haughtineia 
in warlike matters." Compare the explanation of Achaintre : " Spi' 
rtius, i. e.fSen8US superbia ferociaque plenas. 

6. Omnia se habere explorata. " That they had all things aeca- 
lately inquired into," i. e., that they could give him accurate infiur* 
nation. — PropinquiUUibuSy &c. " By neighbourhood aiidaffinity.** 
^QvuaUam mulHtudinem. " What number of men." 

7. Posse conficere. "Ca^ raise." Literally, "could 

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iq>." — Electa milha sexagmta. ** Sixty thotisand picked men." — 3g 

Imperium ** The management.'* The contiol. 

8. Dwiiiaewm. Not to be confounded, of qpurse, with Divitia- 
Lus the Aeduan chieftain* He held not only the Saessiones, but 
also the Ambiani under his sway, and from the country of the latter ' 
passed over into Britain. Cssar is the only ancient writer that 
makes mention of this Qallic expedition into the island. 

9. Galbam. Many suppose this name to be an error on the part 
of some copyist, both because Dio Dassius (39, 1 } has *ASpd as the 
appellation of the monarch in question, and also because Gedba is m 
Roman family name. But Suetonius informs us, that some in his 
dme considered Galha to be a term of Gallic origin, signifying 
<* corpulent" or "fat.** (Vit. Galb. 3.) Perhaps, therefore, iliira 
may have been the first part of the name, and GtUba the latter. 

10. Totiiis belli mmmam. " The direction of the whole war." 
Compare the Greek version : 8n ^€ft<ay xtd arpa-nryis xdvntv ilftiuivos 

On. - • 

1. Longissimeque ahsvnt. "And are very far distant.** These J? 
words have occasioned considerable trouble to the commentators. 
Julius Celsus, who for the most part gives the spirit, if he does not 
follow the very words, of Caesar, passes over them in silence. The 
Greek paraphrast has ioxdrom r&v BfXyfiv^ which is not true, since 
the Menapii are as remote, if not more so. Vossius, therefore, 
thinks that we must either rWect the words in question, or read 
iongisstmeque ah otkni culiu absirU^ or «Ue must transfer them to 
the ck>se of the chapter, and insert them after apoeUantur, as supply- 
ing to the four German tribes that are enumerated last. Daviea. 
however, is in favour of retaining the words where thev are. ana 
giving longistime abnnt the meaning merely of TMilde "emoti sint 
We have adopted his opinion, which is followed also bv Achainti* 
and Lemaire. 

. 2. Carcuos. Traces of this name appear to exist in that of tb^ 
modem river Chiers, and of the Psmani in that of Famerme or F0 
nrnu. Compare D^AnoiUe, Not. de la GauUy p. 188. 

3. Liberaliterque aratume prosecutus. "And having spoker 
kindly to them.^* Compare B. G. 4, 18, " Quibus paeem et and" 
tiHam petentibus liberaliter respondit.''^ So also B. C. 3, 104. B^ 
Alex. 71. The Greek version has ^iXofponiadfuvos, which amoanta 
Id the same thing. 

4. Ad diem. " By the day appoin led.** — Magna opere. "Stfen- 


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37 uously/' The more correct fbim for magnapere. So quMOo opam 
for qttantopere. Compare Oudendorp, ad loc. 

6. Quanta opere, /cc. " How much it concerns the republic and 
the general safety, that the forces of the enemy be presented from 
' unitiDg.**" Literally, "be kept apart." Compare Ijucretius, 6, 
204, " Ei marcy quod late terrarum distiiiet oras," where distinct 
IS equivalent, as Da vies well remarks, Xoxise imoicem dimdit. The 
terms rei pubUc(B have reference to Rome, and communis saXutis 
to the Eemi. The army of the' Gauls would amount, when united, 
to 300,000 men, to oppose which Cssar had, at farthest, but 60 or 
70,000. It was all important, therefore, to prevent a junction 

6. Atque Un castra posuit. For an account of the Roman camp 
consult Archseological Index. 

7. Qua res. " This position." — Posteum, Referring to Cssar ' 
Ciacconius, not understanding to what eum could here refer, changed 
it into ea, Davies, however, restored the true reading, although he 
himself errs in refernng eum to exerciium. 

8. Cohortihus. As there were ten cohorts m a legion, the num- 
ber of men would range from 420 to 600, according to the size o^ 
the legion itself. Consult Archasological ludez. 

9. Duodemginti pedum. " Of eighteen feet," i. e., in breadth. 
Supply in latitudinem. Stewecchius (ad Veget. 3, 8) thinks that 
we ought to read here XIX. instead of XVIIL, in consequence ol 
the rule which Vegetius lays down respectmg an uneven number : 
" imparem errnn numerum observare moris est.^* Csesa^, however, 
followed his own rules. The Greek paraphrast makes the ditch 18 
feet deep : ra^pt^nart ik dierwKtiiStKa rd 0d$og. 

10. Mumre jubet. Supply suos. The more usual, but less 
elegant, form would be muniri jubet. All military writers who 
allude to the position of Cssar on the present occasion, speak of it 
in high terms of praise. 

\\. Ex itinere. "On their march." Compare the Greek ver- 
sion h rfi U<?. — Sustentaium est " The attack was supported." — 
Oallohim tadem atque, &c. " The manner of attack on the part 
of the Gauls, as well as the Belgae, is as follows." 
3g 1. Testttdme facta. "A testudo being formed." To form a 
testude, the soldiers joined their shields above their heads, and those 
on the fiankft locked theirs so as to defend their sides. This was 
done in ozder u> secure themselves against the darts of the enemy, 
and from its xesemblance to the form of a testudo, or " tortoise," 
ft derived its military name. Under cover of this they came up to 

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die gates, and tried either to undemuoe the Walls or to scale then. 3^ 
Consult Aicheological Index. ' 

a. Portas suecedurU, That svceedere is joined to an accusathre 
as well as dative, is shown by Servins, ad Yirg. Eclog. 5, 6, from 
Sallust, ** Cwn mwrum hostium successisseV* Consult Ouden 
dorp, ad loc. 

3. In muro consistendi^ dec. '* The power of standing on Clw 
wall was to no one," L e., no one was able to stand on the wall. 

4. Summa ncbititate, dec. <* Of the highest rank and influence 
among his countrymen." — Preurat, ** Was over," i. e., had "the 
command of, or was goyemor of. 

5. SuhmUtatur, Some of the MSS. have the simple mUtatur f 
but mbmUtaiur is preferable, as it denotes the sending secretly 
md unobserved by the foe. ' 

6. De media nocte. ** Soon after midnight. "^-/»(2em dMcHnu, 
dec. *< Having used for guides the same persons who had come as 
messengers from Iccius." 

. 7. Numidas. The Numidians were ranked among the fa'gfat 
armed troops. (Compare chapter 10.) The Cretans were remark 
able for their skill in archery. Compare AtUan, V. H. 1, 10, Ci 
K^ii t\a\ ro^ititiv dyaSol, The inhabitants of the Balearic islands 
(Majorca and Minorca) were excellent slingers. Consult €reograph- 
ical Index, s. v. Numidia^ and Baleares. 

8. Quorum adventUf 6lc, *' By the arrival of whom, both courage 
4> ward off the attack, together with the hope of a successftil de- 
fence, was added to the Remi, and, for the same reason, the expect- 
ation of making themselves masters of the town departed from tho 
enei^y," L e., the Remi were inspired with fresh courage, and widi 
the hope of finally beating off the enemy, while the latter, on tbev 
part, now despaired of accomplishing their object. 

9. Quos, In the masculine as the worthier gender, but referring, 
n fact, to both vicis and adificUs. The construction of adire vriA 
in accusative is of common occurrence. 

10. Omnibus eopii*. Without the preposition cum, as in coap- 
lers 19 and 33. The preposition, however, is more commonly 

11. Ei ab millibus, dec. *' And encamped within less than two 
miles of him." 

12. Et propter eximiam, dec. • ** And on account of thev b^ 
Mimtation for valour." — Pralio supersedere. ** To defer a battte.** 

13. SolicitatiomHs peridiUibaiur, ** Strove to ascertain by fine- ^ 

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3g ^vent tnak/' SoliciiatuyiJhis is here equivalent in fact to Umlm 


14. Advernts. ** Towards the enemy," i. e., on the side facing 
the enemy. -^Quantum loci, <S&c. " As far as our army, when drawn 
up in line of battle, was able to occupy." 

15. Ex tUraqutpartef &c. " Had a steep descent on both sides " 
Ldteially, ^* had descents of side on either part." Dejeetus is hen 
used for dejeetio. Compare Lvoy, 9, 2, " Angvjitias septas dejeetm 
arhorum saxorumque ingentium objacense mole invenerunt.^* 

V6. Et frontem terdter Jastigatus, &c. ** And in front, gently 
sloping, sank gradually to the .plain." Faatigatu8 is properly ap- 
plied to what has a pyramidical form, and terminates in a slender ok 
^iral top. It here refers, however, merely to the descent or slope 
of the hill. With fromXem supply quoad. 

17. Ad. extremas f 08908. "At the extremities of the ditch,'* i 
e., at each end. — TormeTUa. " Military engines," i. e., CatapuUa, 
and Bali8t(e, for throwing large stones, heavy javelins, 6e.e. These 
would be analogous to our modem batteries. 
39 1- Qiu>d tarUum, <&c. " Since they could do so much by their 
numbers," i. e., were so powerful in numbers. — Pugnantes. 
" While engaged in the fight." 

2. Si qua opu8 esset. " If there should be need in any quarter." 
With qua supply parte. Some edition? have 8i quid, others 8i qua. 
The Greek paraphrast has it n Siw tlii. -^ 

8. Palu8 rum magna. *' A marsh of no large size." 

4. Expectabant. "Waited to sec."— l/ifiwy««ii<M,«fec. "Wei« 
, ready under arms to attack them in their disorder," i. e., while 
more or less embarrassed in their movements by the attempt tc 
cross. Compare the Greek paraphrase : ifu^l rotfro iffx''^^f^^^i' 

6. Secundiore equiiumj 6u:. " The battle of the cavabry provhig 
more favourable to our men," i. e., our men having the advantage 
in the battle of the horse. The common text has ttquiium noatrorwm^ 
which savours of a gloss. 

6 Demcnatratum eat. Compare chapter 6. 

7. Si mimi8 potuiseent, " In case they shouH no: be able to do 
this." — Ad bellum gerendum. " For carrying on the war." — PrB^ 
MberetUque. " And' might cut off." 

8. Levis armatura Numidas. These were armed merely with 
JAvelins, and, instead of a buckler, merely extended a part of then 
attire with their left hand. Compare the graphic description ol 
Tiivy (86, 11), " Nihil primo atpectu eontempiiut. Etpd hmmf 

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msque pauUuli et graeile* : iucinetuf et tnermw egue»f prater^ JQ 
fuam quod jacula seeum ported : epii tim. frcad* : deformit ipte 
cur9U9f rigida ceroice et extento eaptte eurrentiumJ'* So also Claii- 
dian. BeU. Gild. 16, 435. se^. 

** Nan contra clypds tectos.gladiisque micaiUcs « 

Ibitisy in solis longefiducta telis : 
Exarmatus erity quum missile toiserit, hostts. 
Dextra movet jaculum, pratentat pallia UbvOj 
CcUera midus eques." 

9. Impeditos. " Embarrassed in their moTeinents/ Compare 
lote 6, page 53. 

10. Audaetssime. Plutarch's language is at yariance with this, 
siuce he makes the Gauls to have fought badly. {Vit. Com. c. SO), 

11. Oppido, Referring, to Bibraz. — Se fefeUisse. " Had du 
appointed them." * 

12. Quorum in fines. *' into whosesoever territories *' — Suis 
Referring to the respective territories of each. 

1. Etdomesiicis copiiSf 6cc. ** And might avail themselves of ^^(J 
the supplies of provisions which they each had at home." Dome*- 
ticts copOs is here put for domestica eopia. 

2, Hoc quoque ratio, ^ The following consideration also." — 
Divitiacum atque Aeduos, d&c. They had done in conformity with 
the request of Cssar. Compare chapter 5. 

8. His. Referring to the Bellovaci. They were desirous of ro- 
lurning home, and defending their territories against the threatebed 
attack of the AeduL 

4. NuUo certe ordine neque trnperio. "In no fixed order and 
under no regular command," i. e., in no order and under no disci 

5. Cum sibif &c. ** Each striving to obtain the foremost place 
on the route." — Contimilis. " Very like." Consimilis is stronger 
in meaning than simHis, and not merely a more sonorous term (mqc 
tonafi<ior),a8 Forcellilii maintains. 

6. Insidias veriius. Cssar feared an ambuscade, because very 
little acqiuunted with the country. Compare Dio Cassnu, 39, 2^ 
JUinf ii §c$tTo fuh ri yiY^dfUim, o«k Iri^ci H sfHf ciODt, fy>9lf rfi* 

7. Cum ab extremo agminef &c. ** While those in the reai^ 
with whom our men first camp up, made a stand," &c. 

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40 8. Perturhatis orMmbut. « Having broken their iuik8."--i¥#> 
tidium. " Their safety." 

9. Quantum futi ddei spatium. <* As the length 0f the dij al- 
lowed." More literally, " as much as there was space of day." 

10. Destiterunt. Supply irUerJUert. The later editions havt 
iestUerunt seqttif an inferior reading. • 

11. Ex itvntre. "On lus way," i. e., on the line of march- 
Paucis defendentibus. " Although only a few defended it," i. c, 
although the garrison was weak. 

12. Vineas agere, " To move forward the vtn««." Thevtn^is 
were mantlets or sheds, under which the besiegers worked the bat- 
tering ram, or else approached the walls to undermine theoL Con- 
sult Archsological Index. 

41 1. Aggere jacto. <*A mound being thrown up." The agger 
was a mound or rampart composed of earth, wood, hurdles, and 
stones, which gradually increased in height towards the tovm, 
until it either equalled or overtopped the walls. Towers were 
erected on it, from which the soldiers threw darts or stones on the 
besieged by means of engines. Consult Archieological Index. 

2. Turribttsque constituUs. *< And towers being erected on it." 
The Romans had two kinds of military towers, those that were 
erected on the mound, and which are here meant, and those thai 
were built at some distance from the besieged place, and were 
moved up to it on \^eels. Consult Archseological Index. 

3. Operum, " Of the works." Referring to the agger, turres, 
6ui.—Celeriiate. " The despatch."— iTOpe^an*. " They obtain 
this," i. e., that their lives should be spared. 

4. Galba. Consult note 9, page 36. — Duxit. We have here 
given the reading of Oudendoip's smaller edition. The Bipont 
editor gives dtu^it, on the authority of several MSS., which is also 
followed by Baehne and others. 

5. BraitispanHum. Scaliger and others think that this town was 
the same with Cssaromagus, now BeoMvais. But D*Anvi]le is 
more correct m making it correspond to Bratuspante, an old place 
that once stood near Breteuil in Picardie. (jyAtmUey Geogr. 
Anc. vol. i., p. 84.) ^ 

6. Majores natu. '*The aged men," or, tiiose advanced in 
years. Literally, " those greater (i. e., farther advanced) by birth." 

7. Passis manibus. ** With outstretched hands." PoMna ia 
from pando. Compare the Greek paraphrase : ivarmatttvit rak - 

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S. M eum. Refening to Cesar.-^Foctt ver&«. * Speaks.'* 41 
tJtenUy, <* makes words," i. .e.» a discourse. Verfta JbJ^« is 
'to hold ft conversation with one ;" but %erh(k <2are, '* to inqpoae 
oppn a person.'* 

9. In fide aique amiciiia, &c. '* Had always been steady in 
their attachment and friendship to the state of the Aedui." — Qm 
iuerent. '* Who had assured them." — Omnes indignUateay &c. 
« All manner of indignities and insults " 

10. Qui hujuSf &c. The order is, (Eos), qtU fuissejU principes 
hujus consilii, profugikse in JBritanmam, quod nUeUigerent^ &c. — 
PrincipM. " The authors." The prime movers. 

11. Aim *olum BeUtnaeot. " That not only the Bellovaci them 
selvesT"— Pro his. " In behalf of these."—l/ic utatur, " To ez 
ercise," i. e., to extend. 

12. Quorum oim/iw, &c. ** By whose aid and resources they 
(i. e., the Aedui) were accustomed, in case any war hroke out, to 
support them," L e., to support whatever wars happened to occur. 
Quorum refers to the Beige. 

13. Honoris DioiHaci, &c. ** Out of respect fot, Divitiacus and 
the Aedui." Literally, " for the sake of the honour of Divitiacus 
and the Aedui." 

1. His traditis* '* These hostages having been deU?ered." 42 
Supply obstOMts. 

2. Nihil paii etm, &c. Athenaus informs us, on the authority 
of Posidonius, that the wealthier Gauls were accustomed to drink 
the wines of Italy and Manilia* and these, too, unmixed. (Ath, 
Deipnos. 4, 36.— Vol ii., p. 94, ed. Schweigh,) 

3. Ad luzuriam pertineniium. These words are wanting m 
many MSS.,. but they are rendered by the Greek paraphrast, and 
are also given by Celsns. 

4. IncrepUare et incusare. " That they inveighed agamst and 
complained of." — Pairiamque virtutem projeeisseni, <* And had \ 
abandoned the bravery of their fathers." More literally, <<bad 
thrown away." 

5. Confirmare. << That they resolutely declared.'* 

6. 8abim flumen, Achaintre and Lemaire charge Cssar with 
an error in geography here, sfid maintain, that, instead of Sabimf we 
ought to read either Samaramf or else Saddimy more probably th^ 
latter. Their argument appears to be a plausible one. 

7. Advenium. " Th* coming up." 

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42 ®* MuliereSi guique, &c. The oider is, *< lonjuuse muHermt 
' homines^tee qui per atatem vidererUurimtiile* ad /m^Tiont/* 6tc. 

9. Eorum diervm, 6l,c. *' The mode of marching, on the part ol 
Dur aimy, during those days, haying been carefully observed by 
them.^ More Uterally, " the custom of those days, in respect ci 
the march of our army." As regards the construction of the geni- 
tive here, compare note 10, page 17. — Perspecta. Davies has 
edited prospecta^ which is quite mappr(^riate. 

10. Neque esse qutcquam negeiii. ** And that there would be 
no difficiUty." More literally, " and that it was no labour." 

11. Hanc sub sarcmis adoriri. **In attacking this under its 
baggage," i. e., *'in falling "'pon the soldiers of this legion while 
each of them was still bearing his load of baggage." By impedi 
menta are meant the heavier articles of baggage, such as tents, dec, 
whereas sarcirut denotes the load which each soldier carried. The 
impedimenta were conveyed along by beasts of burden and wag- 
ons, but the sarciruB formed part of the burden of each soldier. 
The load which each of them carried is almost incredible ; provisions 
for fifteen days, sometimes more, usually com, as being lighter, 
sometimes dressed food ; utensils, such as a saw, basket, mattock, 
an axe, a reaping hook and leathern thong, a chain, a pot, dec , 
stakes, usually three or four, sometunes twelve, dec., the whole 
amounting to sixty pounds, not including the weight of his arn>s, 
for a Roman sqldier considered these last, not as a burden, but as 
a.part of himself. Under this load they commonly marched twenty 
miles a day, sometimes more. Compare, Cic. Tusc. Quasi. S, 37. 

|,3 1. Qua. Supply legione. — Religuoi. Supply Ugiones. 

2. Adjuvabat etiam, dec. " It added weight also to the advice 
of those who brought this intelligence, that the Nervii from early 
times," dec. 

3. Ei rei studerU, " Do they pay much attention to this," i. e., 
to the raming of cavalry. — Sed pUcquid possurUt dec.-- "But 
whatever they are able to do they effect by means of thei^ foot- 
forces." With valent supply efficere, 

4. Incists atque inflexis. " Being cut in and be^t," i. e., bemg 
half cut, so that they still continued to grow, the trees were then 
bent longitudinally, and their branched assumed a lateral direction. 

5. Crebris in Miitudinemy 6ic. " Numerous branches, and briers, 
and thorns intervening in a lateral direction." The branches an 
those of the young trees mentioned in the previous note. The in- 
tervals between these were fiUed up with briers and t&oms, whicb 

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mtdXBungled, u they grew, with the bongha of the trees, and toe 43 

whole formed an imperriouB kind of hedge, which answered all the 
purposes of a regular fortification. The common text has enaiia 
after ramUf which Oudendorp and others reject vei^ properly as a 
mere gloss. It does not appear in the best MSS. 

6. Non modo. Put for turn modo rum. This ellipsis is of fre- 
^quent occurrence. Compare B. G. 3, 4, and consult SanU. MttL 

▼oL ii., p. 293, ed. Bauer, 

7. Non omUteTidumf <&c. " Ihat they ought not to neglect the 
ad rice which had been given them.^' 

8. Quem locum. This species of repetition has already been al 
luded to. Compare note 7, page 4. 

9. Ab summo aquaiiter deelivis. '* Sloping with a regular d»- 
scent from the summit." — CoUts nascebaiw, &c. " Another hill 
arose, over against and facing this,*' i. e., direct^ opposite. The 
two epithets adverstis and contrtuiys^ being nearly analogous, are 
used to impart additional force to the expression. 

10. Pa88u» cirdUr dacentos, dec. " Having the lower part dear 
and open for the space of about two hundred paces.'* In order to 
convey the true meaning of apertug here, we have rendered it by a* 
double epithet. The literal meaning of the clause is, " open as to 
the lowest parts,** injima being put for quod ad injima loea. 

11. SUvestris. "So woody.** Supply ita. The Greek paz»- 
phrast has itvip&Sts ndXiora. 

12. In aperto loco. Refeiring to the lower pait of the hill, where 
there were no trees. — Secundum flumen. " A t>ng the river.*' > 
Stationea equUum. ** Troops of horse on guard.** 

18. Ratio ordoque, &c. '* The pbin and order of the march was 
different from what the Belgas had mentioned to the Nervii.** More 
literally, " had itself otherwise than the Beige had mentioned,'* dec. 

14. ExpedUaa. " Free from all encumbrance,'* i. e., who had 
laid aside the load of baggage which eacb soldier was accustomed 
to carry on the march. Conq>are note 1 1, page 42. 

15. DwB legumes, " The two legions.** — Totum agmen c&W' 
ieibant. " Closed the whole line of march," i. e., brought up tha 

16. Identidjem. " Froni time to time," i. e., every now and then. 

17. Quem ad finem, " As far as.'* — Porrecta ac hca aperta, 
^ The clear and open ground." Porrecta literally refers to what 
stretches out in front, and is free from any obstacle or impediment. 

18 Opere dtmemo. " The work having been measnred Qnt» 

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^3 i. e., a space of ground having been marked out for an encaa 

Oput here refers to all the labour reipiisite for fortifying. 
4i| ] . Prima impedimenta, " The first part of our baggage>tnun." 
Referring to the wagons which conveyed the heavier baggage, and, 
on Uus particular occasion, a part also of the individual burdens of 
the soldiery. 

2. Quod tempus, dtc. ** Which had been agreed upon between 
them as the time for joining battle." — Ita ut intra silvas, &e, 
* They on a sudden darted forth, with all- their forces, in the same 

^ider in which they had posted their line of battle and ranks within 
vhe woods, and as they themselves had encouraged each othev to 
CO.'* Confirmaverant refers to previous concert and mutual exhor- 

3. ProtwrhoHs. "Repulsed." The early reading was jper<ur&i- 
tig, which, of course, is far inferior. Faemus restored the true lee • 
tion from an old MS. Compare Frontinus (2, 2, 4) : " EqiUtOF' 
turn peditcs proturbantem.^^ The primitive meaning of proturbo is 
to push oSr vt from, one. 

4. . In manibiis nosttis. " Close at hand." The phrase properl7 
'denotes, that the enemy were so near that they could almost b*. 
couched by the hand. Compare Sallust, B. I. 57 : " Cupere pra 
Hum in m4imbus facere;" and Lipsius, Var. Lect. 2, 13: ^*It 
manibug estCy ran faUor., dixit prasentes esse^ et ita propinquos ut 
pane mambus tangi poasent." 

6. Adverso colic. *^ Up the hill," L e., up the opposite hill, or 
the one facing that lown which they had rushed. 

6. VexiUvm propdnendum. . " The standard to be displayed." 
This was of a crimson colour, and was displayed on the pnetorium 
or general's tent. Plutarrh, in his life of Fabius, c. 15, calls it 
Xtr^v KdKKtvoSf and in that of Marcellus, c. 26, ^wKcSis x^^^> ^^<1 * 
it appears t*' have been, ir fact, nothing more than a crimson cloak 
or chlamys attached to tho top of a spear, xi^tC^ being used here by 
Plutarch in the sense of x^l^f- Compare Schneider, Lex, *, «. 
and Lipsiusy Mil. Rom, lib. 4, dial. 12, sub init. 

7. Signum. "The signal of battle." The signal for the conflict 
to commence ; and hence the Greek paraphrast renders it by r» «t- 
Xg/ute^.-^Tuba. Consult Archaeological Index 

8. Aggeris petendi eausa, " In order to seek materials for the 
mound." — Milites cohortandi. Referring to the haraagne, or short 
address to the troops before the action commenced. 

9. Shgyium dtuuktm. ' « The woid to be given." This is Um 

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Mttto-^md, called otherwise in LtAin Jeasera, andin Greek gtf»J^ ^^ 
ts the Greek paiaphrast here conrectly renders it The object of 
giving the word was, that the soldiers might be able to Hintingniah 
those of their own side firom the enemy, in case night should come 
on before the battle was oyer, or they sfaocdd be separated from 
each other. The word was generally some auspicious term or 
name, such as Victoria, or lAbertaay or Jupiter Seroator, dec. 

10. Successus et ineurtus. *' The near i^pproach and onset." 
Cssar is fond of using terms nearly synonymous, one of which serree 
m some degree to explain the other. Thus we have ^^patieniaet 
ferferendoj*^ B. G. 7, 80. and **extremum et vUimum," B. C 
1, 5, &c. 

11. Erant svbsidio. " Proved of advantage. '' — SaentiaettLtus. 
**The knowledge and experience."— -JSzerctto/t. ''Having been 

12. SingtUisque legiombus. ** And from their respective le 
gions." — Niei muniiit castris. '* Unless the camp was previously 
fortified," i. e., until after the fortifications of the camp were finished. 

13. NUtU jam, dec. " No longer now looked for any command 
from Cssar," i. e., no longer waited for any orders from him. 
Count Tuipm de Criss6 very justly censures Cssar, 1. for leading 
his archers, slingers, and cavalry across the Sabis, before his camp 
was at all fortified ; 2. for not having reconnoitred the wood, be- 
fore he attacked the enemy's horse at the bottom of the hill ; 3. for 
lashly joining battle with the enemy on disadvantageous ground, 
when he ought to have kept his tight troops on this side the stream, 
imtil the wood was reconnoitred and a suitable ford was found, and 
should have had one legion at the foot of the hill to support them 
if attacked. The experience of the Roman soldiers alone saved 
the army from utter defeat. 

14. Qnam M partem^ dec. ** In the direction which chance first 
l»resented.'* The common text has sorSf which will not at all an 
Bwer here. 

15. Quam quo telunty dec. *' Than whither a dart could be made 
to reach." AdjicBre telum is to throw in such a manner that the 
weapon reaches its destined object. 

16. PugTumtihus oecurrit. *' He found them abready fighting." 
Literally, " he met with them," or ** came in contact with them." 

17. Exiguitas. «< The scantiness," or «< shortness." 

J. Ad insigma accemmodaTida. 'Tor fitting the military in^ 42) 
dg&ia to their helmets.* The insigma here aluded to were the 

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^5 akins of wild animals, such as bean, wohres, &C. CoicfMae Pcb^^ 

vus, 6, 22. Lipsius is i^roDg, in thinking that Cssar here refers ii 
particular to crests. {AtuU. ad Mil. Rom. dial. 2.) 

2. Sed etiam ad galeas induendat. " But even for putting on 
their very helmets themselves." Oudendorp prefers i7idueenda$s 
the reading of some MSS. and editions, as the more recondite term, 
and, therefore, the most ikely to be the true reading, and to have 
oeen driven from the text by a glossaiial inteipretation. But the 
Greek paraphrast settles the point for us by his use of ivSUvBai 
The Roman soldiers, when on the march, generally had their hel 
mets hanging down on their breasM ^^ backs, and replaced them on 
their heads when about to attack or be attacked. 

3. Tegumenta. These covers were made of leather, and were 
put upon the shields in order to preserve the polish and ornaments 
of the latter. They are called by Cicero (N. D. 1, 14), " Clypeo- 
rum involucra.** The Roman soldiers were very fond of painting 
and otherwise adorning their shields, and Suetonius mforms us, 
that Cssar*s soldiers in particular used to ornament their annour 
with silver and gold. {Vit. Cos. c. 67. Compare Polyanus, 8, 

4. Ad hate constitit. *< By these he took his station." — In gtut 
rendo' nua. We have here adopted the reading of one of Scaliger'e 
MSS. It is far superior to the common lection in qitarendis 9uis. 

6. Pugnandi tempu^ dimiUeret. " He might throw away the 
time of fighting." 

6. Dejectus. " The declivity," or slope. — Necessitat tempons. 
•* The urgency of the occasion." — Ratio atque ordo. " The jprin- 
eiples and systematic arrangement." 

7. Prospectus impediretur. " The view in front was obstructed." 
•^Neque certa subsidia coUocari. " Neither could any succcrars be 
placed anywhere with certunty." 

8. Admmistrari, **Be given." — In Umta rerum iwiquitate 
*' In so adverse a posture of affairs." 

0. LegioTus noTUB et decima. *' Of the nmth and tenth legioas." 
Some MSS. and editions have legionum mfna et dedrmtf of which 
Oudendorp does not disapprove, though he retains the ordinary leo- 
tion. 'The Greek paraphrast has itKdrov re rdi hvdm rSyfmrog. 

10. Ut in simstroy &c. " When they had taken their stations 
on the left part of the line." Acie is here the old form of the geni- 
lire, for aeiei. Oudendorp restored this reading from MSS. Com* 

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tmn the remark of Anliis Gellus : ** Camt C€uar, in likro ie Anor 4 5 
Logia secundo, hujus die et hunts specie diundum putat.** 

11. Exanimatos. *< Panting/' i. e., almost breathless. Csesat 
frequently employs this term to denote those who with' difficulty 
Ira-T their'breath through fatigue and exhaustion. 

12. Nam kisj &.c. ** For that part of the enemy had fallen to 
*he lot of those/' i. e., it was their lot to come in contact with that 
part of the foe. By ^ are meant the soldiers of the ninth and tenth 

- 13. Impeditam. " While impeded in their movements by the 

.4. LiversiB Sua legumes. "Two other legions," i. e., two 
legions differetif from those just mentioned. Compare the Grdek 
paraphrast. 6^0 dlXXc rdyfutra. 

o. Ex loco superiore. " Having descended from the highei 

16. At turn. "At this stage of the fight, however." Compare 
the explanation of Oudendorp, " eo tempore^ et ea re." Some of 
the MSS. have attonitis 'for at turn toUs, VTithout any sense what- 
ever, while many of the later editions give merely ac totis. Ova 
present reading at turn totis is due to the ingenuity of Oudendoipk 

17. A fromtey &c. The eleventh and eighth legions had occu- 
pied a position in front of the camp, but had been drawn off by their 
pursuit of the Veromandui, and were now fighting on the banks ol 
the stream. In like manneis the ninth and tenth legions, which had 
served as a guard for the left of the camp, were gone in pursuit ol 
the Atrebates. 

18. Cum in dextro comu, &c. " The twelfth legion having takien 
«lP a position on the right wing, and the seventh also at no great 
distance from it." This lemark is added by Caesar, in order to 
show where the two remaining legions were, which, together with 
the fopr already mentioned, were employed in fortifying the camp ' 
when the attack was made. 

19. Aperto latere. " On their unprotected flank." The right 
dark of the twelfth, and the left of the seventh, were exposed, tha 
latter in consequence of the advance of the other legions which had 
occupied the centre and left of the line. 

20. Summam castrorum locum. " 'i'he summit on which stood 

the camp." Compare the Greek paraphrast, vpd; ri &cpa rthus 

|{pC«r«- So also m chap. 24, we have, " ab decumana porta « 

tummojwo cdlis " 


Digitized by CnOOg IC 



45 21. Leviaque amuUura pedites. The same with the veiUtt 

CoiiBuit ArchaBological Index. 

23. Dixeram. Vid. chapter 19. — Adversis hostibua oeairrebani. 

** Met the enemy in front/' i. e., face to face. The enemy were 

now in the Roman camp^ and the cavalry and light-aimed troops 

met them as they entered. 

\(y 1. AUam in partaitj <&c. The more usual form of exparessioii 

is ** AUam partem fug-a petebantf** and Ciacconius thinks we should 

read so here. The expression fugam pttert^ however, as Davies 

remarks, is one occasionally met with in the hest writers. Com 

pare Yirg. Mti. 12, 263. Lvo. 9, 23. Op. A. A. 1, 552, &c. 

2. Calonea, " The soldiers* servants." The 'caloneSf in gen- 
eral, merely followed the army as attendants upon the soldiers. Oc- 
casionally they were not allowed at all. At other times, again, they 
formed no bad kind of troops, firom then: familiarity with tlie Roman 
exercise. Compare, as regards this latter point, the remarks of Jo- 
sephus, B. I. 3, 4. 

3. Decumana porta. *<The Decuman gate." This was the 
name of the gate in the rear of the RomaYi camp, and was, on this 
occasion, of course, the farthest from the enemy. It derived its 
name from the circumstance of the tenth cohorts in the legion hav- 
ing their tents in its immediate vicinity. Compare the words of 
lipsius {Mil. Rom.y 5. 5.), *< Decumana a cohortilms deeinUs, ibi 
tendentibuSf sic dicta." 

4. Versari. " To be busily employed." Fcr»an may otherwise 
be considered here as equivalent merely to the simple esse. — ^iVtf- 
dpitesfuga, &c. " Consigned themselves headlong to flight." 

5. AlOque aliam in partem, &c. ** And, being greatly alarmed, 
they were carried some in one direction, others in another," i e., 
they betook themselves to flight m different directions. 

|5. Quorum inter GaUos, &c. " Of whose valour there is & pe- 
caliarly high opinion among the Grauls." 

7. Diversos dissipatosque. *' Each in a different quaiter, and 
scattered here and there." Diversos is here equivalent to dios 
mlio loco. 

8. Ab deeinue legunds eohortoHane. Lipsius (Elect. 2, 7) bo«i- 
ly, but without any authority, conjectures cum decima legwnis vo- 

0. Urgeri. ~*< To bo hard pressed." Sigma tn unum loasm wt- 
l§Sia. "The standards having been brought togethoi ii^N) ^m 

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place,*' i. e , in consequence of their having been biocight, dx.— 4g 
SUn if sot. Mjre elegant than nftt «^n*» the common reading. 

10. Omnibus centuriombus. There were six centuiions in each 
cohort. — Signo amisso. To lose the standarda was esteemed veiy 
disgraceful among the Romans, and the standard-bearer was pun- 
ished with death, if the loss was occasioned hj any misconduct of 
his. Sometimes a commander, m order to urge on his soldierSi 
threw the standard into the midst of the foe. Compare lap's. MiL 

^ Ram. 4, 5 

11. Primopilo. <'The chief centurion of the legion.'' The 
first centurion of the first maniple of the Triarii received this name. 
He was also called primus pdus, was intrusted with the eagle or 
main standard of the legion, ranked among the equites as regarded 
pay, and had a place in the council of war with the consul and 

12. Ut. "So that."— TariiorM. "Less active in their exof- 
tions." — Et normullos, &c. "And that some in the rear, being 
deserted by their leaders," i. e., having no teaders or inferior officens 
to urge them on to the fight. 

13. Afronte. "In front." — SubeunUs, "Coming up." 

14. Etrem essein emgusto. "And that afiairs were desperate.? 
Supply loco, and compare the Greek paraphrast : KaX rd rpSyt** ^ ^ 
r^ iexdr^ *1vm. Appian {de Reb. Gall. 4) makes Caesar to have 
been for a time completely encompassed on the hill by the forces of 
the Nervii : tU X^^oy rivi fxri rShr inr«wrtvr&v wetpny&ra wt^iiryw 

15. Ab fiovissimis, &c. " Having been snatched by him fiom a 
soldier in the rear." Urn milifi is by a Hellenism fotab uno miUU. 
According to Floras (3, 10), the soldier was at the time in the act 
of fleeing from the battle. Celsus, however, makes hun to have 
been contending with but Uttle spirit. 

16. Signa inferred &c. " He ordered the troops to advance and 
open their files." Literally, " to extend, or widen, their maniples." ' 
They had been previously crowded together ; he now ordered them 

to station themselves apart, or at intervals from each other, and in 
this way to keep the maniples distinct. 

17. Cujus. Equivalent to hujus, as it begins the clause. Tlw 
common text has hujus, but it is less elegant. — BtddnUgraio ammo. 
" Their courage having revived." Literally, " being renewed." 

18. Pro se. " To the best of his ability." Equivalent to pro 
tua mrHi parte. — In extremis sms rebus. " In tlie last extremitr 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 

294 NOT158 ON THB 8BC0N]> fiOOK. 

45 of ftheir affairs,'* i e.» wfae&tlieir afiain were in the last exUnapstf. 
Compare the Greek paraphiaat : h nk xaXmwr^Craif wpdy/mn. 

47 1. LegioiuM. The seventh and twelfth. — Et eonversa ^tgna, 
itjc. " And should advance with a double front against the foe." 
Caimertere signa properly means, " tS face abont," and the liteial 
signification of the claose, therefore, is, '* should advanse the stacid- 
ards turned about against the foe."' It must be borne in mindp 
however, that, when the legions united, the seventh formed in the 
rear of the twelfth. When, therefore, the word was given, amver- 
tere signa, the seventh faced about against the foe in their rear, and 
the two legions then stood back to back, the twelfth having con- 
tinue all the time facing in front. In this way converga signa vnn 
ferre^ which, elsewhere, would mean " to face about and advance," 
gets here the signification, *■* to advance with a double front." The 
passage is generally misunderstood by commentators, but the mean 
ing is well expressed by Count Turpin de Criss^ : " Cisar crdonnt 
aux offidera de fairt jomdre peu a peu Us deux Ugumsy et, rhmies^ 
de s^adoseer Vune a Pautre, faisant front de Ume les edth." 

2. Ne aversi, &c. " Lest, beings turned away, they should be 
surrounded by the enemy," i. e., of being attadsed behind and sur 
founded. Their rear was defended by the other legion, who now 
stood with their back's towards them, and fronting the foe. 

3. Cursu incitato, <*Advancmg at full speed." Literally 
'* their pace being quickened." 

4. Decimam. Plutarch erroneously makes it the twelfth. 

5. Versaretur. " Were." Equivalent to esset. — Nihil ad cela- 
ritatem, &c. " Made all the haste they could." liiterally, ** caused 
nothing to remain unaccomplished by them as regarded speed." 
The Greek paraphrast gives this elegant expression rather tamely 

6. ProcyJbuMtent, '* Had reclined upon the ground." — ScuHk 
innmi. '* Having supported themselves on their shields." 

7. Etiam vnarmeSf &c. ''Even though unarmed encountered 
them armed." — DeUrent. " They might wipe away." 

8. Omnibus in tocis, &c. " Put themselves forward m every 
quarter for the fight before the legionary soldiers," i. e., strove U 
surpass them in valour. The common text has omnibus tn loeu 
jntgnabantf quo «^,'&c., which is not a bad reading ■ 

9. Prasiiterunt. " Displayed." — Jacentibus vnaiaterent. " Stood 
on them as they lay." — His. Referring to those just mentioned 
who had been standing on, am' ^hfing from, the bodies of theii 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


10. Uti ex hunulo, ** As if from an eminence.'' Compare the ^f 
<3reek paraphrase : * &t U nvbg y«A4^v, *' As from a kind of hill." 

11. Ut non neqvddqiLam, &c. '* So that it ought to be concluded, 
that men of so great valour had not, without good reason, dared to 
cross a veiy hroad river, aftend very high banks, enter upon a very 
disadvantageous position; for their resolute spirit had rendered 
these things easy from having been most difficult," i. e., their con- 
duct on this occasion v^as not the mere result of a momentary im- 
pulse, but in perfect accordance with the opinion always entertained 
of their valour. Nequidquam is here equivalent to ' -^/^/r^vor sins - 
causa. The Greek paraphrast renders it by fufniv. 

12. Redegerat* In the aetnae of reddtderat. The term, as Davies 
observes, is one of unconmion occurrence, though used by Cesar 
B. G. 4, 3, *^ VeciigaUs siH fecerunt ae muUo hunUHores infimd 
oresque redegerunty 

13. Prope ad intemeeumem redacto. " Being almost extennma 
ted." Literally, *^ reduced to extermination." So iniemeavumbd 
turn, ** a war of extermination ;" inUmecwum odktm, " a deadly 
hatred," i. e., which is only to be satisiied by the destruction of 
one ok other of the parties. 

14. JEstuaria ae peUttdes. *' The low grounds and fens." By 
astuaria are here meant low grounds, in which the waters settle 
afler an inundation or heavy rains. The term autuanum, however, 
is generally applied to an estuary, or arm of the sea, where the tide 
ebbs and flows'! — Dixerawus. Consult chapter 16. 

1. NihUimpeditum. "That nothing was a hinderance," i. e. £8 
that nothing was too difficult. — VictU nikU ttOum. " That nothii^ 
was safe for the vanquished." 

2. SuUqiu fimbuw^ &c. " And directed them to continue to 
occupy their own territories and towns," i. e., allowed them to re- 
tain their lands and towns. 

3. IHnere. In one of the MSS. itere occurs, which is the o]4 
form of declining : viz., itery iterisj iteri, &c. 

4. Oppidum. Thought by D'Anville to have been situate on the 
kiU where stands the modem Falais. 

6. Qaod mm ex tmmUnis, &c. " For whfle it had on every side 
icvond about, very steep rocks, and commanded a view of the coon 
tiy below." Literally, " very high rocks and lookings down."— 
(^uem locum. Referring to the approach to the town. 

6. Ipsi. The Adustici. — Ex Cimhrit. Appian enoneoosly 
nakes th's remark concerning the Nervii (de Reh. QaU. 4). Bw 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


4g CmsIim, on the other hand, giree the coirect acooiiiift» in acco(Edft.«fl 
with Casar** (39, 4). 'Arovmniui mi ti yitog fd n fpiwu^m 

7. Homvnwm, After this word ahnost all the editioiit have una 
But it IB difficult to conceiye what n^d there la of it in the sen- 
tence, and it is more than probable that it arose from the caieleM 
repetition, on the part of some copyist, of the termination of hmnur 
foim. It is found, however, in almost all the MSS. But still, aa 
it does not appear in others, and is omitted by the Greek paraphiast, 
we have thrown it out from our text. 

8. Post eorum obttum, " After the destruction of their countiy- 
men." Referring to the disastrous overthrow of the Cimbri and 
Teutones by Marius.— i?2i^aA'. ** paving been harassed." 

9. Cum aliaSf &c. '*'VVhen at one time they made war on 
them, at another warded it off when made upon themselves," i. e., 
when at one time they acted on the offensive, at another on the de- 

10. ExeurMiones. « Sallies.*'— Porra/is fraUis, "In sUght 

11. Pedum duodecim. " Of twelve feet in height." Supply in 

12. Turrim. This was a moveable tower, to be brought forward 
on wheels. Consult Arohsological Index. 

13. Quo. "For what purpose." This is the reading of Lipsitts, 
Scaliger, and others. The MSS. and early editions have quod, 
Oudendorp thinks that perhaps quoi had been used hero and else- 
where, for which cui was in later times the prevalent form. 

49 ^' ^^^ magnitudine^ dec. " Compared with the large size ol 
their own frames." — In murot. " Near th* waUs." Equivalent 
*o juxta muros, 

2. Moveri et appropinquare. " Was set in motion, and was ap- 
proaching." — Adhuncmodum. " After this manner," or "to this 

3. Non, To be joined in construction with sine. — Qun pttsent* 
" Since they were able." 

4. Et ex piropinquUate pugnare. These woids are omitted in 
many MSS. As they aro retained, however, by others of good note, 
sod are translated also by the Greek paraphrast, we have deemed U 
best to retain them. 

6. Unum petere ae depreean. " That they begged and earnestly 
entreated one tiling."— Pre sua ckmM^ dec. •'* In accfxdanoe 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


with his wonted clemency and compassioii.*' — Audirent. The tub- 49 
tanctiYe is here used, because it refers to the sentiments of the 
speakers, not to those of the historian, and heac^aadirent is equiv- 
alect, in fact, to '' had heard, as they said." 

6. Sibi'prasiare. *' Th«t it was better for them."— >Si t» eum 
eanan deducerentur, *^ If they should be reduced to that state." 
More literally, " to that unhappy conditi<»L" 

7. Per cruciaimn interfici. ** To be tortured to death." 

8. Magis cofututudine, &c. **In accordance rather with his 
usual custom, than ircMn any merit on their part," i. •., than because 
ihey were at all deserving of lenity.-— iirw. Consult Aichsolog- 
acal Index. HARomans generally spared those who suorendered 
before the battering-ram struck their walls. 

9. In NervUs. *< In the case of the Nervii ■" The common tetl 
has in Nervios, which is an inferiw reading. Consult Bumnarmf 
id QyintU. Ded, 15, 6. 

10. Facere, The present with the force of the future. Consult 
Sanct, Min, 1, 14, and Perizanms, ad loc, 

11. Muri aggerisque. The wall was that of the town, while the 
agger or movjid was that of the Komans. The anus were cast 
between the wall and mound. 

12. Subvesperunu '* Towards erening." 

1. PrtEsidia dedueturos. *' Would draw off the guards." — AiU ^(| 
deniquej 6lc, ** Or, at least, would keep watch less carefully 'than 
usual." Denique is here equivalent to saltern. Compare Seneca, 

de Ira, 3, 18, *' Quid instabat 1 quod periculum out privatum out 
'mblicum una nox minabatur ? quaniulum fuitj lucem exspectare ^ 
iemque ite senatores Populi Romam soleatus ocddereV^ 

2. PeUihts induxeraaU. " They had covered with hides.'*— Ter 
iia vigiUa, The third watch began at twelve and ended at three. 

8. Ignilnu, " By signal-fires.^' Compare the Greek paraphrase, 
wmfmtals. — ProximU. Nearest that part of the town from v^jp^ 
the sally was made. 

4 Ita aeriter, dec. " As fiercely as it ought to have been fbug^ 
by bcave men," dec., i. e., with that spirit which might have beeik 
flxpected from brave men so situated. 

6. Occisis ad hammum, &c. '* About four thousand havmg beei^ 
dain." The preposition is here to be rendered as an adverb, thoQ^ 
when: the ellipsis is supplied, it will be found to govern a case as 
usual : thus, oecisis naUibus homnum ad numerum quatuor millium 
Compare the remarks of Perizonius, ad Sanct. Min. 1 16. 

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50 0- RtfraOu porA*, ** The gates being broken open." Stm^ 
than the simple fraeits. — Quum jam defenderei nemo. The eari> 
editions add captum oppidum, probably from a gloss. 

7. Seciionem ejus oppidi, 6lc. *' Csesar sold all the booty of thai 
town**' i. e.» sold all the inhabitants as slaves, and their effects a.?ng 
with them. The inhabitants constituted the principal booty of the 
place. The primitive meaning of seeUo is a cutting, or dividini^ 
into small portions. It is then applied to the purchasing of the booty 
of a captured place, or of the goods of a condemned or proscribed 
person ; because the purchaser, in such cases, bought by the quan- 
tity, and sold out in small portions to others, or, as we would say, 
by retail. Sometimes, however, as in the preitat instance, the 
term sectio is taken to denote the booty or goods themselves. Oux 
own expression, " retail,'' from the French retailUry which is itself 
compounded of re and tadller, " to cut," illustrates very forcibly the 
peculiar meaning of sectio. 

8. Ah his qui emerarU, &c. " The return made to him by those 
who had purchased, was fifty-three thousand souls." Literally, 
** there was returned unto him, by those who had purchased, the 
aumber of fifly-three thousand heads." The highest bidders made 
returns to Caesar of the number which they had respectively bought, 
and the sum total was 63,000. Compare the Greek paraphrase : 
•t F iovn^dfunoi ^^piftv c7vai i^aoav it^pfiv wivroKtvitv^Unr xei nptox'^^^' 

9. Oeecamm. The Atlantic. The tribes refeired to in the text 
were situated in the westernmost portion of Gaul, partly along the 
coast from the Liger (Loiro) to the Sequana (Seine), and partly a 
short distance in tiiie Interior. 

10. lUyricum. Cesar's authority extended over Illyricum, which 
had been given him with the province of Gaul. 

11. Dies qmndedm, &c. ** A thank^ving for fifteen days was 
decreed." A supplicatio, or thanksgiving, was decreed by the sen- 
ate for any signal victoiy, and was solemnly made in aU the tem- 
ples. On such occasions, the senators and people at large, crowned 
with garlands, attended the sacrifices. A leetistemmm also took 
place, couches being spread for the gods, as if about to feast, and 
their images being taken from their pedestals, and placed upon 
these couches, round the altars, which were loaded with the richest 
dishes. Comparo the language of Plutardi in relation to the pres- 
ent occasion {Vit. Ctts, c. 21). 'H vOyKhini itsmitaQum %4pm 

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1. Quo. "By which.** Sapply ihnere. — Magnis^iue cum por- 52 
-ttriis, " And with heavy imposts." It was this circmnnance that 
caused the articles, which were brought into Gaul by fhe traders, 

ti>t the use of Caesar^s army, to command so high a price, and Cs- 
sar, therefore, wished to lower this price, by breaking up the system 
Af taxation which the inhabitants of the Alps had imposed upon all 
merchandise conveyed through their country. Portorium originally 
signified the duty levied on goods in a harbour (in portu)y whence 
'he name. The signification was afterward extended, and, as in 
the present instance, denoted the tax paid for liberty to carry goods 
through a particular country. 

2. Hie. "This village." Supply vicus. — Flumine. Orosius, 
6, 8, gives (orrente. The Greek paiaphrast omits the term. 

3. Bum locum, " This latter part," i. e., that part of the village 
in which the cohorts were, to have their winter quarters. 

4. Hihemorum. " Of their wintering," i. e., of their being in 
winter quarters. The term hibema usually signifies the winter quar- 
ters themselves ; it is here, however, taken for the tune of remain- 
ing in them. 

6. Id aUquGt de causis, (&c. ** It had happened, on several ac- 
counts, that the Gauls had suddenly formed the design of renew- 
ing 'the war and crushing the legion." 

1. NequeeampUnissimam, ** Which was not, in fact, a complete 53 
one." More literally, ''nor it completely fall." Equivalent to et 
earn quidem nan plenissimam. Compare Cic. Phil. 2, 18, " Certa 
ffagitH merces, nee ea parva ;" and Liv. 5, 83, " Prater sonum Un- 
guaj nee eum ineorruptum retinent. By legio plenissima is meant 
one ynih the full complement of men as fixed by the usage or law 

of the day. This complement varied at different times. Consult 
Archaeological Index, and compare note 23, page 6. 

2. SmgiUatim. " Individually.^ Compare the explanation of 
Moras : Singuhrum mihtum, qui singuU diseesserarU. 

8 Deeurrerent. " Should run down." Compare the Onek, 

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53 iaviHv KaraBpajtoviUvmv. — Ne pritnum pidtUm, &c. Thfi commoa 
text has suum after impetunif on the authority of some MSS., an^ 
sustineri instead of stuHnere. The reading which we have adopt- 
ed is far more elegant, and harmonizes with the Greek parafiaase ; 
OhH rhv ir^Anjv e^wr &p/i^ rod; 'Pm/iaiovf Si^toBai. With sustinere we 
must supply legtonem Ulam. 

4. Accedebal "Another reason was." More literally, *^to 
this was added." — Sttos ab sty &c. "That their children were 
torn from them," &c. 

6. Sibi perstuuum habebant. " They were firmly persuaded.' 
More literally, " they had it persuaded unto themselves." 

6. Cum neque opus, 6lc. " As neither the labour of constructing 
winter quarters, and the requisite fortifications, were completed." 
More literally, " completely gone through with." Bavies, Moms, 
and many other commentators, regard opus hibemorum munUionet" 
que as a hendiadys for opus 'munitionum hibemamm^ " the labour 
of fortifying winter quarters." This, however, is incoirect. Opus 
hibemorum refers to the erecting of suitable buildings to accommo- 
date the soldiers, and also of hospitals, armories, workshops, &c., 
all of which were contained in the winter quarters of the Romans. 

7. Neque de frumento, &c. " Nor had a sufficient supply ot 
graia and other provisions been procured." HMore literally, "nor 
had sufficient provision been made with respect to grain and other 

8. Nequ^ subsidio veniri. The verb veniri is here taken imper- 
sonally, posset being understood. " Neither could assistance come 
to them." Literally, " neither could it be come unto them with 

9. Ad salviem corUenderent. "They should hasten to some 
place of safety." — Majori tamcn parti placuit. " It pleased, how 
ever, the greater part," i e., it was the opinion of the majority oi 
the council. 

10. Hoc constlio. Referring to the design, as reconmiended, oi 
Imving their baggage behind, and sallying forth from their wintM 

U. Rei everUum experiri. "To await the issue." Literally, 
'* to try the issue of the affair " 

19. CoUocartdis atque admirustrandis. " For arranging and ex- 
«onting." — Decurrere, The historical infinitive for decum^ani. 
So eonjicere for eonjidehaiit, repugiuare for repugndbant^ &c. Com* 
pare note 8, page 10. 

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18. Gasajue. " And jaTelins.'* The^^entfnwuftGaiiicjaTe- 53 
Un, entirely of iron. Compare Hesychha, ymtvh i/MXtw iXoatavpov, 
and Pollux, 7, 33. The latter makes it to have been used also by 
the Aiiicans. Senrius is equaUy explicit, but teims it a GraUic 
nreapon. ">Pt/uni, proprie est haata Romano, tU Ges$a GaUo- 
rvm,** Compare iS. Augustin, loc. de Josue, lib. 6, *' SeptuagmtA 
interpretes, qui posuerunt Geson (Joa. 8, IS), miror, si et in Grctca' 
lingua hastam vellanceam GaUieanam inUlligivoluerunt, ea quippt 
dicwntwr Gesa,** Consult Adelung, Gloss. Med. et Inf, Lot. vol. 
ill., p. 785. 

14. Integris mrihus. "While their strength was fresh.*' — Fnis- 
tra. " In vain," i. e., without effect. — Ex loco miperiore. " From 
the higher position which they occupied," i. e., from the rampart on 
which they stood. 

15. Eo occurrere. " Thither they ran." Oecurro here denotes, 
" to run up to and confront." Cssar means, that, whereyer dangei 
presented itself, thither the Roman soldiers ran and met it. 

16. Sed hoc superarL " But in this they were overcome," \. e. 
the enemy had in this the advantage over them. 

17. Quod dmturmtaJte pugna, 60c, '* Because the enemy, wea^ . 
ried by the long continuance of their exertions, from time to time 
kept retiring from the battle, while others kept succeeding to them 
with fresh strength." Pugna, when opposed, as in the present in- 
stance, to pralium, denotes the closeness of the fight, and the phys- 
ical exertions of the combatants. Pralium, on the contrary, ex- 
presses rather the state of the battle, in whatever manner conducted. 
Pugna, too, may be either long or short, with or without prepara- 
tion .; whereas pralium refers to a contest of some length, for which, 
generally, preparation is made. Cromhie, Gymn. vol. i., p. 128. 

1. Paucitatem. "Their smallness of number." Literally «|^ 
" their fewness." — Non modo. Put for non modo non. Compare 
note 6, page 43. — Sui recipiendi. " Of recovering himself," i. e., 

of having his wound attended to, and of otherwise reinvigorating 

2. Dejicerent, " Were failing."— .4«jtt«. « While. "—Xan^ 
dioribusque nostris, &c. " And, our men growing every moment 
more and more faint, had begun to hew down the rampart," dec. 

9. Ad extremum casum. " To the last extremity." 
4. Primi pili ceniurio. " The chief centurion of the legion," i 
e. , tho first centurion of the first maniple of the tiiarii. PrvmopUus 
las already occurred in the second book (c. 26), as a military title 

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54 ^pli^ ^0 ^0 oldest centurion (compare note 11, page 46). Hen, 
however, though the same office is meant, the eipreraion changes, 
and centurio primi pili is employed. In this latter case, the term 
piiuSt from which pUi comes in the genitive, stands for centuria. 
Thus, Forcellini remarks, " Differunt autem primipilus et primus 
pilus ; nam primus pilus esi prima centwria; primipilus vero eju» 
tenturia dtictor." Compare B. G. 6, 35, " Superiore anno pri- 
mum pilum duxerat ;" and SueUm. Calig, 44, " Plerisque eenturUh 
many maiuris jam^ prtmos pilos ademU." The term pihu gets this 
meaning, from the circumstance of the soldiers composing it heing 
armed with the javelin or pilum. 

6. Diximus. Compare B. G. 2, 25. — Tribumts mHitum. Com- 
pare note 5, page 23, and consult Archaeological Index. 

6. Unam esse spem saiutis. " That the only hope of safety 
was," i. e., that their only chance of saving themselves consisted 
in making a sally. — Extremum aurilium. " A last resource.'' 

7. Convocatis centuriombxts. The centurions were called to- 
gether, in order that the necessary instructions might be passed 
through them to the soldiers. — CeUriter Tnilites, &,c, " He quickly 
gives orders to the soldiers through them." Literally, "inf<»ins 
the soldiers." 

8. Exctperent. " To take up." Compare the Greek, ^vXdrrtip, 
As their own missiles had begun to fail them, they were directed to 
supply themselves, with a sufficient number for the intended sally, 
from the javelins cast by the enemy. 

9. Omnibus portis. A Roman encampment had always four 
gates, porta pmtoriay in front ; decumana, in the rear, opposite the 
former; principalis dextra, on the right; principalis sinistra, on 
the left. Consult Archaeological Index. 

10. Nequ£ cognoscendif &c. " They allow the enemy no op- 
portunity either of ascertaining what was doing, or of rallying them- 

11. In spem, &c.. " Had entertained the hope of getting pos- 
session of the camp." Literally, " had come into the hope." 

12. Plv^ tertia parte. Celsus gives 10,000 as the number of 
the slam, Orosius 30,000. 

13. Fusis armisque exutis. ''Being routed and stripped of 
their arms." 

14. Alio consilio. " With one view," i. e., for one purpose. — 
Aliis occurrisse rebus. " That he had encountered things very dif- 
erent from this,'* i. e., had been unexpectedly involved in matters 

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fcrf diffeient from the object which had called him thither. He 54 
bad come to make the route over the Alps safer and less expensiye 
for the traders, but had met with things quite different in tbeir na- 
tur^ namely, an insurrection on the part of the Gauls, and hard 
fighting. He prudently resolved, therefore, to try fortune no farther. 

1. OmnUnu de causisy <kc. " Cssar had every reason to sup- 55 
ix>se that Gaul was reduced to a state of peace." More literally^ 

** imagined from all reasons." Compare, as regards the force o^ 
pacatamf the Greek paraphrase : rj)v FaXartav tlptivtiaOai. 

2. Atque itOf &c. ** And when he had, therefore, set out for II- 
^yricum, in the beginning of winter." With atque supply cum. 
Some editions omit the preposition before lUyricum. This lattei 
country, as has already been remarked, formed part of Caesar^s gov 

H. Mare Oceanum. "The ocean," i. e., the Atlantic. Ocea 
nam, added here to maref shows the sense in which the latter ternr 
is V be taken, as referring, namely, to the Atlantic, and not to thr 
Mediterranean. Compare Catullus, 115, 6, ** Usque ad Hyper 
horeoSf et mare ad Oceanum ;" Pomp. Mela, 2, 6, " PaukUim se h 
nostrum et Oceanum mare extendit ;" and L. Ampelius, lib. mem 
c. I, * AtquCy ex qua mare Oceanum.*^ 

4. Prafectos tribunosque militum. By prtefectt militum are hen 
meant the officers of the allies, of equal rank with the tribuni miH ' 
tumy or officers of the Roman troops. Each Roman legion con 
taiued six tribuni militum, and each legion of the allies six pra eeh 
militum. Consult Archsological Index. 

5. Dimisit. They were not sent for the puipose of employing 
*brce, but to procure the corn by asking it from the Gauls. Hence 
'he term legati, or ** ambassadors," is applied to some of them n 
chapters 9 and 16. 

6. Sdentia atque usu. " In the knowledge and experience." — • 
fn WAgno vmpetu maris atque aperto. " Amid the strong and ouv> 
spread ocean su^e." Cesar means, that the heavy swells of the At- 
lantic compelled the small Gallic vessels to keep close to the shore, 
and to run into the harbours of the Veneti whenever a storm threat- 
ened. This circumstance, of course, rendered them, in a mannoi, 
tributary to that nation. The term aperto is applied to the Atlantic 
in contradistinction to the Mediterranean, where there is land oc 
every side. Forcellini explains impetus maris, m this passage, t>) 
** SpaUum et latitude maris, uJn Uberefertur impetusuo atqiu agt 


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55 teMr.' 80 in Lneiethu, 6» 201, trnpete* eoeli is eiplaimd bjr Qi* 
fanius {CoiUei, p. 859) as meaning eelerrimuM coeH ambitut. 

7. Ipsi. Referring to the Veneti. — VecHgaUs. " Trilmtaiy to 
them," i. e., the Veneti levied a legular tax or impost upon them. 

8. Ut 9untt &c. " Since the resoUes of the Gaols are alwajra 
nasty and sudden." Ut is here employed in an ezplanatoiy sense. 
Consult TurweUimUf de Part. Lot, p. 448, ed. Bakey. 

9. Ornms. The accosatiye plural for omntt. Some, with less 
propriety, make it the genitive singular, agreeing with/oitume. 

10. MalUrU. There » no necessity for substituting nudini 
Casar, on other occasions, also uses the imperfect subjunctiye after 
the present tense : thus, B. C. 2, 39, " Aeeelerat ut posset ,-" B. 
C. 8, 109, " Ut in potestaU haheret, effUit ;" B. Afr, 37, " Imperai 
ut essent pr<uto,^* 6cc. 

11. Suo9. ** His countrymen." Referring to those persons 
whom they had detained. 

•|() 1. Quod ipse aberat Umgtus, " Since he himself was at too 
great a distance,'* i. e., could not come at once to the scene 01 
action and superintend the preparations in person. 

2. Naves Umgas. *♦ Vessels of war." The rmoes Umga were 
so called, from their being much longer than vessels of burden 
{naves oneraria). They were impelled chiefly by oars, the ships 
of burden by sails. Consult Archsological Index. 

3. Remiges, Freedmen and slaves were employed as marines 
and rowers. — Institui. " To be raised." 

4. Quantum in se^ &c. " How great a crime they had com 
mitted against themselves,*' i. e., how much they had injured them- 
selves by their violation of the rights of the Roman ambassadors. 
(Compare note 6, page 55.) This conduct would recoil upon them- 

5. Quod nomen. **A title, which," i. e., a class of persons 
who. We may very reasonably doubt, whether the persons hen 
alluded to came under the denonunation of ambassadors. CBsar, 
however, was determined to regard them in this light, and, thero- 
'oie, made their detention a plea for hostilities. 

6. Pro magnitudine. " In proportion to the greatness."— JXbb 
majore tpe. ** With the greater confidence on this account." 

7. Pedestria esse itinera, 6lc. ** They knew that the approaches 
by land were interrupted by arms of the sea» and that access by sea 
was difficult through our ignorance of the country and the fewness 
of harbaurs." Pedeatt xaitxntra, literally, "the foot-roads." So 

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mangMiufntm tmjpedUam^ literally, " that navigation was embar- /|g 


8. Neque nostras, &c. " And they were confident, that our ar- 
mies could not remain for any length of time among them," 6lc. — 
Ac jam, ut omnia, 6lc. ** And, besides, even though all things 
should turn out contrary to their expectations." Ut is here ele- 
gantly used for qtiamvis, 

9. Ac longe aliam, &c. " And that the navigation was far other 
in a confined sea, than in a very wide and open ocean,'' i. e., was 
very dififerent in a confined sea from what it was in a very wide, &c. 
The confined sea is the Mediterranean, to the navigation of which 
the Romans were accustomed. 

10. In Venetiam. The accusative implies, that they were brough; \ 
io the country of the Veneti from other quarters. The ablative 
would have denoted, that the vessels were abready at different parts 

of the coast of that country, and were merely brought together to 
9ome general place of assemblage. 

1 1 . Erant ha^&xi. " "Were such as we have abready mentioned. *' 
18. Injuria retentorum, &c. ** The insolent wrong done in de- 
taining Roman knights.*' Injuria is here what grammarians term 
the plural of excellence, and hence, in translating, is entitled to an 
epithet, in order to express its force more fully. The^ peculiar force 
of the genitive will also be noted by the student. CsBsar does not 
mean the wrong sufiered by the Roman knights in their private ca- 
pacity, but the insult offered to the state by detaining its ambassadors. 
The Greek paraphrase gives the meaning very clearly ; 9 rt eh 
Pw/iclov; C^fM( ro& rod; lintias*FttiuUovs Karaoj^tiv, 

13. Defectio datis obsidibus, " A revolt after hostages had been 
given.'' The student will mark the difference between defectio and 
rebelUo. The former denotes a mere ** revolt," or refusal of obedi- 
Rnce to established authority. RebeUio, on the other hand, means 
'^ a renewal of hostilities." 

14. Hoe parte neglecta. *^ If this part were overlooked," i. e. 
me movements in this part of Gaul. Strabo (4, 4, p. 195, Cas.) 
assigns a reason, for the commencement of hostilities against tbe 
Veneti, far iiifferent from any here mentioned by Caesar. He says 
that this nation were prepared to interfere with that commander's 
sailing to Britain, since they had this island as an emporium or 
mart : froc^oi yip ifvav KulXittt rhv iU r^v Bpirraviidiv irXoSv, Xfx^MC r^ 

15 Notis ubus atudere. ^<Are fond of change." The lefe^ 

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gg ence is in particular to changes of gOTemment or authoiity.—jy-i^ 

ra libertati stvdere. " Are naturally desirous of freedom '* 
57 1- AuxUio. The MSS., with only a single exception, give aiat 
iUo. This exception is in the case of one of the earliest of the nuni 
ber, which reads in auxilio, * among the auxiliaries." If severa 
MSS. confirmed this lection, observes Oudendoip, I should not con 
demn it. 

2. Cum cohortibus legumariis duodedm. Each legion was divi- 
ded mto ten cohorts. Csesar sent, therefore, one complete legion and 
two cohorts besides. 

3. GaUiam. Celtic Gaul is meant, or Gaul properly so called. — 
Conjungantur. " Become united," 1. e., form a union against him. 

4. Qui earn manum, <Scc. " To keep that force from effecting a 
junction with the rest." Literally, ** to take care that that body ot 
men should be kept separated or apart." Compare the Greek, n)» 
Utbmv i^vaiav Sutpyttv. 

5. D, BnUum. Not to be confounded with M. Brutus, one of 
the conspirators against Cssar. Consult Historical Index. 

6. Situs. " The situations." — In extremis lingtUist dec. '" On 
the extreme points of tongues of land and promontories." The lin- 
gidiB are lower than the promontorii. Compare the remark of Fes- 
tus : " Lingua est Pramontarii quoque genua non exceUentis, sed mcl- 
liter in planum devexiV 

7. Cum ex aUoy 6cc. '* When the tide had come in from the 
. deep," i. e., ^hen it was full tide. — Qtwd *w aecidit, &c. We 

have adopted the emendation of Bertius, as proposed by him in 
Sallengre's Thesaurus Ant. Rom. vol. ii., p. 948, namely, vignUt 
^uatuor, or XXIV., in place of the common reading, duodecim, or 
XII. The ordinaiy lection is a blunder either of Cssar's or som9 
copyist's, most probably the latter, since, where the motion of the 
water is free, as on the shores of th^ Atlantic Ocean, the period 
which elapses between two successive tides is never less tha;* 
twelve hours and eighteen minutes, nor more than twelve hours 
and forty-two minutes. Perhaps, after all, the reading of the Ox- 
ford MS. is the true one, which omits the word bis, but retains 

8. Quod mrsus, &lc. *^ Because when the tide again ebbed, the 
ships were thrown upon the shoals." With minuente supply sese. 
The student will note the expression in vaJUs. Csesar uses this 
form and not in vada^ to denote that the vessels not only struck 
upon the shoals, but remained ther^ The expression *n vada^ on 

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Jtue other hand, wouid refer merely to theii striking. Moiius, in his ^7 
Index Lot., explains adJUctari by veluti futreniem tCHeri, but, as we 
ha?e just remarked, this idea is rather derived from in vadis than 
from the verb itself. 

9. Utraque re. " By either circumstance," i. e., in either case, 
whether the tide were high or low. 

10. Magnitudine operis. " By the greatness of our works."— 
Superati. Referring to the townsmen, and equivalent to vieti, 
** overcome," or oveipowered. Moras eironeously makes it the 
genitive singular, agreeing with operU in the sense of " completed," 
or. to use his own words, " absoluti, adjinem perducti." 

1 1 . Extruso mari, &c. ** The sea being forced out by a mound 
axid large dams." We have here, in reality, a species of hendiadys 
The terms digger and moles both refer to the same works, the former 
denoting their intended military use, as a mound on which to erect 
towers and plant machines ; the latter refeiring to their being made to 
serve also as a species of dike or dam against the waters of the ocean. 
Lipsius makes extruso equivalent here to ezcluso. In this he is 
wrong. It is more properly to be explained by svhmato ac veluii 
repidso. Compare the Greek : i^atrOthtis ^tiifMei rif; ^aXdvmii* 

12. Atqtu hiSf &c. " And these being almost made equal in 
height to the walls of the town." His refers to the mound and 
dams, or, keeping up still the idea of a hendiadys, to the mound 

13. Appulso, ^ Being brought to'the spot.** AppeUere is, liter- 
ally, to impel or bring to any place, by either oars or sails, or both. 
—CujtLS reif 6cc. *< Of which kind of foice they had a large sup- 
ply. Compare the Greek : abr&v (scil. veSv) ih-Kopowns* 

14. Magms asHlnis, d&c. ** Where the tides ran high, and 
where there were few and almost no harbours." 

1. Facttt amuUcBque erant, "Were built and equipped," ^Q 
Amuiy besides its warlike reference, is used by the Latin writer* 

for instraments or implements of every kind, and, when applied to t 
vessel, denotes the rigging and equipment, either in whole or in 
par% according to the context. 

2. Carintt aliquwnto plwmeres. ** Their bottoms considerably 
flatter."— -Ba;«j?«rc. "To withstand." More literally, "to re» 
ceive" the collision of. Compare the Ghreek paraphrase : Im^pciff. 

3. Ad quamvis, &c. " For the purpose of enduring any foice 
and shock." ContumelioiBa here applied to inanimate objects, d^ 

any shock, brunt, or violence. — Transtra peddlihus, dec. 

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308 NOTES ON THE Ttit.^^x) uOuml, 

53 " The rowers' beDches, of beams a foot in breftdth, were fostenod 
down with iron spikes, of the thickness of one's thumb." 

4. Pelles pro velis, &c. "For sails they had raw hides, and 
thin dressed skins." Aluta^ from alumen, " alum," with which it 
was dressed, denotes the skin or hide after it has been convex ted 
into leather by the process of tanning. Pellis, the raw hide, or a 
•kin of any kind stripped off. 

6. Lint. "Of canvass.". Literally, " of linen."— JSJo. "On 
this account." — Quod est magis verisimUe, " As is more likely." 

6. Tanta onera navium. " So heavy vessels." — Satis commode. 
' With sufficient ease," i. e., very readily, or easily. 

7. Cum his navihus, &c. " The meeting of o-ir fleet with these 
vessels was of such a naiure, that the former had the advantage in 
agility, only and the working of the oars," i. e., in engaging with 
them, our ships had no advantage but in agility, &c. Gruter sus- 
pects that pulsu has been received into the text from a gloss in the 
margin of some MS., because one MS. has pulsu remorum incitar 
tione. His conjecture is very probably correct, as Cssar, on such 
eocasions, is accustomed to employ some part of incitare or inciiatio ; 
so that the true reading here would appear to have been indtations 
"emonunj or rather remorum indtatione. In either case, whether 
we have pulsu or incitatione, the literal reference is to the impulse 
given to the vessel by the oars, which we have rendered freely by 
the term "working." - 

%. Rdiqua. "All other thmgs." — Pro. "Considering."— 
TUis. Referring to the Gauls. 

9. Rostro. " With their beak." Ships of war had their prows 
aimed with a sharp beak, usually^covered vnth brass, vnth which 
they endeavoured to run into their antagonists' vessel. 

10. Facile telum adjieiebatur. " Was a dart easily thrown so 
as to reach." AdjicieboLtur is equivalent here to jaciebatur ad. 

11. Minus commode, dec. " They were less easily held by the 
grappling irons," i. e., the ships of the Veneti were too high to al- 
km the grappling irons of the Roman vessels to be conveniently ap* 
plied. We have given copulis (from copula) instead of the common 
leading scopulis. It is difficult to comprehend what the height of 
the Gallic vessels had to do with the rocks, but it is veiy easy to 
peiceive the bearing which it has as regards the application of grap- 
pling irons. The reading copuUs rests on the authority of the Pal- 
atine MS., and was first suggested by Hotomannus. It has been 
approved of by Bentley, Davies, Oudendorp, Moms* and manv 

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othen^ iSc:£ger» m order to save the common lection, conjectured 53 
ifitommode in place of commodcy but the original difficulty is not 
completely obviated by this emendation. ScaligeVs reading, how- 
ever, was followed by many editors until tibe time of Ckurk, wlu> 
restored eommode, 

12. Et se vento dtdisserU. These words labour very justly un- 
ler the suspicion of being a gloss, and, as such, they are enclosed 
<7}thin brackets by Oudendorp, in his smaller edition. 

13. In vadis consisterent tuHus. " Could lie with more safety 
among the shallows.'* 

14. Casus. "The chances," or dangers. — ExtimeseeniL 
"Greatly to be feared." 

15. Neque his noeeri posse. " Nor could any serious injury be 
done them." Noeeri is here used impersonally. — Expectandum, 
The common text has expeetandanit for which we have given expeC' 
tOTidum, with Drakenborch, on MS. authority. Consult DrakM. 
ad Liv. 40, 3S. 

16. Paratissimay &c. " In the best order, and the best prepa- 
red with every species of equipment.*' Arma here refers to the sails, 
ropes, and other things of the kind, not to arms. The Greeks use 
lirXa frequently in the same way : 7irXa, ra -His yei^s vxotvia, 

17. Quant rationem pugrut insisterent. " What mode of fighting 
they shotdd adopt." Ciacconius suggests instiiuerent for insiste- 
rent, but there is no necessity for the change. As Oudendorp re- 
marks, the' verb insistere involves the idea of ardour, zeal, and the 
most intense application to what we have in hand. 

1. Turribus autem excitatis. "While if towers should be raised.** QQ 
Snips, when about to engage, had towers erected on them, whence 
<itones and missive weapons were discharged from engmes. 

58. Satis commode. " With sufficient effect." — Gravius aecide- 
rent " Fell with greater force." 

3. Fakes prceacuttB. " Hooks with sharp edges towards the 
points." A description of these is given by Yegetius (4, 46), " Falx 
dieiiur acutissimum ferrum, eurvatum ad simUitudinem faldsj quod 
eontis Umgiaribua inditum, coUaiorios funes, quiius antenna ««•• 
penditur, repente praeidit,** dec. 

4. MuraHum faleium. " Mural hooks," i. e.» hooks used for 
pulling down the walls of besieged towns. Strabo calls them 

6. Comprehensi addueiique erant. " Were grappled and puUed 
Umaids ue." 

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59 6. ArmamerUisque. "And ligging.** The term ^rmamentm 
here refers to the ropes, sail-yards, &c.— Omni* usus navium 
All advantage from their ships.'' 

7. ReUquum erat cerUmen^ 6lc, *' The contest alterward de 
pended on yalour.*' Literally, " the rest of the contest,** &c. 

8. U nullum, &c. " So that no action a little braver toan crdi- 
nary could escape observation." 

9. Dejectis. The sail-yards were thrown down (i. e., fell by 
xeason of the ropes being cut), either upon the deck of the vessel, 
or into the sea. The common reading, disjeeiis, is erroneous, and 
does not suit the case. Compare the Greek paraphrase, KaraShfiivrmv. 

10. Cum nnguldSf 6lc. " When two and three of our ships, a1 
a time, had surrounded a single one of the enemy's." Some editon 
enoneuusly refer Inna ac tenuB nave* to the Gallic vessels, and sin- 
guUs to the Roman, giving cum the meaning of " although." The 
Greek peraphrast understands the passage correctly : S6o ^ rptXs r6v 
'Fmfutmv «^<f ft/av r&v icokifAmw icipittraour. 

11. Transcendere inhosHum naves, "To board the enemies' 

12. Quo venius ferebai. " Whither the wind bore them."— 
Malacia, ae tranquiUitaa. " Calm and stiUness." Compare Fes- 
tus : " Flustra dicuntur cum in mart Jluctus non moventur, qman 
Gr<tci itakBuctav vocant. 

13. SinguUa conseetatit &c. " Having pursued, took them one 
by one." — Ut. " Insomuch that." — Hora quarta. Answering to 
ten o'clock in the morning, according to our mode of reckoning 

14. Chravioris atajtts, " Of more advanced years." The literal 
reference in gravioru is to the increasing burden of years. — Ali- 
quid ctnuilii out dignitatis, " Alight of wisdom or respectability." 
—Navium quod uhique fuerat. " What of ships they had anywherr 

gQ 1. In quos eo gravius^ &c. " Ctesar determined to punish them 
with the greater severity." 

2. Sub corona vendddit. " He sold as sUves." Various ex- 
planations are given to this phrase, some referring it to the eircla 
or ring {eonpna) of Roman soldiers, who stood around the captives 
during the sale ; others to the circumstance of the captives being 
ranged in a circle; the better to be inspected by purchaaeis ; and 
others again explain it by the nenoia who were sold wearing gar 
lands on their heads. This ou^ appears to be the tme iniwsi. 

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kflm the language of G»Iius Sabinus, and Cato, as quoted by Aului gQ 
GreUius (7, 4). The fonuer remarks, " SicuH antiquitusy manapia, 
mre belli capta, coronis induta %eniebant, et idcirco dicebantur mb 
corona venire" So also Cato : " Ut poptdus stui opera potius ob 
rem bene gestam coronatv^ suppliccUum eat, quam re male getta 
CTTonataa veneat,^^ * 

8. Qt^intus Titurius, &c. Compare chapter 11. 

4. Atqtie his pcmds diebus. " A few days before also." Litei- 
^ a.^ " within these few days." — AiUerci Eburomces, There were 

four nations or tribes of the Aulerci. Consult Geographical Index. 

5. Perditorum hominum. " Of men of desperate fortunes." 
Literally, " of ruined men." 

6. Jdoneo omnibus rebus* *^ Convenient for all things." Com- 
pere the Greek paraphrase, Kpis rdwa tmrtiSet^, and the explanation 
(^Morus : " Idoneo omnibus rebus, rations omnium rerum," 

7. Duum* Old form for duorum. 

8. Novmihil carpet etar* '*Was in some degree carped at," « 
e., censured, found fault with. — Prahdt. ** Gave rise to." 

9. Eo dbsente. *^ In the absence of that individual." Alluding 
o Cssar. — Legato. Ciacconius thinks legato superfluous here, but 
t is required, in fact, by the opposition of ** qui summam imperii 

10. Hac cot\firmata, <Se.c. *' Having confirmed the enemy in theii 
opinion of his cowardice." Literally, " this opinion of his cowardice 
being confinned." — AuxUH causa. <* Among the auxiliaries." 
Literally, " for the sake of aid." 

11. Proponit. " Makes known to them." Literally, " lays oe- 
fore them."— Qtti&t« angustiis. " By what difficulties."— JV^jw 
^ongius abesse, qwn^ &c. " And that at no more distant period 
than the very next night, Sabinus intends to lead forth his army 
secretly (rem the camp," &c. More literally, ** and that it was not 
farther off> but that on the next night Sabinus intends," &c. The 
comparative form longius alters somewhat the usual force of the 
ohrase. The ordinary j^uaseology is as follows : " Haud midtum 
sifmt quin iiKteirficereivir.^^ " He wanted very little of being slain," 
L e.^ was on the point of braig slain. — Non longs abest qutnfadaL 
** Hi is very neat doing it" 

1. Jfufos res. ** Many cireumstances." Dio Cassius is here g | 
directly at variance with Casar, for he informs us, that the Gaols 
acted on this occasion without any reflection at all, being sated at 
^he time with food and drmk : frd^v ydp tm iuucopiXf sal 7%i r^o^ co) 
'•8 «oro9 Jivttif. ' 

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g] 2. Perfuga confirmaHo, "The poritiTe aaBertion of the 4» 
ii«rt<Mr." — Jnopia cibarionan. Compare note 1. 

8. Spes VenUici beUi, "The expectations they had fonnad 
tiom the war of the Veneti," i. e., of Caesar's being defeated by 
them. They were not aware that this war had afa^ady been biougfat 
to a close. 

4. Non priua Vvridtmcem^ <Su!. " They do not allow Viridovu 
and the other oflkers to leave the council, before/* d&c. 

5. Ctrdter passus vaUe. ** For about a mile." — Magno curnu 
"With great speed." — Quam mimmum gpatU, "As little time 
te possible." 

6. ExanimiUi. "Out of breath." .SxantmoAw, in other authors, 
generally has the meaning of "alarmed," "in consteniation.'' 
The literal reference, however, is the same in either case, namelji 
that of excessiTO palpitation^ or a difficulty in drawing the breatl^ 
whether the result of fear or exhaustion. 

7. IniegruvmbuB. " With' their strength still fresh."— Pauros 
•« But few." 

8. Sabinus, Supply eeriior foetus est 

9. Nam tU ad bella susetpiendOj die. Compare with this tiM 
kngaage of LiTy : " GaUos primo impetu feroces esse, quos susti- 
neri satis sit ; eorum corpora intoLeramtissima laboris atqtte astms 
fiuere, primaque prcdia plus quam virorunij pastrema minus quam 
fiminarum esse." 

10. MtTtime resistens, "By no means firm." More literally^ 
"by no means capable of resistance." 

11. .Kx tertia parte GalluB est astimanda, " Is to be reckoned 
as the third part of Gaul." We have an expression here (ex tsrtim 
parte) which is far from being either elegant or usual. If the text 
be correct, about which, however, there is considerable doubt, es 
tenia parte must be regarded as equivalent to fro tertia parte. 
Some MSS. give Gallia instead of Gallia, a reading which ii very 
far from being a bad one. 

12. Faucis ante armis. Tlie event here alluded to happened ia 
the war with Sertorios, whoser side the Aquitani fiivouzed. TIm 
SMtonian war had been ended twenty-seven years. — Luaus Maml* 
ius. One of the MSS. gives Ludus Manlius, and the Gredc para- 
pluBse has Aa^ms M^XXio;. Lemaire reads Lucius MaUius. 

g2 I* Qua sunt eisitates. " Which are cities." Ctn'tiu generally 
has the meaning of " a state," but here that of urhs. — His regs^ 
nOus. Refexring to Aquitania, where Crassns was earrying on his 

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jpentioiis. The comraon tert had Qtus sunt civitateSf GoUUb pro- go 

nndtB finitima, ex his regionibus ; but, as this was geographically 

false, the cities in question lying, not in Aquitania, but in the prov- 

mce itself, Ciacconius, by omitting ex, and changing the punctuation, 

gaye us what is now the received and trae reading. 

2. Qi«o plurimum valebant. " In which they were very pcwer- 

3. Tandem. We have adopted here the reading of several MSS. 
4nd early editions in placer of tom^n, the common lection, and have, 
mth Giani, placed a period after cuperent, where the other edi* 
dons have a colon. Thos^ who *retain tamen give it the force d 
(andeniy instances of which usage are occasionally found. It is bet- 
ter, however, to make the actual change at once, of tandem for to* 
men, when we can do so on MSS. authority. Scaliger conjectures 
iandem tamen. The Greek paraphrast-has riXos, which fumi^es an 
additional argument in favour of tandem. 

4. Cuniculis ad aggerem, &c. ** Mines having been worked up 
to our mound and yines." The object of these mines was to de- 
stroy the Roman works, by either drawing away the earth from the 
mound, or by first proppmg up the roof of the mine vrith wooden 
supports, and then setting fire to these, in order that, when the props 
were burnt through, the superincumbent mass, and, along with it, 
the Roman works, might fall in. 

6. Cujui rei, dec. '* In which all the Aquitani are by far the 
most expert."— 4wM^ seetura. "Copper mines." The com- 
mentators make a very great difiiculty here about the true reading, 
and look upon sectura, in the sense of "a mine," as an ivc^ 
^tyd/uvov. The truth is, however, we may very easily obtain this 
meaning from iteetura, if we only bear in mind its derivation firom 
tecOf for it will denote a place where they cut and follow the veins 
or lodes of copper. (Compare Gesner, Thesaur. L. L. s. v.) 
Thobo who are in fayour of reading stricture find it no easy matter 
to fix its meamng in the present case. Strieturay according to 
Qfonius (1, 77, and 13, 23), properly signifies a spark that flies ofi 
tern a piece of metal struck with the hammer while red hot. It is 
then applied to a mass of metal in the furnace, and also to a mass 
sf unwrought metal, and it is from this last that a signification is 
•till farther sought to be obtained, about the correctness of which 
we m^y well entertain doubts, namely, ** a mass of earth and stone 
from which ore is obtained by means of the furnace." This is the 
meaning which the advocates for strietura wish to give it in t\» 

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,'^2 preaent case. Another reading is siructura, which is cenataljr f 
fuperior to ttrictura^ and may, after all, be the true lection, for it is 
found in some of the MSS. 

6. Nihil his rebus profiei posse. ** That no adyantage could be 
4eiiyed by them &om these things." 

7. In ea re ijUerUis, ** Were wholly engaged in this matter." 

8. Cum sexceniis devoHs, ** With six hundred devoted follow- 
ers, whom they call Sddurii." There is some doubt whether we 
oog^t to read here Soldurios or Saldunas. The tenn Soldurn is 
suj^KMed to be of Celtic origin, soUture^ and the same with the 
Welsh satoldwry with which terms also the French soldat is con- 

^ nected, although some would derive it from the pay received, a so- 
kdis, vel a soldo. The other reading, Saldunas, finds some support 
firom the language of Athenous (6, 64), who, in quoting from Nico- 
iaus Damascenus, caUs thepersonsrefeired to in our ^ext ScXo&^MVf,, 
which Schweighaeuser, however, has changed to ScXo^o^pw;, m 
order to reconcile it with the received text of Cssar. It is worthy 
of remark, moreover, that in the Basque language SMi means " a 
horse," and Salduna "a cavalier." Still, as Jiikoioipwf is ex- 
plamed in AthensBUS by thx^Xiiualovff which is equivalent to the 
Latin devotes, the reading Soldurios must not be disturbed. Con- 
sult Thierry, Hist, des GatUois, vol ii., p. 14, and 391, in notis, and 
AdeLung, Gloss, vol. vi., p. 277. 

9. Quorum hoc est conditio. " The condition of whose associa- 
tion is this." 

10. Av^ sibi, &c. "6r maKe away with themselves." The 
primitive meaning of consciscere is to determine, or resolve, afVer 
previous deliberation either with one's self or another. It then gets 
the additional signification of " to put in execution, to bring about 
what has been determined upon." Hence the phrase consciscere 
mortem sibi, *' to lay violent hands upon one's self," is well explain- 
ed by Forcellini, " nempe exseqwi id quod deliberaveris et dears 

g3 '• Cum iis AdcamivAimus. These words are here added, fot 
the sake of perspicuity; after the long parenthesis which intervenes^ 
and hence the words AdcantuAnnus cum sexceniis dew^, in tbv 
bsginning of the chapter, stand, as it were, absolutely. 

2. Tamen uti, 6lc. "Obtained, notwithstanding, permission 
from Crassus to avail himself of the same ianns of sunender with 
the rest." 

3. Barbari, " These barbarous tribes." Refeniug to the Vo 

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itttas and Taruaates. — Et nahiraloei ei manu, '* By both the na- 53 
nire of its situation and the hand of man/* i. e., both by nature and 

4. PoMis di€bus qtidhus, &c. << In a few days after the Romans 
had come thither." The relative is here employed, agreeing with 
diihu, in place of the more nsnal form fostquam or ex quo {Zumpt 
L. G. p. 307). With ventum est supply a RomamSf or a nostru. 

5. Citerunis Higpania. Hither Spain, the same with Hispams 
Tarraconensis, may be said, in general language, to have foimed 
the northern part of the country, comprehending an extent equal 
to three fourths of modem Spain. The remaining part was called 
C^enor, or Farther. The limits of each, however, are given with 
more accuracy in the Geographical Index. 

6. Magna cum auetoritate, ''With great confidence,*' L e., 
with a high opinion of their own resources. Compare the e^k- 
nation of Moras : ** Cum opimone majoris dignUatis auetarumque 

7. Quinto Sertorio. The famous commander. — Omnes aumot 
" During all the years of his warfare in Spain." — Summamque eei- 
mUiartif &c. They were thought to possess great military skill ton 
their haying served under so able a commander, and for so great a 
length of time. 

8. Cansuetudme Poptdi Romant. " Following the custom of the 
Roman people." They had learned this under Seitorius. — Loea 
caperet dec. *' Begin by selecting proper ground, fortifying a camp," 
dec. By loca is meant ground fit for an encampment. With re- 
gard to the use of tnsHtuo m the sense of indpiot compare QuiiUU. 
I, 5, 63y Bod Burmann, ad loe. 

9. FaeiU. "With safety." Equivalent here to tuio. Com- 
pare the Greek paraphrast : ^aXO; yt. 

10. Hostem et vagari^ &c. ** That the enemy both roamed at 
Jaige over the country, and possessed themselves of the passes, and 
vot, at the same time, left a sufficient guard for their camp." OhH- 
4lhe is here a verb of the third conjugation, from ohni^ not obsideo. 

11. DupUei a/cu instUuta. The usual arrangement, on the part 
«f the Romans, was three lines. On the present occasion, however, 
only two were formed, as the Roman army was inferior in num 
bers to that of the enemy : and, besides, the mountainous nature of 

Ve country enabled Crassns to dispense with tka usual prder of 

12. Auxiliit The auxiliary forces were usuallv stationed 00 


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g3 tiie wings ; here, however, they occupy the centie, becenee Uneene 
did not place much reliance upon them. 

13. Suh sarciTUS. Compare note U, page 42. — Inferiors oiie- 
mo, " Depressed in spirit." Compare the Greek paraphcase : 

Il4 1> ^'"^ '^t^ cunetaiumet dec. ** When the enemy bad, by theu 
own delay, and the opinion which was now entertained of their 
cowardice, made our soldiers the more eager for battle." The 
commonly received reading is Hmidiore* hosUs (L e., botUs Hmid^ 
ares jam faetiy, the adjective Unudiore* agreeing with hostet in the 
nominative. This reading, although it has the sanction of some 
great names, appears to us a veiy inferior one, and not mudi in uni- 
son with the context. We have not hesitated, therefore, to substi- 
tute Hnunris, the emendation of Robert Stephens and Yossius, of 
which Oudendorp thinks highly, although he retains twiidiores. By 
ofittione timaris is meant the opinion, which the Roman soldiers 
began to entertain of the enemy*s cowardice, from seeing them, al* 
Chough superior in numbers, keeping in their camp ; and this lection 
receives twppari also from the Greek paraphrase : J fi$ov napdx^v 
S4^, which is equivalent to rf ^SSw ^ n^x^^ ^^0- Compare also 
the language of Julius Celsus : *' Romam hosUum tarditatem turn 
amsilio invpuianUM, sed pa»ori,** (Sec. 

2. Quibut ad pugnam, &c. Compare note 12, page 63,r—Spe' 
dem aifue itpiniotum, dx. ** Gave rise to the appearance and 
opinion of their being actually engaged in the fight," i. e., produced 
die appearance, and gave rise to the opinion on the part of the en- 
emy, of their being actually combatants. 

3. ConstarUer ac rum Hmide. <' Steadily and boldly." The 
Greek paraphrast either follows a different reading, or else veiy 
strangely mistakes the meaning of cotutanUr, for he renders it bv 

4. Non fnutra acciderent. «• Fell not without effect.'*— -Ai 
Decumana porta. <'In the quarter of the Dectmian gate." Am 
the Gallic camp, on this occasion, was fortified after the Roman 
manner, it had the same number of gates, and in the same quarter*. 
Ilenee the name ** Decuman gate" applied to the entrance in the rear. 

5. Intrita ah labore. ** Not fatigued by any previous labour.** 
The common text has integral but this savours of a gloss. ItUritm 
is equivalent with non tritiB^ or non defaligaitB, A large uumbei 
of MSS. have interrita, but this appears to have arisen from a cor 
raption oiintritat. 

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6. Ad UM nmmitOHis, <« To tbat part of the euemy*8 works." g^ 
lUuding to the fortifications near the Decuman gate. 

7. His ^onUu, " These bemg puUed down." The common 
editions have pranipHs and perruptUf especially the latter. Fro 
nuit was first gi ^en by Faemus from one of iiis MSS., and has 
tfince been adopted into the best texts. It is far more graphic and 
vivid than either of the other two readings, and is, moreover, in ac- 
cordance with the Greek paraphrase, which has Mralimi<SvTit, 

8. Plane ab Hm videri potseL '* It could be clearly seen by 
ihem," i. e., the movement on the part of the Eomaos could be 
clearly discovered by the enemy. 

d. InUnderufU. "Strove." This is the reading of nearly all 
the MSS. and early editions. The common text has contenderunt, 
* hastened." The Greek paraphrase has iv«x'^**'^*'» ^ accordance 
with our lection. 

10. MuUa node. " Late at night," i e., after much of the 
night had passed. 

1. Supererant. " Alone remained." g/l 

2. Qui longe alia ratione, dec. " Who resolved to cairy on the 
war in a very different manner from the rest of the Gauls." The 
expression beUum agere^ which rests on MSS. authority, is rarer and 
more elegant than helium gerere, the reading of the common text. 
Thus Pomponius Mela, 1, 16, " ITi^ aliena etiam bella mercede age- 
rent;" and Quintilian, 10, J, " Qvis emm caneret bella melius quam 
qui sic egerit." 

3. Continentes. " Extensive." The Greek paraphrast takes 
contineTiUs here in \^q sense of " contiguous to their own country.'^ * 
The term is certamly susceptible of this meaning, but the other sig- 
nification is more natural in the present instance. 

4. LongitUf 6lc. " Having pursued them too far, amid the more 
uitricate parts." — DeperdiderurU. Some MSS. give disperdiderunt 
One of the Oxford MSS. has desideraverurUy which is rather an in^ 
trrpretation of deperdiderunt. 

5. Inerrndbus imprudetaibusque. " While unarmed and off their 
guard," i. e., while occupied in felling the trees of the forest, and 
improvided, consequently, for any regular resistance. 

6. MaXeriam. " Timber." This term is elsewhere used in the 
same sense, or in that of " wood," by Caesar. Compare also Cut 
tius, 6, 6, 28 : " Multam materiam ceciderat miles." 

7 Cowoersam ad hostem, " Directly facing the enemy." — Ex- 

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55 9m uebat. *' Piled it up." The timber was to supply the jdacc of « 

regular rampart. 

<i. Magna MptUio eonfeeto, **A large space being cleared." 

Literally, ** being completed," or '* finished," i. e., a large numbei 

of trees having been felled. 

9. Extrema impeiimerUa. ** The rear of their baggage." — Den- 
aiores sUvas, <* Still thicker parts of the woods." 

10. Sub pelWnu, <' In tenU." Literally, " under the skins." 
The tents of the Roman soldiers were covered with skins. In 
winter quarters huts were erected. Canvass does not appear to 
have been employed until a comparatively late period. Lipsius, 
Mil. Rom. Ub. 6, dial. 6. 

11. QuaprimmebeUumfeeerant. " Which had made war upon 
nim last." Beiium fojcert is here put for bellum inferrt ; thus, B. 
Q. 7, % *' Prindfetque se ex ommbus beUum fucturoa polUtnUmr.** 

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t. Cneio Pompeio, &c. B. C. 65, A. U. C. 699.-- 6*ernuiJit. g^ 
K. people of Germany.*' — Et etiam Tenchiheri. These were aim 
% German tribe. 

2. Quo Rhenus influit. " Where the Rhine flows into it," i. e , 
near the mouth of that river. 

3. Centum pago». "A hundred cantons." — Ex qtUbus, 6cc. 
* From each of which they led forth annually, beyond their confines, 
a thousand armed men," &c. EfinUms is equivalent here to extra, 
patriam. — BeUandi causa. We have retained causa, though it is 
omitted by some MSS., and though the omission is approved of by 
Oudendorp and others. For instances of this ellipsis, compare 
chap. 17, near its close, and also B. G. 5, 8, and consult Rud^ 
mariy Ins tit. 2, 2, vol. ii., p. 246, and Perizon, ad Sanet. Mhu 4, 4. 

4. Sic neque agrieuUura, dec. " In this way neither is agricnl* 
ture, nor are the art and practice of war, intermitted," i. e., dis- 
continued, or forgotten. 

6. PrvwiH'ac separati agri, dee. Tacitus makes a similar re- 
mark : M. G. 3, 9, '* Area per annos mutani, et superest ager " 
— Incdendi causa. " For the sake of a residence." 

6. Maximam partem. " For the most part." Supply secun* 
dum. A Hellenism of frequent recurrence in Caesar. — MuUumqu£ 
sunt in venationibus. ** Are much addicted to hunting." Idter- 
ally, ** are much in hunts," i. e., are much engaged in them. 

7. NuUo officio,' 6c^. ** Accustomed to the control of no rules 
01 duty or of education." — Aht. " Nourishes," i. e., increases.— 
Et immam eoiporum, &c. ** And makes them men of prodigione 
size of body." Scaliger rejects homines contrary to the MSS. 
The Greek, paraphrase sanctions its being retained: nal ntXmflsvtf 
^ tliftXv, fteylBovi Mpag n^n. 

8. Locis frigidissimis. ^ In the coldest parts of their country," 
i. e., in the parts farthest to the north, and the most exposed to the 
rigours of their climate. — Exiguitatem. <* Scantiness " — Ap&^ 
** Eznosed," i. e , in a state oi miditv. 

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57 9. Qua beUo ceferirU, &c. The order is, ut haheant (Uloi) qm 
hus vendant (ea) qua ceperint hello. 

10. QuineHam jumenHsy 6lc, " The Geimans, moreoTer, A% 
not use imported cattle, in which the Grauls take the greatest delight, 
and which they procure at an extravagant price." All the MSS. 
give impartatis kis, hut his la wanting in some of the earlier edi- 
ions. Oudendorp, thereipre, very neatly conjectures importatitiiSf 
which he introduces into the text of his smaller edition, and in 
which he is followed by Oberlin. We have adopted the conjecture 
without any hesitation. Bentley, however, is in favour of itnportatiM 
omitting his, and this reading is given by many editors. 

(Jg 1. Sed qua sunt, &c. The grammatical construction is as fol 
lows : Sei (quod attinet ad) parva atque deformia (jumenta) qua 
nata sunt apud eos, effiaunt quotidiana ezerdtatione ut hoe sini 
summ lahoris. In rendering, however, into our idiom, it will be 
neater to translate without reference to the actual ellipsis of quod 
attinet ad : '* But the small and ill-shaped cattle which are bred 
among them, these they render, by daily exercise, capable of en- 
during the greatest toil.'' 

5. Parva atque deformia. The common text has prava atque 
defomwiy which savours strongly of a pleonasm. We have, there- 
fore, adopted paroa in placd of prava^ which is the reading of Ou- 
dendorp's smaller edition, and is given also by eight MSS. The 
Greek paraphrast, moreover, has fujrpaf, and Tacitus (if. G. 5), in 
speaking of the German cattle, says expressly that they were for thci 
most part of small size : *< plerumque improeera.^ 

. 3. T\irpius aut inertius. ''More shameful or spiritless." -~ 
Ephippns, <' Housings.'* The term ephippium does not denote a 
saddle, but a cloth laid on the back of a horse (i^* Ivrov). Saddlef 
were not used by the ancients. It is extremely probable, that the^ 
were not invented until the middle of the fourth century of our era 
The earliest proof of their use is an order of the Emperor Theodo- 
sius, A. D. 385, by which those who wished to ride post-horse* 
were forbidden to use saddles that weighed more than sixty pounda. 
Codex Theodos. 8, 5, 47. — Beckmann^s History of IwventionSf vpL 
iL, p. 251, seqq. 

4. Itaque ad qiumvis, &c. "And hence they dare, howevei 
few they may be, to advance against any number of cavalry that 
use housings." 

6. hnportari non sinunt. At a later period, in the time of Ta- 
citus, the Germans along the Rhine purchaeed wines from the R(v 
man traders. Tacit. M. G. 23 

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O. PtMee. '< In a pablxc pomt of view," i. e., to the sUte at gg 
laige. — Viuare agros. '* For the landa to lie desolate,'' i. e., xxO' 
inhabited and waste. literally, " to be empty." — Hoc re tigmfir 
cart, '* That by this it is shown.*' 

7. CioUatium, The common form is doiiatum, but many ex- 
amples of genitives plnxal in ium, where the rules of ^ gramma- 
lians would lead us to expect the termination in uiHf may be found 
in ypssius. Anal. 2, 14, and Ruddiman, Inttit. 1, 2, 69, in ndtU, 
vol. L, p. 93. 

8. Ad alUram partem, 6lc, *^ On the other side the Ubii are 
next to them." More literally,. *' the Ubii come up to the other 
side," i. e., are in their immediate vicinity. 

9. Quorum fuit cmtat, dec. " Whose state was at one time ex 
tensive and flourishing, considering the condition of the Germans," 
i. e., who once possessed an extensive and flourishing state for Ger 
mans. More literally, '* as the state of the Germans is." 

10. Et poido, quam sunty &c. * The true reading here is ex 
tremely doubtful, owmg to the discrepancy of the MSS. and edi 
tions. The generally received lection is et pauby quam sunt eju»» 
dem generis, et ceteris humaniares. Now to this there are two 
serious objections ; one, that by it two different constructions are 
joined with one and the same comparative, of which but a very few 
instances can be found elsewhere ; and the other, that by (homines) 
ejusdem generis, and ceteris, the very same persons are meanty 
namely, the Germans ; for it is absurd to say, that by the former of 
these expressions the Ubii are meant, since Cssar would make them, 
in that event, a little more civilized than themselves ! We have 
adopted, therefore, the emendation of Bentley. By ceteri ejuedem 
generis are meant the rest of the German nation. 

11. AmpUtudxnem gravitatemque avitatis. "The extent, and 
populousness of their state," i. e., the state of the Ubii. Grweitor 
tern is here equivalent to frequentiam, 

12. HumUiores iufirmioresque. The former epithet refen to 
the diminution of their ampUtudOy which embraces the ideas of both 
exumt of territory and abundance of resources ; the latter alludes 
to »he lessening of theii numbers. 

13. In eadem causa, ** In a shnilar case," i. e., similarly situ- 
ated, subject to the same treatment from the Suevi as that vi^ach 
the Ubii had endnred. Compare the Greek paraphrase * rsirl nhmi 
•i Ohnwtr^ r J sat cl T^Orpoi haOop. 

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14. Quas regiones. Those namely in tke yicinity of the RhiiM 
— Aditu. " At the approach." Compare the Greek, ifiS^. 

15. DemigraverarU, We haye adopted the plaperfect, as recent 
mended by Moru8» instead of the perfect, as given in the common 
text. The former of these tenses harmonzies better with the context . 

g9 1* Rv-rsua revarterunt, A pleonasm, of which examples often 
occur m the best wnters: thus, CurHuSf By 11, 14, **Rurnu t» 
pralium redeunt ;*' and Petronius, c 10, ^* Rwrstis in memoriam 

2. Qvieta in auis sedibus. These words are not in the comnu>n 
text. They were first restored by Ondendorp, from MSS. 

3. Reliquam partem hienUSf &c. " They lived, for the remain- 
der of the winter, on their provisions," L e., on the provisions 
which they, the Menapii, had collected for their own consmnption. 
Ahterunt ««, literally, "they maintained," or "supported them 
selves." As regards the use of copiiSj here, in the sense of " pro- 
visions," compare Tacitus, Ann. 15, 16 : " CoTitraque jn-odiderii 
CorbulOf Parthos inopes copitarvm, et, pahulo atiritOf relicturos op" 

4. Jnfarmitaiem. " The fickleness."~-ilfo&i;ej. "Changeable." 
Nihil his committendum, " That no trust should be reposed in 
them," i. e., that none of ^s plans ought to be made known t* 
them, and that their fidelity and attachment ought not to be taken 
for granted. 

5. Est autem hoc GaUica cofuuetudinis, " For this is one of 
the Gallic customs." More literally, " this appertains," or " be- 
longs to Gallic custom," L e., forms a part of it ; is one of their 

6. Vidgus circumsistat. "The mob gather around." -^Pn>r 
tumtiare. " To declare." 

7. His rutnoribus, &je, " Influenced by these reports and hett« 
says, they often concert measures respecting the most important 
affioM." Literally, " enter into consultations." — E vestigio. " In- 

8. Cum iTicertis rumoribus serviant. " Since they are men 
sUves to uncertain rumours," i. e., have blind faith in them.— JSf 
pUrique ad wAuntattm^ &c. " And since moet pezsons give them 
false answers adapted to their wishes." More literally, " answ«r 
tlungs feigned according to their wish," i. e., feigned designedly to 
please them. 

9. Nt graviori beUo oeeurreret. " That he might not meet witk 

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• mtie formidable war (than he had origiaally expected)," i. e., be gg 

inTolTed in a more formidable one. The phraseology here employed 

by Cesar is eq^iivalent Ui**nein gramus helium incideret.^* Ceaaz 

feared lest the Crauls, with their known fickleness, should make 

o»mmon canse a^dnst him along with the Grerma!^ 

10. Facta. J* Had been already done," i. e., had already taken 
ftoce. Compaie £he Greek : vvftMifK^a #5i|. 

11. Ad GenuLTio*. -Releiring to the Usipetes and Tenchthen. 
—-UH ab Rheno disuderetu, ^* To leave the vicinity of the Rhine," 
i e., to advance into GauL Compare the language of Gelsus, c. 65 
** Seque inferrent in mtwML GaUtarunt.^* 

18. Dusinu U andAnbi. " Should be concealed by him." Com 
pare the Greek paraphrase : Kfvrria ky^ffon ^ivrni. 

1. ResisUre. Supply m. — Neqtie deprecMri. *< And not to sup- ^0 
plicate for peace." Compare the Greek : ^n ca0i«fr«^cy. — VemM- 

it. Supply «0, and compare the previous chiqpter, ** irmitaiOMque 
tos^^^ &c. 

2. Susan, gratiam, ''That friendship."— Fe/ nU, &c. ''Let 
diem either assign lands to them." 

8. Eos t€ Here. "To retain those subject to them." — Possede- 
rmt. The subjunctive is here employed, as indicating what they, the 
speakers, asserted ef themselves. So again pessint expresses their 
own opinion, not that ef Cassar also. 

4. Concedere. " Yielded," i. e., acknowledged themselves in- 
iferior to. — Ne dii gtudem, &c. Compare the Homeric Avrtetos, as 
applied by the poet to his heroes. — In terris. " On the earth." 

5. ExUus. " The conclusion." — Neqite verumetse. " That it 
neither was right. Vtmm here denotes what is right, just, or 
;»ioper. Compare Horace, StU. 2, 3 : " An (tcunque facit Mm- 
eenatf te pboque verum est ?" and again, Epist. 1, 7 : " MeHri s§ 
4niemque suo modulo ae pede vemtn est." 

6. Neque uUos, &c. "Nor were there any lands vacant in 
Gaul." — Sine injuria. " Without injury," i. e., without positive 
■ijfQstice to the Gauls, or injury of Yome kind to the Roman sway. 

'^ini. " Are," i. e., axe, as he -informs them. 

7. Ab MS. " From them," i. e., from the Ubii. The eomnion 
iext bas ab UbOs, We have adopted, however, the eonjectore of 

- Bratos, which Oberlin eneneously ascribee to Moms. The Greek 
fSiiqphrase accords vrilh. this : Mf * alrSv. 

8. Hos expeaari eguUes. " That the return of this body of «v 
wb? win aaftf wsitvd for J* 

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•70 9. Vosego. This name is yaiiously written : Votsgus, Voge* 

and Vosagus. We have giren the preference to Vosegus, as sane; 

tioned by MSS., by the language of an ancient inscription, and tl» 

asage of writers in the middle ages. Consult Vejuait. Fortunat 

7. 4, and Crrtfk Turorif 10» 10, as cited by C^arius, Gtog. Am. 

▼ol. ii., p. 141. Cortius, however, prefers Vogesus {ad Lucan. 1, 

397), but consult Benther on the other side. {Animadv. Hist. e. 

6, p. 76.) 

10. Et parte quaiamj &,c. We have adopted here the Bipo» 

reading with Oberlin, Morus, Lemaire, and Daehne. Oudendoq 

gives a very different lection, and ot& far inferior, as follows : in- 

rulamque efficit Batavoruniy in Oceanum influit, neqne Umgius a\ 

Oceano miUUnis passuum octoginta in Rhenum transit. 

J1 1. Citatns. ** In rapid course." — Oceano approprnquat. Some 

of the MSS. give ocearmm, but Cssar more frequently employs thi . 

dative with this verb. Compare B. G. 6, 44, and 7, 83. 

2. In plures diffluit partes. " Divides into several branches." 

3. Quipiscibus atque ovis, dec. Compare Pliny, If. N. 16, 1.— » 
Mtdtis capitibus. " By many mouths." Compare the Greek par 
aphrase: roXXoTf ordfiamv. Vossius deni^ that any other Latii 
writer employs caput in the sense of ostiuni ; but compare Lucan, 
3, 201, and Cortius, ad loe. Consult also lAv. 33, 41, and Creviei 

4. Ut erat constitutum. " As had been mentioned by them.' 
Equivalent to ut erat dictum. It appears to be, in truth, a carelesi 
manner of expression in the present instance, since, as appears from 
chapter 9, Ccesar had not consented to any such arrangement. 

5. Sibi jurejurandofidem fecissent. " Should give them security 
by an oath." Fidem facere is here the same as fidem dare. — Ea 
conditioner &c. " They assured him, that they would avail them- 
selves of those conditions that might be proposed by Caesar," i. e., 
of whatever conditions might be proposed. 

_, 6. Eodem illo pertinere. " Tended to the same end," i. e., had 
this one object in view. — Qui abessent. " Who were said to be 

. 7. Prafectos. The commanders of twrma are here meant, being 
analogous to the Greek IXipx^* — Mittit. Supply quosdam. 

8. Sustinerent. " Only to stand their ground." Liteially, " tti 
sustain the attack." 

9. Non ampUus quingentos^ <Scc. Supply quam after ampUus 
5o B. C. 3, 99, *'Amplius miUia viginH ^paUuor;'' Livy, 33» 7. 

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**Atnplius tria millia militum amissa;*^ and Nepos, 16, 2, 3, ^J 

** JVon amplius cerUum adolescentuli." The reason why so small a 

number of German horse dared to attack so large a body of Romac 

cavalry, was the contempt which the former entertained for the 

latter* from the circumstance of their using ephippia. Compare 

chapter 2. 

10. Eorum. Referring to the Germans. 

11. Rursus. "In turn." Equivalent here to vicisstm. — Sub' 
fosstsqtu equis. " And having stabbed our horses in the belly " — 
DejecHs. ** Being dismounted." 

1. Ita perterritos.. "In such dismay." — In conspectu. The 72 
common text has in conspectum, but some of the MSS. exhibit in 
conspectu, which is undoubtedly the true reading. In conspectum 
vemre refers merely to the action of the moment ; but in conspectu 
venire, as Clarke well explains it, is to come into the sight of 
another, or of others, and remain there for some length of time. 
Compare Vechter, Hellenolex. p. 261, and Ramshorn, L. G. ^150, 

p. 290. 

2. Intercluso. " Intercepted," i. e., cut off by the enemy from 
the rest of our troops. / 

3. iimmum advertisset. For animadvertisset, which is the read 
ing of the common text. — Incitato equo. " Spurring on his horse." 

4. Per dolum atque insidias. " By deceit and treachery," i. e., 
with a deceitful and treacherous design.— Expeetare. " To wait," 
i. e., to delay coming to an action. — Summa dementia esse. " To 
be the height of folly." Dementia, want of judgment on particular 
occasions ; amentia, madness, total alienation of reason. 

6. Infirmitate. "The fickleness." — Quantum jam^ &,c. "He 
was sensible how much reputation the enemy had already gained 
among them by the issue of a single battle." Eos refers to the 
Gauls, and hostes to the Germans. 

6. Quibus. Referring back to eos, i. e., to the Gauls. 

7. Ne quem dtevn, &c. " Not ^o let a day pass without bringing 
the enemy to an engagement." Quem for aliquem. 

8. Omnibus principibus^^Lc. " All their leading men and elden 
being brought along." Literally, " being taken unto them." 

9. Sui purgandi causa. " For the sakg of clearing themselves." 
'^Quod contra <Uque, &c. " Because, contrary to what had been ' 
said by them, and to what they themselves had requested, they had 
actually joined battle the day previous," i e., had fallen upm om 

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72 10. De indueiis faUendo impetrarent. ** They might obtun ■ 

farther truce by deceiving him." It is more than probable, that both 
this and the previous statement are false, and that Cssar acted with 
bad faith towards the Germans, not they towards him. It is diffi- 
cult to conceive, that their leading men would have put themselves 
so completely into the hands of the Romans, had their object been 
a treacherous one. On the other hand, Plutarch informs us {Vit. 
Cas. c. 12, seq.), that Cato actually charged Csesar with a violation 
of good faith on this occasion, and was for giving him up to the 
enemy. (Compare Sueton. Vit. Jul. c. 24.) The breach of good 
faith with which Cato charged him, seems to have consisted in his 
attacking the Germans while he had their ambassadors with him ; 
more especially since Dio Cassius informs us (39, 47, seq.)^ that 
the battle was owing to the uncontrollable ardour of the youngei 
warriors among the Germans, which their elders disapproved of to 

* such a degree, as to send an embassy to Cesar for the purpose of 
explaining what had been done. This embassy, therefore, Caesar 
detained, and, in the mean time, marched against and conquered 
those for whom they had come to intercede. 

11. Gamsus. Nearly all the MSS. and earlier editions give 
grwmLs without any meaning at all, and gavisusj therefore, has 
been substituted by all the more recent editors. With this latter 
reading also the Greek paraphrase concurs : ro^rott Si na^viv h 
KaTaap M^^f » iictivovs fih Karivxtv. — lUico. The common text has 
UloSf and the pronoun is said to be here redundant. (Consult 
Amtzenius, ad Aurd. Vict. c. 27, 43.) We have preferred, how- 

* ever, iUicOy the very neat emendation of Daehne, which is in some 
* degree borne out by the language of Celsus : ** Quas vln Casar 

adspexit, nulla ptvitus de re auditos illico capi jussit.** 

73 1. Diacesau suorum. " By the departure of their own country- 
men," i. e., by the absence of the leading men and elders, who 
had been detained oy Cssar. — Perturbantur. " Are thrown into 
great confusion, and are altogether at a loss." 

2. Pristini diei. " Of the day before." Prittita is here put foi 
pridumiy examples of which usage also occur in Cic. de Orai. 1, 
8. QuirU. Curt. 8, 4. Suet. Aug. 94. Compare also the lan- 
guage of Aulus Gellius (10, 24), " Die Pristino, id est priore, quod 
tulgo pridie dicitur.'* 

3. Ad quos coTisectandos. The barbarity of this transaction ad 
mits of no excuse. Hottoman endeavours to save the credit of 
Cipsar, by readinpr conservandos for consectandos, but thi» is directlv 

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contradicted by the language of the next chapter, "«m)j inttrjwiy'' 73 

&c. The Greek paraphrase also is express on this point : ««] k 
fkv Kaioap rf^v Tirirov 1^2 rotfrov; himj/aro. ^ 

4. Post tergum clamore audita. This proceeded from the out- 
cries of those who were pursued by the Roman cayaliy. — Suoa. 
Referring principally to their children and wives. 

6, Ad confluentenif &c. " To the confluence of the Meuse 
and Rhine." The battle appears to have been fought near the spot 
where now stands the modem Aix4arCkapelle. By the confluence 
of the Meuse and Rhine is meant the junction of the former river 
with the Vahalis or Wcudy a little above the modem Bommel, 

6. Reliqua fuga d-esperata. " The rest of their flight being de- 
spaired of,** i. e., all hope of farther flight being taken away. 

7. Ex ianti belli timore. " After the alarm of so great a war,** 
. e., a war of so formidable a nature being ended. — Quitdringento 

runtf &c. Orosius makes the number 440,000 ; Plutarch 4OO,0OO. 
But both these numbers are very probably exaggerated. 

^ MtUtis de causis. According to Plutarch, Cesar's true mo- - 
tive was a wish to be recorded as the first Roman who had ever 
crossed the Rhine in a hostile manner. (Vit. Cos. c. 22.) Dio 
Cassius makes a sinmar statement (39, 48). 

9. Suis quoque rebus, &c. " He vrished them to be alarmed for 
their own possessions also.*' Literally, " to fear for their own 

10. Accessit etiam. "Another reason likewise w^as." More 
literally, " it was added also." — Quam supra commemoravi. Con- 
sult chapter 12. 

1. Ad quos. Refemng to the Sigambri. — Eos. The Usipetea 71 
and Tenchtheri. 

2. Cur sui quicquam esse, &c. " Why should he insist that any 
right of commanding, or any authority whatsoever, belonged to him 
across the Rhine 1" Sui is the |>ersonal pronoun, governed by esse. 

3. Oceupationibiis reipublicce. " By his public engagements." 
More literally, " by the occupation which the republic (i. e., public 
affairs) afforded.*' Some MSS. have populi R. instead ofreipubli' 
td, with which reading the Greek paraphrase (rfiv 'TuftaUtv) appears 
to agree. Celsus, on the other hand, has " reipublicpt negotiis oe- 

4. Nomen aique opinionem. " The naire and reputation.** — Ad 
ultimas, <&c. The preposition ad is here used in the same sense 
IS apud, which latter is the reading of tlv* common ter* Compare 
Sanet. Min. 4, 6 ami Perizonius, ad Int.. 

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7 J 5. Neqva stut, &,c. " Nor consistent with his own chaneter o 
the dignity of the Roman people." Dignitatis here varies shghtly 
in meaning, according as it refers to Cassar or the Roman people at 

6. Proponebalur. "Was manifest." laterally, "was placed 
before the view." — Id sibi contendendum. " That l^ must strive to 
effect this." 

7. Rationem ptrntis, &c. " He determined upon the foUoviicg 
plan of a bridge." — Tigna, bina sesquipedaXicL, &c. " At the dis- 
tance of two feet from one another, he joined together two piles, 
each a foot and a half thick, sharpened a little at the bottom, and 
proportioned to the depth of the stream." We have preferred 
rendering tigna by the word "piles," as more intelligible than 
" beams" in the present instance. The distributive bin» refers to 
the circumstance of their being many pairs of these piles or beams 

8.* Dimensa ad aliitudinem fltiminis. The meaning is, that they 
were of greater or less length, according to the various depths of 
the stream, being longest in the middle of the river, and diminis^g 
in length according to the proximity to the banks. All, howe^r, 
projected equally above tjiie level of the water. 

9. Hac cum macKinatiombuSy &c. " When he had, by means o* 
engines, sunk these into the river and held them down there, and had 
then driven them home by rammers." The participle and verb, 
immissa defixeratt axe to be rendered as two verbs with the con- 
nective, imnUserat et deftxerat, 

l(r. Fistucis. The Jistuc(B> here meant are not hand-ranmiers, 
but machines worked with ropes and pullies, by which weights are 
raised to a considerable height, and then allowed to fall upon the 
pile beneath. Compare Vitruviusy 3, 3, and 10, % and also the ez 
planation of Morus, ad loc. 

11. Non subliccR modot &c. " Not quite perpendicular, after this 
manner of a stake, but bending forward and sloping, so as to incline 
according to the direction of the stream." The slope of the piles 
will be perceived from the plan that is given of the bridge. The 
piles here spoken of were those on the upper part of the river, and 
which looked downward, or secundum flumen. In other words, 
tbjy pointed down the stream. 

12 lis item contraria bina^ &c. " Opposite these, at the dis- 
ance of forty feet, lower down the river, he placed other pairs, 
oined in the same manner, and turned against the force and cur- 
cent of the river." The common text has contraria duo^ for which 

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CI>ike firs gave corUraiia' hma. Gassar very probably v^roU con- 'J^ 

traria II., and hence the error arose. The context requires Mna, 

So the distributive quadrngemun refers to the several pairs. The 

piles here spoken of lay on the lovv«r part oi the river, and pointed 

ap the stream. In either case, therefore, whether in the upper or 

lower part of the river, they were prona ac fastigatfu. 

13. Ah inj&nmt parte. Supply fluminu. 

14. Hoc tUraquCf <&c. *' Each of these pairs ofniles, moreover, 
«rere kept from closing by beams let in between them, two feet 
thick, which was the space from one pile to another, fastened on 
ooth sides, at either extremity, by two braces." 

15. Quantum eorum tignorum, &,c. Literally, *< as far as the 
*oining of these piles was apart." The reference Is to the space of 
two feet which was left between the two piles of each pair, when 
they were first sunk into the river. 

1. Qmbus disclusis, 6cc. *' These pairs being thus kept apart ^6 
(by the beams let in), and, at the same time, firmly clasped by tlfe 
braces in the opposite direction." This sentences explanatory of 
the preceding one, hoc utraque, <&c., and contains, if the expression 

be allowed, the key to the whole structure. The beams let in be* 
tween the two piles would have a tendency, of course, to keep them 
«part, while the braces above and befow would have an opposite 
tendency, and would serve to keep the piles together. The greater 
the pressure, thereft^re, one way, the stronger the resistance the 
other ; and the constantly acting power would be the current of the 
stream itself. 

2. Tanta eratf &c. ** So great was the firmness of the whole 
structure, and such was the nature of the materials employed, that 
the nkore powerfully the force of the current drove itself against the 
different parts, the more closely were they connected together and 
kept in their places." Literally, * by how much a greater force of 
water had urged itself on." 

3. H(zc directa materiel &c. " These cross-beams were overiaid 
and connected together, by rafters placecT in the length of the bridge, 
and these again were covered over with poles and hui^les." Htxe 
refers to the beams running across from one pair of piles to the op> 
posite pair. — Directa materie. The term matene is very errone* 
•usly rendered *' planks" by some editors. . Planks would not be 
ftrong enough for the purpose. Directa is well explained by Clarke, 
{torn Lipsiufi : " secundum longitudinem poTttis.** 

4 Tdmgu iis. The / mgurit were long poles, placed across the 

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7g nhOBf yerj dose to one anotheri and the hnidles were strewed ««ei 
these, in order to produce a more level surface. 

6. Ac mhUo aedua^ &c. <*Aiid, besides all this, piles weit 
hkewise driven in obliquely, at the lower part of the stream,'' 6uc. 
These piles, as will be perceived from the plan, served as props, ot 
rather buttresses, against the impulse of the waters. Had thej not 
been placed where they were, the violence of the current might 
have carried the bridge over to the opposite side of the river. — 
NiMlo *eciu8. Literally, *< nevertheless,'' i. e., notwithstanding 
all that had been done, a still farther precaution was exercised by 
driving in piles, &c. 

6. Pro pariete. Some of the MSS. and editions have pro arieUy 
which is not so bad a reading as it may at first appear to be ; the 
piles in question being compared by it to the appearance which a 
battering-ram presents, when raised for the purpose sof inflicting a 
blow. The Greek paraphrase has also 6liaiv Kfto9. Still, however, 
tRe true lection is pro pariete, the idea intended to be conveyed 
oeing that of a bj^ress, or wall of support. 

7. Et alia item, dec. These last, which CaBsar immediately after 
calls defenaores, were merely stakes fixed above the bridge to act 
as fenders. In the ordinary pluis of Cesar's bridge they are ar- 
ranged in a triangular form,\vith the apex of the triangle pointing 
up the stream. This is all wrong. They were placed in a row^ 
very probably a double one, directly across, from one bank to the 
other, for in this way alone could tliey afford perfect security to the 

8. Dejiciendi operia. "For the purpose of demc^hing the 
work." According to the generality of grammarians, we must here 
supply causa. (Sand. Minerv. 4, 4. — Vol. ii., p. 49, ed, Bauer.) 
Zumpt, however, inclines to the opinion, that this form of expression 
arose from the construction of the genitive with esse. {Zutnpt^ L 
G. p. 388.) 

9. Qmbus maieria, dtc. " After the materials had been begua 
ia be brought together to t!ie spot." Compare, as r^rds the force 
3f quibuSf note 4, page 63. Plutarch regards the erection of this 
aridge as a very wonderful act on the part of Cssar. In a late 
French work, however, on Caesar's wars, ascribed to the Emperor 
Napoleon, that distinguished commander is made to say, that this 
woik of Caesar's has nothing extraordinary in it whatever, and that 
the bridges constructed over the Danube, in 1809, by General Bei^ 
mod, displayed far more skill, the difficulties to overcome being far 

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'peater. {Prieis des Churres di JvUs CUar, pair VEmpereur' 'J^ 

Napoleon. Pearisy 1836.) 

10. Ad utramqiu partem, "At eithir end.*' Compare the 
Greek, UaripttOtv Tijs yi^vpag, 

il. Hortanfihus tis. "By the advice of those."— Qito* ex 
TenchtherUt &c. These were t}ie cavalry, who had taken refiige, . 
as already stated, with the Sigambri, and whom the latter had re- 
fused to deliver up to the Romans. Consult chap. 1 6. 

12. In soliliUl^em ae silvas. Better than in solitudine ac silvUf 
as some read. The former expresses the idea of going into a place, 
and concealing one's self there ; the latter of being abready m the 
place before the attempt at concealment is made. 

13. In silvas deponerent, " Should convey into the woods and 
deposite there for safe-keeping." Compare preceding note. . 

14. Huitc esse deUctum, d&c. " That this was selected, as being 
nearly in the centre of those regions which the Suevi possessed," i 
e., as being ahnost the centre of their country. 

1. Ulcisceretur. "That he might pumsh." Equivalent to 77 

2. Satis profectum "That -enough had been done by him. ' 
Pr^fectum (from projicio, not from proficiscor) is here elegai\tly 
ured for perfectunif which latter is the reading of some MSS . Com- 
pare B, G. 7, 65, **Ad reHqui temporis pacem parum projici;*' 
Livy, 3, 14, ^Ibipluriwum profectum est;" and Ovid, A. A. Zt 
689, " Hoc tibi profectum Vidcane ;" with the note of N. Heinsius 

3. Se in Galliam recepit. His true motive for retreating was 
the fear entertained by him of the Suevi. Hence Lucan (2, 570) 
makes Pompey say, that Caesar fled from the Rhine : " Rhem 
gelidis quodfugit ab undis.** 

4. Maiurce sunt, "Are early," i. e., set in^arly. Compare 
,the Greek, irpu<^cav Smav rtSv \ei^vwv, 

5. In Britanniam, &£. Dio Cassius (39, 53) remarks, that no 
benefit whatever resulted either to Cssar himself, or to the state, 
from this expedition into Britain, and that Cesar's only motive, in 
going thither, was the honour of havmg been the first Roman that 
invaded the island. Plutarch's observations are pretty much to the 
same effect {Vit. CtM, c. 23.) Suetonius, on the other hand, in- 
K>nii« us, that Cesar wasattracted thither by the fame of the British 
pearls. {Vit, Jul. c. 47.) Pliny ^states, that this commander con- 
secrated to Venus Genitnx a cuirass adorned with British pearls. 
•* ex Britannicis margariOs factum." (N, H. 9, 57.) 

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77 6. Jnde, *< From that quar^^r." Referring to Britain.—- Jfi^Mt 

stbi 11^. *' A source of great utility to him." Usui ia here pat 

for uiilitaH. Compare %. C. % 8, " Invenhim est magna esse usm 

posse, si hoc esset m altitudinem turris elata^ 

7 Tenure. "Commonly." More literally, "upon any alight 

. oc ^aaion," " for any slight reason," The Gre^ paraphrast renders 

it by oi pqStm- 

8. Quern usum belli kahereni. " In what way they carried en 
war." Compare the version of De Cris86, " s9la mani^re dout 
ces peuples faisoient la guerre." — Aut quibus instiiutis uteren- 
tur, " Or what customs they foUowedi" r. e., what their customs 

9. Camm Volusenum. The punctuation adopted in the text, 
namely, the comma after Volusenum, connecting it with the pre- 
ceding clause, is the suggestion of Bentley, who also recommends 
the insertion of eum before cum. This latter emendation, how- 
ever, is quite unnecessary. 

10. Pr<emittit, Suetonius ( Vit. Jul. 58) states, that Cssar re- 
connoitred the island in person. Of course the remark must be an 
erroneous one, since Cssar's own assertion is entitled to far more 
credit. Some editors, however, and among them Emesti, have en- 
deavoui^, by altering the text of Suetonius, to make it harmonize 
with that of the commentaries. Consult Crusius ad loc. 

11. Dare. For se daturos. So obtemperare for se obtemperor 
turos.^ Compare B. G. 2, 32, " Eli se qua tmperarentur faeere 
dixerunt ;" and 7, 14, " Necessario dispersos hostes ex adifidu 

^f 1. Magm habebatur, "Was regarded as extensive." The 
genitive of value. More literally, " was estimated highly." 

2. Ut PopulCRomaniJidem sequantur. " To embrace the alli- 
ance of the Roman people." 

3* Quantum ei facultatis, &c. " As far as opportunity conid be 
afforded him.*' — Qui non audcret.' " Since he did not venture." 
The student will note the force of the subjunctive. 

4. De superioris temporis consUio. " For their past conduct.'* 

6. Nostra consuetudvms. Alluding to the Roman custom, of 
exercising humanity towards those who had yielded to their power, 
and of protecting them from the aggressions of the neighbouring 
states.^ ^ 

6. Has tantularum, &c. ^*That these engagements in sDch 
trifling afifairB ou^t to be preferred by him to Britain," i. e., to the 
mvsision of Britam 

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7. NMribtuonerariis. " Vessels of buiden." Consalt Aichaeo- 7Q 

•gical Index. — Navimm Umgarum, ** Of Tessels of war.'* Anal- 

•gous to the Greek fwcpci vXmb. Consult Archsological Index. 

9. Legaii rum venerant. This arose from dissensions among 

Ihe Morini, some embracing the yfity of Caesar, others opposing it. 

9. Tertia fere vtgtUa solvit. "He set sail about the third 
watch.'' ' The third watch began at midnight. The place from 
which Cssar sailed on this occasion was the portus Itius or Iccios, 
A little south of Calais, and, according to D'Anville, the same with 

the modem Witsand. {Strabo, 4, 6, p. 199, Caa.—D'AnvilUf Not ^ 

(U la Gaide, p. 389). 

10. Solvit, Supply naves. Literally, ** loosens his vessels,'* i. 
e., from the shore. The full form of expression is given in chapter 
36 ; B. C. I, 28, &c. So m Ovid, Her. 7, 9, " Certus es, Aenea, 
cum foed^re solvere naves.''* 

11. Ulteriorem portum. Called superior partus in chapter 28. 

1. Hora diet circiter quarto. " About the fourth hour of the 
day," i. e.; about ten o'clock in the morning. He^saDed, it will be 
remembered, about midnight. 

2. Britanniatn aittgit. D'Anville thinks that Ciesar landed at 
the portus LemaniSf now LymnCf a little below Dover. 

3. Expositas hostium capias armatas. ** The forces of the enemv 
drawn up under arms." — Cujus loci. " Of the spot." 

4. Adeo montibus, &c. *' The sea was confined by mountains so 
ck>se to it. " Many commentators give a/ngusHsy in this passage, the 
sense of prceruptis. But this is erroneous ; the adjective carries 
with it here the idea rather of something that contracts, or makes 
narrower, any space. Compare Ramshom, JU G. ^ 20^, p. 69S 

6. Ad egrediendunu " For disembarking." Supply wawitw. 

6. Ad haram nanam. " Until the ninth," i. e., three o'clock ii. 
the afternoon. 

7. Marmitfue, &c. *' And cautioned them, that all things should 
be performed by them at a beck and in a moment, as the principles 
•f military discipline, and especially as naval operations required; 
fince these are characterized by rapid and ever-varying movements." 
More literally, '* have a rapid and unstable motion." There is a 
good deal of doubt respecting the latmity of some parts of this pas- 
sage, and it is more than probable that some corruption has crept 
Into the text. 

A StJiUais anchoris " The anchors being weighed." — Aperts 

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79 ae piano HUore. This was probably the |iorlM# jLefiM9tu,a\*cid«d ti 
under note 2, page 79. 

9. Et essedariis, **And Essedarii.'' We hare preferred an 
glicizing the Latin t^rm to paraphrasing it in our idiom. By esse^ 
darn are meant those who fougit from the esseda, or British chs- 
riots of war. Essedum is said by the' ancient writers to be a word 
of Gallic origin, and denotes a species of two-wheeled chariot m 
use among the Gauls and Britons. It is said to have been ic^ented 
among the Belg». Compare the authorities cited by Adejong, 
Gloss. Med. et Inf. Lai. vol. iii., p. 359. 

10. Quogenere. " Which kind of force."— ProAtieJan*. "Ed 
• deavoured to prevent." 

11. Constitui non poterant., " Could not be oMwred." — IgmOu 
locis. " On a strange coast.* — ImpedUis manibus. " With theii 
hands already engaged." 

12. Et in fluctibus consistendum. "And to keep themseives 
steady amid the waves." Compare the Greek paraphrase, h r^ ^ 

13. Omnibus membris expeddti. "Having the free use of ail 
cheir lsmha."—^Notissimis locis. " In places wh&ch they knew per- 

14. Et equos instufactos incitarent. "And purred on theii 
horses accustomed to such exercise." InsuefactoSf equivalent to 
valde assuetos. 

,15. Quorum et species, &c. "Both whose figure was more 
novel to the barbarianS) and whose movements were quicker fof 
use," i. e., and which were more easy to be managed. The bar- 
barians, in consequence of the commerce carried on with theii 
shores by the merchants of Gaul, were accustomed to the sight oi 
vessels of burden, but not to the figure of ships of war. 

16. Onerariis nambus. The vessels of burden were employed o& 
this occasion, it will be remembered, as transports. — Et remis tjs- 
cttart. " And to be rowed briskly forward." 
go 1. Fundis. " By slings."— Tormenri*. "Engines." The tor- 
menta were engines for discharging heavy iron javelins, large stones^ 
&c. The term itself is denved from torqueo, as refemng to tht 
mode of working the machine. Thus, " tormentum^ quasi torqu^ 
mentumy ma/ihinay qua tela, saxa, aliave missUiOf ner»o out funs 
sontente iorquentur et jaciuntur.*^ 

2. Qua res magna usui, &c. " Which thing was of great ser 
vice to our men." — Navium. Referring to the vessels of war. 

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3. Qui ieeima Ugiomsj dec, *' He who bora the eagl« ol the QQ 
tendi legkm." The eagle, or mam standaid of the legion, was tmme 

by the eeniurioprimi piH, or primopUutf who was the oldest cen- 
tnrion in the legion. Consnh Aicfasological Index, s. v., eetUurie 
and aquila. 

4. Ea rea. ''This thing,'' i. e., what be intended to do. — Aqm 
Am hostibu* prodere. It was considered Tery disgraceful to lose 
anj standard, bat particularly so the main one of the legion. Copi 
manders of ten arailed themselves of Uiis circumstance, for the pur- 
lose of urging on their trocps, by casting the standard into the midst 
t/ the foe. 

5. PrasiUero. ** Will promptly discharge." The future per- 
ect (or,'as it is more frequently, but veiy erroneously called, the 

future subjunctiTe) is here used to express prompt execution, the fb 
tuke being thus represented as abready past. Compare Zumpt, L 
G. >. 320. 

6. r^tntam dedecus. Alluding to the disgrace coneiequent on the 
abandonment of their standards. Compare the language of Lip 
sius {Mil. Rom. 4, 6), ** Suadebat emm repetere (signs) non poena 
tanturnt qua manebat ii* aimssis, sed etiam pudor et religiOf et 
quasi ddjs ac sacra sua prodidissent.^* 

7. Ex proximis nambus. AH the MSS. have exproximis primu 
nambust Kit we have rejected primis with Hotomann, Scaliger, and 
some more recent editors, as savouring strongly of a pleonasm. 
The Greek paraphrast, moreover, has only U rOv iyybs vcdv. On- 
dendorp, indeed {ad Suet. Cos. 50, p. 82), endeavours to explain 
ex proximis primis navibuSf by making it equivalent toextis ntari^ 
bus qua in proximo ordine erant prima ; few, however, will agree 
with him. 

8. Cum compexissent Supply imtotf*. 

9. Neque firmiter insistere. «* Nor to get a firm footing," lit- 
erally, *< nor to stand firmly." — Atque alius alia ex navi, dice. " And 
kept joining, one from one vessel, another from another, whatever 
standard each had chanced to meet," i. e., the men from different 
ships being compelled to join whatever standard they first came up 

10 Singular es eg edicntes. ** Coming forth individually," or 
ene by one. — Impediios. ** Embarrassed in their movements."-— 
in wuoersos. " At our collected^ force." 

11. Quod cum ammum advertisset. For quod cum animadver* 
tisset. The strict grammatical construction, however, is aim m^ 
pertisset anmnm auod, i. e., vertisset antmum ad quod. 
G Q 

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})f> 12. Scaphas Umgarum mmum. ** The boats belongiog to tJM 
fhips of war." — SpecuUUoria navigia, ** The light Teasels o' ob- 
BoiraUon/' i. e., spy-vessels. These were light and fast sailing 
cutterS) generally used to e^^plore coasts^-and to watch the moTe- 
ments of an enemy's fleet. According to Vegetius (4, 37) they 
were painted of a greenish blue colour, in order to escape observa- 
tion. The sails and cordage were also greenish blue, and even the 
dipss of the mariners and soldiers on board. ** Ne tamen exphrato- 
rite naive* candore prodantuTf colore veneto {qui marinis est fluctibu* 
sitnilis) vela tinguntur et Junes : cera etiam qua ungere solerU naves 
inftciiur. Nauta quoque et milites venetam vestem induunt, ut non 
solum per noctem^ sed etiam per diemfacUius UUeant exphrantes.^^ 
With regard to the " cera" mentioned in this passage, consult Pliny, 

13. Swtul. For stnud ac. " As soon as." 

14. Equites. Alluding to the cavalry which had embarked U' 
the eighteen tranaports. These had not been able to " hold on 
their course and reach the island." It will be seen, from chapter 
28, that they had encountered a violent storm. Tenere cursum is 
applied to a vessel passing with a favourable wind to her point of 
destination, and is well explained in the Greek paraphrase by 

15. Legatos. Dio Cassius (39, 51) says, that these ambassadors 
were some of the Morini, who were on friendly terms with them * 
Wfnrovfft vpdf rdv Ko/aafia rcav MopJvuy rtv^f, ^CK<av a^toiv Hvnav. 

g j 1. Supra, Consult chapter 21. 

2. Oratoris modo. ** In charpcter of ambassador." We have 
recalled these words into the text with some of the best editors. 
They are found in numerous MSS., and in all the early editions 
ontil the Aldine. The reason urged for their omission is, that they 
savour of a mere gloss. But it may be stated, on the other hand, 
that the Greek paraphrase has d>s wpfaBvv, and, besides, that Gcesai 
would very naturally employ the words in question, to show that the 
laws of nations had been violated by the barbarians, in imprisonmg 
a Roman ambassador. 

3. Remiserunt. " They sent him back." — Contulerunt. " Laia 
'-^Propter imprudentiam. "^On account of their indiscretion,** i. 
e , as it was merely an act of indiscretion. 

4. Continentem. Referring to Gaul. 

5. Arcessitam. ** Sent for," :. e., since they had to be sent for. 
-^Remigrare in agros. " To retire to their lands," i. e., to go 

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Mck to their usual occupations, the war being at an end.-^Con9e- g] 

nUrt. Many editions have cofiwenerti which is inferior, and makes 
the sentence flow less smoothly 

6. Post diem quartum quamy dec. " On the fourth day afler.** 
—Supra demonstratum est. Consult chapter 23. 

7. Cur sum tenere. " Hold on its course," i. e., make any head- 
way. Compare the Greek tiSvipSfitiv. — Referrentur, " Wera cai* 
ried back." 

8. Qua est proptusj &c. ** Which lies more to the west."— 
DejieererUwr. Ciacconius, without any necessity, reads rejicerefUur, 
The verb dejicere i§ very properly employed here, as the vessels 
** were carried down" to the lower part of the island. 

9. Cum. ** When." — Necessario adversa noct^j 6lc. *' Having, 
through necessity, put to sea during an unfavourable night." 

10. Quidies. ** Which period," i. e., which day -of the month. 
All the MSS. have this reading. Some editions, however, omit 
dieSf and have merely qwB, which then refers to luna. Compare, 
however, the following expressions : " Jussu Pompeii^ qua man- 
data'^ {B. C. 3, 22); and, ''Ante c&mitia, qtiod tempos.'' {S(U 
lusty B. I. 36. Compare Cortius, ad loc.) So also Horat. Od. 4, 
11, 14, '*Idu8 tibi sunt agenda, Qui dies,''* &c. 

11. Nostrisque id erat incognitum. The Romans were accus- 
tomed to the navigation of the Mediterranean, where the tides are 
comparatively slight, and in some parts o^ which they hardly deserve 
the name. 

12. AJUctahat. ** Broke from their moorings and dashed against 
each other." — Admdnistrandi. " Of managing them." 

1. Totius exercitus, &c. Count Turpin de Crisse censures Cae g2 
sar very deservedly, for his imprudence in making this descent upon 
Britain, before he had either obtained an accurate knowledge of the 
coasts of the island, or had procured a sufficient supply of provis- 
ions. Caesar's wonted good fortune, however, once more saved him. 

2. Quod ommbus constahat. " Because it was evident to all." 
Literally, " because it was agreed upon by alL" — His in locis. Re- 
ferring to Britain. 

8. Exiguitate, *• "Hie small size." — Hoc, «* On this account." 

4. Rem producere. " To prolong the war." — Reditu. Hoto- 

mann very unnecessarily conjectures auditu. By reditu is meant, 

•f course, a return to Gaul. — Ex agris deducere. Compare the 

conclusion of chapter 27. " Suos remigrare in agros jusserunt.'* 

h Ex eventu navium suarum '* From what had happened to ^ 

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82^ ihips.'* ComparB Hirtiat, B. O, 8, 21 : " Qua Bethmeonm 
t^peculabaniur evetUum ;" and lAvj, 83,-48 : *< Jta Africa Hantmlm 
excessit, acepius patruB^ quam suorum everUus miserahtg,'* 

6. Et ex €0 quod tTUermiseraiU. " And from their having inter 

- naitted." Literally, '* and from this circumstance, becausethey had 

7. Ad omnes casus. ** Against eveiy emergency." More lit 
eially, " against eyerythmg that might hap{)en." 

8. Gravissime affUcta. " Most seriously mjnred.**—J.«re. ITh 
Romans made use of brass in the construction of their ships more 
frequently than iron. Thus, they covered the rostrum or beak, anr 
occasionally the sides, with this metal. The nails or spikes, also 
employed in securing the timbers of the vessel, were generally ol 
this same metal Compare Vegetius (5, 4) : " Utilius conjigiiur 
LUnirrta clams €treis quam ferrets.^ It must be borne in mind, 
that what we here call brass was, strictly -speaking, a kind of bronze. 
The term as is indiscriminately used by the Roman' writers to da- 
note copper, brass, or bronze. It was not till a late period that 
mineralogists, in order to distinguish them, gave the name of cu- 
prum to copper. The oldest writer who uses the word ct^num is 
Spartianus {Vit, CaracaU. c. 9), which appears to have been formed 
from the typrium of Pliny {H. N. 33, 6). 

9. Reliquis rU namgariy ^c. " He brought it to pass, that it 
could be safely navigated with the rest," i. e., he enabled himself 
to put to sea safely with the rest. 

10. Hominum. Referring to the Britons, not to the Romans. 
Compare the Greek paraphrase : fUpovs rS^ Bptrav&v h-i h ro7s iypok 
fiev&mtv. The British chieftains, it will be remembered, had at first 
disbanded their forces, and then had begun to withdraw them se- 
cretly from the fields agam, in order to renew hostilities. The per- 
sons mentioned in the text are those who still remained in the fields 
(i. e., at home), and had not yet obeyed the latter call. 

11. Pars etiam in castra ventitaret, "A parfkept evea com* 
ing firequently into our camp." Compare the Greek, fU^wf Siitaih 
T^ T&p *F»iialuv vrparoitiSif ^a/ii^(5vrur. 

12. Instatione. "On guard." — Quam consuetudo ferret. '* Titan 
was customary." Literally, " than custom used to bring with it," 
— /» ea parte, &c. Compare note 7, page 6. 

83 ^' •''* stationem succedere. "To take their post," i. e., to sue 
ceed them as a guard for the gates- Compare the Greek, r^ I 

T&K09 iiaii^te^i. 

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5. JSf, conferta legiane, 6cc, '< And that, the legion bein^ crowd- Q3 

cd together, darts were hurled upon it from all sides.*' 

3. Quod. "Inaemuch as." — Ex reUguis pmrtibus. ** From the 
ether parts of the adjacent coimtiy." — Pars una. ** One quarter/' 

4. Faucis mUrfeciis, Dio Cassius (39, 62) mafts the loss to 
have been a more serious one. — Reliquos incertis ordimbus, dec. 
^ Thej threw the rest into confusion fpr want of knowing theix 
tanks." The Romans were out of their ranks, and- mowix^ down 
the grain when the enemy attacked them. Hence the confusion 
which rasued from their inability to regain their ranks in so suddeif 
an onset. 

6. Getms hoe est^ 6lc, " Their mannor of fitting* from chariots 
18 as follows." — Per ofttnes partes. " In every direction." Com 
pare the Greek : vdvroBev. 

6. Ipso terrore equorum^ dec. " By the rery alann occasioned to 
the horses of the foe, and the noise of their wheels," i. e., by the 
alarm which they excite in the horses of the foe, through their rapid 
moTements up and down, and the rattling of their chariot wheels. 

7. Cum se intinuaverint. ** When they have insinuated them- 
eeWes," i. e., hare worked their way into. 

8. Auriga, '* The charioteers." Each chariot held two per- 
sons, the aurigai or driver,, and the essedanus^ or one who fought 
So, in Homeric Antiquities, the chariot is called Hfpt (quasi H^ 
pof), from its carrying two persons {iU and 0/fw), namely, the chari- 
oteer, or hvloxost and the warrior, or napcuSdms- {Terpstra, Aniiq, 
Horn. p. 306.) 

9. Atque ita eum, <&c. " And place themselves in such a situa- 
tion with their chariot, that if their masters are overpowered by ^ 
number of the foe, they may have a ready retreat to their fri^ids.'' 
By iUi are here meSnt the essedarii. 

10. Ita mobilitaieni, dec. "Thus they exhibit in battles the 
agility of horse, the steadiness of foot," i. e., they answer a doable 
purpose, serving both for cavalry and infantry. 

11. Incitatos equos susHnere. ** To rein in their horses when at 
fvSk gallop." SusHnere is here equivalent to reiinere, Gomparo 
Ovid, Fast. 5,^1: 

** Sape Jovem vidi, eum jam stia mittere veUei 
Fuhnina, tare dato sustinuisse manum,^* 

12 Et hrem^ dec "And in one instant to manage and torn 
them." Many editors supply loco after bremj but the sense requires 
an ePipsts of frmpo^i 

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33 13. Quthiu rebus. *' In this state of affairs." Qvihu$ re^uM 
may also be the dative, depending on tiUU. The former construc- 
tion, however, is the simpler of the two. 

14. Constiterunt, " Stood motionless,**' i. e., stopped driTing to 
and fro with lleir chariots. 

16. Lacessendum. Some of the later editions, contrary to Um 
Dest MSS., insert hostem after this word. Compare Liyy, 33, 7, 
and VirgO, Mn. 5, 429. 

16. Redvxit. Caesar here very artfully glosses over what was 
In reality a kind of flight on his part. Hence Lucan (2, 572) makes 
Pompey say of him on this occasion, " Territa quasitU ottendit 
terga Britannis.'' 

17. Qui erant in agriSf &c. " The rest of the Britons, who were 
in the fields, departed,'* i. e., left the fields to join the army of their 
countrymen. Compare chapter 32. 

18. Continitos cognniplwrea diet. ** For very many days in suc- 

g^ 1. Suis pradicaverunt. ** Published to their countrymen." — 
Sui liberandi. " Of freeing themselves," i. e., from the Roman 
yoke, with which they were threatened. — His rebus. " By these 

2. Nachts equites circiter trigirUa. " Having got about thirty 
horse." This small number surprises some of the commentators, 
who therefore read CCC. (i. e., treeentoSf " three hundred") in- 
stead of XXX. {triginta). But the MSS. have all the latter mmi- 
ber, and the Greek paraphrase, too, gives rpidKovTa.- A parallisl 
instance occurs in the commentaries on the African war (c. 6), 
where less than thirty Gallic horse put to flight two thousand Mauri- 
tanian cavalry. 

3. Ante dictum est, &c. Compare chapter^l and 27. 

4. Qu^s tanto spatto, 6k. ** Our men having pursued them as 
far as their speed and strength enabled them," i. e., as far as theii 
strength enabled them to' run. Literally, ** having pursued thexa 
over as great & space as they were able to traverse by running and 

5. Omnibus longe lateque, &c. " All things far And wixle being 
pri>8trated and burnt." Afflictis is here equivalent to eversis or 
stratis. The common text has merely in place of afflictis incenst9^ 
quCf the reading adificiis incensis. 

6. Propinqua die aquinoctii. " The equinox being at hand. " In 
the 20th chapter, it was said, " exigua parte astatis reliquay'** &c 
Hence the antum la eauinor is here, of course, meant "Hie «aui 

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nox (oi tim&when the days and nights are equal, over all the globe) g^ 
happens twice a year, on the 22d of March and 22d of September, 
the former being called the vernal, the latter the autumnal equinox. 

7. Hiemi mavigcUionem subjicieTuUtm. " That his voyage ought 
to be exposed to a storm." The weather about the time of tl» 
equinox is generally very stormy. 

8. Eosdem, quos reUqtue^ <&c. " Were all able to make the 
same port with the rest." — PaiUo infra. " A little lower down," 
i. e., lower down along the Gallic coast. 

9. Quihus ex navibus. *' From these two ships." Referring to 
the two naves (merariiBy or transports. 

10. Non'ita magno numero. "With no very large number." 
Jta in such phrases is equivalent to valde. Consult TurselUn. 
Part. Lot., and Scheller, Pracept. Styl. vol. i., p. 208. . 

11. Or be facto. The orb, or circular order, was a disposition of 
which Cssar speaks in his commentaries, as highly advantageous in 
cases of danger and extremity. It was resorted to on the present 
occasion as a means of defence. , 

1. Horis. Some editors read horasy which requires an ellipsis Q^J 
of qtiam. The ablative, however, i§ more customary with Caesar. 

2. Propter siccitates palndum. " On account of the dryness of 
the marshes." The marshes, which had formerly protected them, 
and had served as a barrier against the Romans, were now dry, it 
being the end of summer. . Hence they were deprived of their usual 
place of retreat. 

3. Quo perfugio, &c. " Of which refuge they had availed them 
selves the year before." The MSS. aiid editions vary here in a 
surprising degree. We have given the reading which harmonizes 
with the Greek paraphrase : raH-fti yap rjj ixoxotpficti ly vo6ad{y htt 

4. Duzerant. CoTop&re chz^tei 22. •-jPmnibtLseorumagrisvat' 
taiis, Sec. Csesar appears to have acted here upon the principle, 
that severe measures alone could check the natural tendency of th« . 
Gauls for insurrection and change. 

5. Eo. "Thither," i. e., to his winter quarters among the 
BelgSB. — Reliqna neglexerunt. Dio Cassius (40, 1) assigns this 
eiicumstance as a pretext on the part of Caesar for making a second 
descent on Britain. 

6. Supplicatio. Compare Suetonius (Fi/. C<m. c. 24), "Pro»- 
pere decentibus rebus, et sapius et plwrimum quam qiasquam die- 
mm supplicationes impetravit.^- Consult also note i 1, page 50. 

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87 1. Lucio Ifomitio, &c. A. U. C. 700, B. C. U.—ItaliaM Hitk 
eif or Cisalpine, Gaul is meant. This was Caesar^s province. 

2. Demonstrat, " He points out," i. e., gives a plan of. — Svh 
duetionespu, " And drawing them on shore." Compare chap. 11. 
Stibducere naves is to draw vessels on shore ; deducere navest tc 
draw them down from the land into the water. 

3. Nostra mari. The Mediterranean. Compare Mela, 1, 1 : "/d 
cimne, qua vejtU, quaque dispergUurf una vocabulo nostrum mare 

4. Has omnes actuariasy &c. " He ordered them all to be made 
of a light construction, to which purpose their lowness in the^water 
contributes greatly." By actuari<z naves are meant vessels remark- 
able for lightness and swiftness, and so called from the ease with 
which they were impelled {quia facile a^ potuerunt). They were 
managed by sails and oars, having but one bank of the latter, or, at 
farthest, two. Compare Livy (3S, 38) ; '* Decern naves acttmrias 
{nulla quarum plusquam triginLa remis agaiur) habeto" 

6. Ad armandas naves. " For equipping the vessels." — Ex His- 
pania. Among other things requisite for fitting out ships, Sp&in 
furnished large quantities oiSpartum^ or Spanish broom, much used 
for making ropes. Compare Strabo, 3, p. 160, and Plin, H. N. 

6. 7llyricum. This country, it will be remembered, was attached 
. to, and formed part of, Cssar's province of Hither Gaul. The 

whole provmce was Cisalpine or Hither Ganl, lUyricum, and Trans 
■^ine Gaul. Compare Suetonius^ Vit. Cos. c. 22. 

7. Ommbai rationibus, " By all reasonable means," i. e., to 
make every reasonable compensation for the injury. 

gg 1. Civitatem. *' Their whole sta^e." — Arbitros inter eivitaies dot, 
Ac. *' He appoints arbitrators among the states, to estimate the 
damage, and fix the compensation." Compare the language of For* 
cellini, ii explanation of the phrase asiimare litem " Aestimara 


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tLCem est, decemere quanta pecuhia a reo post damnationetn sohen- gg 
io sit : atque hoc riUione lis ponitur pro re de qua lis est.** 

2. Comoentihusque peractis. Oompaie note 15, page 33. The 
idea intended to be conveyed by this phrase is, that the business 
of the supreme tribunal of the province had been performed in its 
several circuits. 

3. Sexeentas. lipsius thinks this number incredible, consider- 
ing the shortness of the time ; but the reference is to old vessels 
ihat had been repaired, as well as to new ones that had been built. 

4. Cujus supra demonstravimus. Referring to the naves actuar 
tt(B mentioned in the previous chapter. Cujus is here put by at- 
traction for quodj in imitation of the Greek. 

6. Instrttctas. ^ " Got ready." The proper term to be employed 
in such caises. Some editions have constructaSf which is far infe- 
rior, and does not suit the number of vessels as well as instructas. 
Compaie note 3. 

6. Neque multum abesse, &^, " And that there was not much 
wanting of their being able to be launched in a few days," i. e., 
and that not many days were required to make them fit for launching. 

7. Portum Jtium, Consult Geographical Index, and compaie 
note 9, page 7S. — Transmissum, " Passage across." — A eon 
tinenti. " From the contment," i. e., from the continent of GauU 
to the island of Britain ; or, as we would say, from land to land. 

8. Huic rei, ** For this purpose," i. e., to execute these orders. 
Compare the Greek paraphrase, v^ rd it rtOra itdrparrttp. 

9. ExpediHs, ^'Disencumbered of baggage." Supply impede- 
meniiSf and compare note 11, page 42. 

10. Cingetorix. . O'Brien, in his Irish and English Dictionary, 
makes this name equivalent in Celtic to Cin-go-toir, i. e., ** caput ad 
txpeditionem" with Ver (** a man") prefixed. The name will then 
signify, the chief, or leader, of «i expedition. Sir W. Qeetham, 
«n the other hand ('< The Gael and Cymbri," p. 197), makes the 
name come fromeingead, ** valiant,' and rig, ** a king," with a sim- 
ilar prefix of Ver. 

11. AUer, Refemng to Cingetorix. — Confirmavit, <*A88iir»3 


12. Siham Ardaennam " Hie forest Arduenna," i. e., the 
forest of Ardemies. Compare B G. 6, 29, and consult Greognph- 

■ ical Index. The student %ill marit ^he construction in siham Ar- 
iuennam aMt^,'whj|| implies a going* or conveying into the wood, ,^ 
previous to the act of concealment, whereas in s&ea Arditttam ah- 

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Page. • 

gg diHs would mean that the persons concealed had been in the mooi 

some period befoie the concealment took place. 

g9 1- Quoniam dvitati constUere non posserU. "Since they coal^ 

not take any measures for the common welfare." The dissensionf 

between Indutiomarus and Cingetorix prevented them fpjm doing 

anything for tl^e interests of the state at large, and they therefore 

came to Caesar to entreat his protection for themselves individually* 

3. Laberetur. " Might fallpff," i. e., might revolt. — Itaque esst 

civitatemy &c. ** That the state, therefore, was completely undei 

his control." 

3. Permissurum, Some read commissurumj but the former is 
the true lection. The distinction between commiUere and permit' 
tere is drawn by Cicero, Verr. 2, 1, 32, " Jncommoda sua nostrit 
committere legibusy quam dolori auo permittew maltierunt.** 

4. Quaque eum ret, 6lc. ** And what cause detained him from 
his projected purpose." — Omnibus ad Brittanicum, &c. ''When 
everything was prepared for the British war," i. e., now that every- 
thing was ready, &c. 

5. Nominatim. " Expressly." — Consolahis, &c. " He con- 
soled Indutiomarus, and exhorted him," &c. Csesar consoled In- 
dutiomarus, for the temporary deprivation of his son and relations, 
whom he intended carrying with him, as hostages, into Britain, and 
assured him that they should suffer no injury. 

6. Hos singiUatimy &c. " He reconciled these, man by man, to 
Cingetorix." — Quod cum merito, &c. " This he both thought was 
done by him in accordance with the deserts of the latter, and at the 
same time imagined it was greatly his interest, that the authority of 
one, whose signal attachment towards himself he had clearly per 
reived, should be as great as possible among his own countrymen.'* 

7. Suam gratiamj &c. " That his influence was lessened among 
his countrymen." His influence was lessened by the reconciliation 
which had been effected between Cingetorix and the other chie^ 
tains. — MvUo gravius hoc dolore ezarsit. " Blazed out with aug- 
mented fury, through resentment at this." 

8. In Meldis. The Meldi here refenred to were situate oi the 
Scaldis, or Scheldt, between what are now Gand and Bruges. 
Some editors, imagining that there was only one Grallic tribe of this 
name, that situate on the Mediterranean coast, have changed Mdiis 
mto Belgis, but the old reading is correft. 

^ 1. Antea dictum est. Compare book l,4k>^pter 3. 

2. Cwpidum navarum rtntm ** Fond of change,'* i. •., fond oi 

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political changes, or of revolutions in the state. — Magm antm*. QQ 
"OfaJugh spirit." 

3. Jam. " Already before this." — Sihi deferri. " Was bestowed 
ipoD iiim." Was vested in him. 

4. Recuscmdi aui deprecandi causa. " For the purpose either at 
refusing his appointment, or entreating to have it revoked." 

5. Id factum. *» This fact."— fe suis hospitUma. " From his 
& ends." More literally, ** from those connected with him by the 
ties of hospitahty." 

6. Petere cotUendit. " Strove to obtain." — Rehgionibtu. ** By 
religious scruples." What these were we are not informed. Ho- 
tomann thinks, that the allusion is to the performance of some vow, 
QX of funeral rites, while Rhellicanus and Glandorp suppose Duin- 
nohx to have pretended that the omens or auspices were unfavour- 
able. This latter is the more probable opinion. 

7. Obstinate. " Peremptorily." — Sevocare singulos. " To cafl 
them aside one by one." 

8. Non sine causa fieri, &c. ** That it was not done without 
some secret motive, that Gaul was stripped of all her nobility." 

9. Hos omnes in Britanniamy &c. Alluding to the hostages 
which Cssar intended taking with him into Britain, as a means cH 
kejping the Gauls quiet during his absence. — Fidem reliqtus inter- 
ponere. " He pledged his word to the rest." — Quod esse ex usu. 
&c. " Whatever they should understand to be for the interest ol 

10. Quod tantvm, &c. " Because he had ever paid so mud: 
respect to the Aeduan state." 

11. Quod longiuSf <&c. " And that, since he saw his mad folly 
going too far, he ought to take care, lest the other might have it ir 
his power to do any injuiy to himself and the Roman govemment.*- 
The construction of the latter part of the clause is, prospiciendum 
(esse sibi, i. e., Csesari) ne (ille, L e., T>\3Ji:^onx) posset nocere qrdi 
sibi (Caesari) ac reipublica. 

12. Corns ventus. "The northwest wind." Some editions 
have Caurus ventus, but the form Corns is more conunon. The 
wind here meant is the same vvith the dL^iarns of the Greeks. 

18. NikUo tamen sectus, &c. ''But still, not the less on that 
account, to make himself acquainted with all his designs." Supply 
ut oefore cognofceret, from the previous clause. 

14. Omnium impeddtis animis. " While the attention of all was 
Migaged." i. e., with the embarcati<Hi. 

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gi U Hunc. Refeiring to Diimnorix. — Prosano. '^Asapnidat 
laan," i. e., as might be expected frou, or as bdpame, a prudent 
man. Literally, **as a man in his senses." — Qui neglexittet 
^ Since he had slighted.*' The student will note the force of the 
relative here with the subjunctiye mood. 

2. Emm. ** However." Enim is here used as an adversatiTe 
particle, with the force of auUm, instances of which are of no un- 
frequent occurrence in Tacitus, Plautus, and other writers. Coin- 
pare the words of Gronovius {ad Liv. 34, 32), *^ObservarurU eru- 
diti ez PlautOy hane partiadam (ehim) interdum a fronU oratioMM 
tnduere vim advergaUvay 

3. Rem frumentariam. The common text has ret frumentaruE^ 
but the accusative is far preferable. Consult Sanctius, Min. 3, 3, 
vol. i., p. 514. 

4. Consiliumque pro tempore, &c. " And might take measures 
according to time and circumstance," i. e., such measures as time 
and circumstance might require. 

5. Pari numero equitum, &c. ** A body of cavalry equal to that 
which he was leaving on the continent." The student will mark 
the elegance of the construction in the tozt. It is equivalent to 

^ numero eqvitum pari ei numero quem relinquebat. The number ol 
Dorse referred to is two thousand. 

6. Leni Africa. " By a gentle southwest wind." The 'sAh 
west wind was called Afiricus by the Romans, because coming to 
them in the direction' of Africa Propria, the modem district o. 

7. Longius delatus <Mtu. " Being carried down a considerable 
distance by the tide." Longius, literally, " a greater distance than 
ordinary." — Svh sinistra rtlictam. " Far away on the left." 

8. Seeutus. *< Having taken advantage of." 

9. Virtus. "The patient endurance." Virtus here denotes 
patient endurance of jke fatigue of rowing, or, in other words, 
bodily labour resolutely endured. — Vectoriis gravibusque navigiis. 
« Though in transports and heavily laden vessels." 

10. Cum annotinis. "With the ships employed the previous 
year." More literally, "with the ships of the |»evious year.*' 
Annotinus means, " of only one year." Compare the Greek pan- 
phrase : «dv Tois ro9 vp6a$€» trwt. Some, very incorrectly, read «n- 
nonariis, referring to vessels of burden used in transporting pio- 

11. Sui comrnoix. Supply <»Mtt So in Greek iMca is often 


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13. CohorHbtu decern. Ten cohorts formed a legion, and the Ql 

complement of cavalry for each legion was three hundred. Cssar, 

however, calls the force referred to " ten cohorts/' and not ** one 

•gion," most probably because the cohorts in question belonged to 

ilfferent legions. 

13. Eo minus verUus Tiavibus, A somewhat unusual phrase, 

^it occurring also in Cicero, Acad. 4, 45, " Vos mihi veremini.^^ 

"In littore moUi atque aperto. " On a smooth and open shore." 

iOmpare the explanation of Morus : <* MoUi, nullis scopuUs pericu 

tto ; aperto, nullts rupUnu out prominentiis impedito.^* 

I. Crebris arboribus succisis. The trees thus felled were 92 

.i&ced together in form of an abattis or breastwork. — Praclusi 

Blocked up." 

3. Propugnabant. •" Came forth to fight." 

3. 7*cstudifie. Consult Archaeological Index. — Aggere ad mu- 
nUioncs adjeclo, ** A mound having beei^ thrown up against the 
fortifications of the enemy." A mound is pi6perly said to be 
thrown oip, jaci ; while a tower is said agi (or exdiari. B. G. 5, 

4. Miliies. ** The foot." MUites is here opposed to equiUs, . 
and is to be taken, therefore, in the sense of pedites^ So in the 
61st chapter of the 7th book, " exercitus eguitattuque." 

5. Superiore n^^, " On the preceding night." — Afflictas, &c, 
** Had been dashed against each other, and driven on shore." Some 
read in lUtus^ but in littore is more graphic, since it implies, that 
the vessels had not only been driven on shore, but were still Ijring 

** i^absisterent, "Could hold out," i. e., could stand fiim 
against. Compare Livy, 27, 7, ** Vix Annibali atque ejus arrms 

7^ Ex eo concursu navium. ** From this collision of the ves- 
sels," i. e., from the ships thus running foal of one another. 

8. Coram perspicit. ** He sees with his own eyes," i. e., before 
him, on the spot. Compare the Greek paraphrase, ;^(jpav airoc 
tvravda Kareidev. — Magna negotio. " With great trouble." 

9. Fabros. "The artificers." Each legion had its proper 
eomplement of artificers. Compare Yegetms, 2, 11, '*Habet 
prater ea legio fabros. lignarios, instructores, earpentarioSf ferra- 
rioSf** dec, and consult Stewecchius, ad loe. p. 168. Under the 
termfabri Cesar here includes the fdbri lignaru^ or carpenters, 
•ad the fabri farrariij or smiths. 


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92 xO. Ut quam plurimdiy" &c. "To build as many vesseia aa 
possible with the legions that are with him,'' i. e., with the legions 
which he commanded. 

93 1. Subduct. "To be drawn on shore." Supply in uriiitm 
The full form is given B. G, 4, 29. — Una, munitume. "By ont 
general fortification," i. e., the same rampart and ditch were to en- 
compass the vessels and the tents. 

2. Unde, Referrmg to the place where he was when the newt 
reached him of the disaster of his vessels. 

3. Summa imperiif <&c. " The supreme command and direction 
of the war." — Casrivellauno. The derivation which Sir William 
Beetham gives for this proper name is extremely amusing, and showt 
the reckles^ handiwork of a professed etymologist. He deduces it 
from CasSf a man's name, and tealln " a little mouth," and makes 
Cassivellaunus equivalent, therefore, to " Cass with the little 
mouth !" 

4. Superiore tempore. " At a former period." — CoTdinentui. 
Put for continua. So amtinentes silva {B. G. 3, 28), and om^- 
nentes paludes {B, G. 6, 31). 

• 5. Quos natoSf 6cc. " Who they say it has been handed down 
by tradition were bom in the island itself," i. e., of whom they havi 
a tradition that they were sprang from the ven^oil of the island 
itself. This b in accordance with the erroneMi, but very preva 
lent, belief among so many of the nations of antiquity, that theur 
first ancestors were produced or bom from the earth. The Athe 
nians in particular were remarkable for this, and hence the name 
ahrSxOovig which they applied to their race. Thus Thucydides re 
marks (1,2), r^v yo^v 'Arrtic^ SvOpUKOi ukovv oi airol itl. Where the 
scholiast adds, r$ yhti Sn^vin, oh ydp ^aav iBdvarot, The mos/ 
ancient nations thought themselves indigenous, because, having lonf 
dwelt in the same country, they at length forgot their origin. 

6. Quilms otH ex cimtaHbus. "From which being sprung.** 
CmUatUnu is here repeated with the relative, accordisg to Cssar'i 
not mifrequent custom. Compare note 7, page 6. — Bello EUAo. 
" The war having been waged," i. e., when the war was over. 

7. Hominum est tnfimta muUitudo. " Hie number of inhabi* 
tants is unbounded," i. e., the population is immense. — Gatlicu 
eonsimUia, Compare Jomandes 2, 2 : " Virgeas habitant casas 
eommunia tecta cum peccrcy fwoctqut iUis sape sunt domus.*^ 

8. Utuntur aut are, dec. " They employ for money either cop- 
per yt obiong pieces of iron, ascertained to be of a certain we^jht.* 

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LttefBlIjT, ** tried by a ceitain weight." The tenn taUU, in this 93 
passage, occasions great trouble to the commentators, and they giro 
it, generally speaking, the meaning of <* rings," because the Greek 
parapbiast "tenders it by SoktvXIois, Nothing, however, can be more 
exToneo'us than this interpretation. Talea properly denotes awood- 
tn pin, or small piece of wood shaped like a spike, used in archi* 
tecture for connecting together the timbers of an edifice. (Vitruv. 
1, 5.) It is then applied to agricultural operations, and means a 
small branch of a tree, sharpened like a spike or stake, and planted 
in the ground to produce another tree. {Varro, R, R. I, 40.) 
Cssar employs the term here in precisely the same sense, as far as 
regards shape ; but as talea properly means something of wood, he 
appends the adjective ferrettSf in order to show that the talea here 
meant were pieces of iron. The Britons, therefore, according to 
him, employed for money either copper, or small pieces of iron shaped 
like spikes. This view of the subject receives a striking confirma- 
tion from the custom said to have prevailed among the earlier 
Greeks. The earlier iSoXbg, according to ancient authorities, deno- 
ted originally *' a spit,*' i. e., a piece of iron or copper fashioned like 
a small spit, and used for money, and six of these made a drachma 
(ipaxf^), or, ** handful,*' these bemg as many as the hand can grasp. 
Consult on this point, Plutarch, Vit. Lya. c. 17. JtUius PoUuz 
9', 6, ^ 77, who refers to Aristotle in support of this assertion. Eus 
tathf ad R^, 465. EtymoL Mag, a. v., dpiXiaxos. 

9. Naseitur ibi plumbum album. ** Tin is found there." Lit- 
erally, ''is prodaced there." By plumbum album is meant tho 
icacalTtpos of the Greeks. Compare Plin. H. N. 36, 16. The tiu 
mines of England are situated in Cornwall, which occupies the south- 
western extremity of the country. — In mediterraneis regionibus. 
This statement of Caesar's is incorrect. Tin is not brought firoir 
the interior. 

10. Materia. " Wood," i. e., trees.— Fagitm. « The beecL" 
The fny^ of Dioscorides (1, 121), and 6^6a of Theophraatus (3, Wj, 

11. Ammi vduptatUque coma. "For the sake of amusement 
•id pleasure. — Loca sunt temperatiora, &c. " The climate is 

more temperate than in Gaul, the cold being less intense." The 
account which TacittTs gives of the climate' of Britain (Vit, Agrie. 
18), agrees very well with what it is at present : " Coehim crebris 
'mbribus ae nebulis foedum : asperitas frigorum ahest.*"* 

12. Triquetra. " Triangular.'? This, teking the general form 
vf the i^and, is not very far from the truth. Caesar must have ob- 

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93 tun^ his information, respecting the shape of the island, from the 
account of others, since Britain was not circumnavigated by the 
Romans till the time of Agxlcola. {Tacit. Agric. 10.) In the sain« 
way are we to account for Cesar's acquaintance with the manneis 
and customs vof the Britons, since he never penetrated into th^ in- 

13. Ad Cantium. "At Kent." — Ad orieniem solem. Supply 
wpectvt. — Tenet circiter, d&c. " Contains about five hundred miles." 
Measuring in a straight line from Bolehum Promontoriun, or iMnd's 
End, to Cantium Promontorium, or North Foreland ix» distance 
does not exceed 344 British, or 356 Roman miles. If Cssar in- 
cluded the irregularities of the coast, the measurement would b 
greatly enlarged. 

14. Ad Httpaniam, This statement is very enoneous, as Spam 
lies to the south, not to the west of Britain. 

1^^ 1. Dimidio minor, dec. '* Less than Britain, as is supposed, by 

a half." The superficial extent of Great Britam is computeJ at 

77,370 square miles, and that of Ireland at 30,370; hence the 

magnitude of the former is upward of two and a half times that of 

* the latter. 

2. Sed pari spatio transmisstis, &c. '* But the passage across 
to Britain is the same distance as fron\ Gaul." 

8. Mona. The Isle of Man. Consult Geographical Index.— 
Complures praterea minores, &c. " Besides several other smaller 
islands are thought to lie facing in the channel." Some read Stt£- 
jecta for objecta, but the Greek paraphrase has ivrticfloAu. The 
Orkney and Shetland Islands are meant, but that they are properiy 
speaking ohjecta is, of course, untrue. 

4. Dies continuos triginta, dec. ** That there is night for thirty 
succeMvve days at the winter-solstice," i. e., 22d December. Tki« 
report was without any foundation in truth. 

5. Nisi certis ex aqtta, dec. ** But we perceived, by accurate 
water measures, that the nights were shorter than on the continent,** 

1 i. e., but measuring the time by water-glasses dec- The allusien 
here is to the clepsydri, or, as we would call it, jvater-clock. The 
clepsydra, as its name imports, was a Grecian invention, and was 
first adopted at Rome in the third consulship of Pompey. {Auetor 
dud. de cams, cor, eloq. 38.) In the most eomtnon kind of water 
clocks, the water issued drop by drop through a hole in one vessel, 
and fell into another, in which a light body that floated marked the 
^ height of the fluid as it rose, by poinding to a scale uf hours on die 

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^ 1^ 

nde of the vessel, and thus indicated the time. All the eUpsy^ 9 j 

ira, however, had this defect in common, that the water at first 
flowed out rapidly, and afterward more slowly, so that they required 
much care and regulation. Consult Beckmartt History of Inven- 
tionSf To^ :., p. 136. 

6. Septingentorum millium. " Seven hundred miles.** A cal 
culation which exceeds the truth 90 Roman miles. The length 
of the western coast is 590 British, nearly equal to 010 Roman, 

7. C-mha Septentritmes. " Opposite the north." This is' not 
correct ; the east is much nearer the truth. — Octingenta. This 
greatly exceeds the real measurement. The exact length is about 
550 British, or 570 Roman, miles. 

8. Hutnanissimt. *^ The most civilized." — A Gallica contuetu 
dine. "From the customs of Gaul.** Compare B. G. 6, 21, 

* Germant multum ah hoc consnehidine differurU." 

9. Se vitro infidunt. " Stain themselves with woad,'* i. e., Ot 
a blue colour. The Greek name for this plant is isatis ; its other 
appellation in Latin, besides vitrum^ is glastum. This last is sup- 
posed to be derived from the old British word glasy which means* 
not only " gre«n,** but also " blue.** The Romans, it is thought, 
confounded the glas of the Tritons with the old German word glas^ 
applied fir»t to " amber,** and afterward to " glass,*' and hence gave 
the name of vitrum to the plant in question. 

10. Atque hoCf 6lc. " And hence they are of a more frightful 
appearance in battle.** The Greek paraphrast very neatly expresseit 
this by, &TTt h reus fidxais KaravXntrM^raroi rb ^tdfid tin. 

11. Capilloque sunt promisso, &c. "They have, moreover, 
long hair, and every part of the body shaved except,** &c. — Uxores 
habentf &c. The order is, dent ditodenique (Britanni) habent uxores 
communes inter se. Render deni duodeniquey " parties of ten at 

lU. Quo primumy &c. ** By whom each female when a virgin 
was first married.** With deducta est supply domumy and compare 
the phrase dueere domumy " to marry.*' 

13. Tamen ut. "In such a way, however, that,*' i. e., with so 
little success that. Before tamen supp'y tto, and consult Palairet^ 
mips. ^ Lot. p. 157. 

14. Cupidius insecuti. " Our men having pursued them too 
eagerly.** — Hit. Referring to the Britons. — Intermisso spatio. 
»* Some interval having elapsed.*' — ImprudenUbus nostris. * Ow 
men not expecting t*'em.'' 

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95 1. Suonussis. "Being Bent to their aid.*' Put for Cmaarm 
, m>re usual form of expression, ttibsidio missis, Oudendoip, is in 
fiyoxa of immissis. 

2. Atque his prinuSy &c. '* And these the first of two legions.** 
The first cohort of a legion not only exceeded the rest in number, 
but contained the brayest men. Thus Vegetius remarks (2, 6), 
** Prima cohors reliquas et numero militum et dignitate prcKedit,** 
Lipsiusy however, insists, that what Vegetius here says about 8upe< 
riority of numbers merely applies to later warfare, and that the first 
cohort only surpassed the rest in its containing braver men. {Mil. 
Rom. 1, dial. 4, p. 67, seq.) 

3. Cum JuBf <S&c. "When these had taken their ground at a 
very small distance from each other.'* The common text incor- 
rectly punctuates after spattOy bonnecting mter se with constiHssent. 
The Greek paraphrast gives the true meaning, HKiy^ iv* iXX^Xan 

4. Perruperunt. Supply hostes. — Immissis. " Being sent out 
against them." Compare the Greek, nXtidimv ixiX0ova&» oirti^. 

5. Cum dimicaretur. " As the battle was fought." — hUeUectum 
*est. Supply a nobis. " We perceived." 

6. Cedentes. "Those who gave ground." 

7. Dimicare. Before this word pralio occurs in some editions 
But, as it does not appear in many MSS., and is not at all needed, 
we^have thrown it out. — I1U. Referring to the Britons. 

8. Et pedibus, dtc. " And fought with great advantage o^ foot." 
Literally, " fought on foot in unequal combat." — Equestris auUm 
proelii ratio, &c. " The manner of fighting, however, on the part 
of the British horse, brought with it equal and the same danger to 
our cavalry, whether the fonrior retreated or pursued." Compare 
the explanation of Lemaire : " Ratio qua equites Britanni pugnor • 
bant idem periculum Ron^Mis inferebat, seu ii (Barbari sell.) cede- 
rent seu insequerentur.*^ 

9. Conferti. " In close array." — Ran. " Scattered here and 
there." The reference is to the cavalry of the Britons. — Atqit6 
(dii alios, &c. " And kept relieving one another in succession, 
while the vigoro':iS and fresh took the places of those that wera 

10. Jjenius. " With less spirit " 

11. SiCf uti ab signis, &c. " With so much fury, as to be close 
_ ap with tha standards and legions." Non ahsisterenty litenlly, " not 

to stanf* .t a distance from," is here equivalent to prope starent 

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12. QuMA. " JJniii^^Suhsidio conjui, " Confident of being 95 

13. Sumnus copiis. " With any very numerous force." Liter- 
afly, ** with numerous forces." Some render summis copiis, " with 
all their forces," but the Greek paraphrast favours the other inter- 
pretation, ohtttrt voXXfi ivvdfui roig 'Tufiaiots avpifu^av. 

1. Animum ddvertit. For animadvertit, which appears in the QQ 
conmion text, Graevius observes (ad Cic. Off. 2, 19) that the 
copyists have in many places Altered this elegant form of e3q)ression, 
substituting for it the latter. « 

2. Ripa autem eratf &c. ** The bank, moreover, was defended 
by sharp stakes fastened in front of it, while other stakes of the same 
kind, fixed down beneath the water, were covered by the river." 
Lipsius {Poliorcet. 6, diaL 3) thinks we ought to read here plumbo 
instead of JlumiTte, because Bede, who lived in the eighth century, 
speaks in his history (1, 11) of certain stakes, still seen in his time 

in this quarter, which had lead attached to them in order to keep ^ 
them in their places. Caesar, however, says they were sharpened 
at the end, which would supersede, of course, the necessity of any 
lead being employed ; and besides, Bede may easily have been led 
into error with regard to the particular spot. Stakes kept in their 
places by means of lead indicate, moreover, a higher degree of civ- 
ih'zation than that to which 4he Britons had thus far attained. 

3i Cum capite solo, &c. " Though they were above the water 
mth the head only," i. e., though their heads only were above the 
nrater. Literally, " though they were out of the water with the 
liead alone." 

4. Ut supra demonstrammus. Compare chapter 17. — Servabat. 
** Kept watching." Servabat is here put for ohservahat. Compare 
the Greek paraphrase, vaper^pii. Servare for ohservare is of fre- 
quent occurrence. Compare Sil. Ital. 6, 384. Tereneef Andr. t, 
8, 7. Lucan, 1, 601, <&c. 

6. Ex via. " From the beaten track." i. 4^ public road or high* 
way. — Impeditis, " Intricate." 

6 . Magno cum periculo, &c. *< With great danger to our horse ." 
—Hoc metu. ** By the fear of this." 

7. Relinquebatur, " It remained." — Discedi, . Supply ah eqvi^ 
Hbus, " The cavalry to depart." — Et hostibus noceretur, " And 
che enemy were injured." — Quantum labore^ &c. ** As far ai tlie 
(egionary soldiers could effect this amid fatigue and marching,*' i %^ 
unid the fatigue of a long march. 

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95 8. ConhntnUm Oalliam So Lhy, 31, 45, « ContinenM AU^ 

ca,^' and Nepos, TTiemisL 3, '< CofUinens terra,** 
9. il/^icc tn emtatem mittai, &c. '* And to send him into the 

state, to preside oyer it and hold the government." ComiMie the 

Greek paraphrase : koL a^6v r9; «itfXcc#f »a2 c^v if^wra vifoniv. Hks 

reference is to Manduhratius. 
97 ^' Obndes ad numerum, &c. " Hostages, to the nmnber le- 

quired, and an abundant supply of com.** The student will oarii 

the force of the plural in frumerUa. 

2. Ab omni militum, 6lc. " And secured from all Tiolence on tha 
part of the soldiery.'* — Cenimagm. Most probably the Cenomani, 
who had come over from Gaul and settled in Britain. The Greek 
paraphrase has Kmfuiyo2. 

3. Oppidum Casaivellaunu Bede {Hitt. Ang. 1, 2) calls thia 
*own CassibeUaum, 

4. Oppidum aviem, &c. '* Now the Britons call it a town, 
when," dtc. The native term was Caer, Compare Cesar's de- 
scription of a British town with that given by Strabo, 4. p. 200 : 
vtfXftf BfxravcSv €lalv ol Spv/u^ c. r. X. 

5. Locum. **The place in question." One MS. has hieum, 
which Oudendorp pronounces no inelegant reading. 

6. Ad mare. " On the seacoast." Compare the Greek paw- 
phrase, vapaBaXacata. — Supra. Chapter 13. 

7. Castra navalia. " The naval camp." This has already been 
mentioned in the 11th chapter. — Oppugnent. "Storm." Used 
here for expugnent, as adoriantur precedes. 

8. In corUinenti. " On the continent," i. e., in Gaul. — Qui^ 
vectigalis. " How much tribute." laterally, " what of tribute." 

93 I. Refectas, « Repaired."— Ifw de luctis, " These being launch- 
ed." Supply ad mare. Literally, " being drawn down to the sea," 

2. Duobus commeatibus. " By two embarcations." 

3. Navigationibus. " Voyages." — Desideraretur. " Was mis- 
sing," i. e., was losF. The Greek paraphrast has iearairtiTM09MUt 
" was sunk." 

4. Prioris commeatus. ** Of the previous convoy." — Locum 
aperent "Made good the harbour," i. e., reached the island 
More literally, " reached the (destined) place." 

5. Angustius rmlites coUocavit. " Stowed his troops m a narrow* 
mr compass than usual." 

6. Subductis navibua. " llie ships being drawn on shorn * 
8upp'y tn aridt m 

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7. Fi-umentum angustius provenerat. ** Grain had been pro- 98 

duced in less quantities than usual," i. e., the crop had partially 
failed, or there was a scarcity of grain. 

d. In plures civitates. " Among a greater number of states," L 
8., than had before been customary. — Essuos. Some editors sug- 
gest Aeduos as a reading, because no mention is elsewhere made 
o'' the Essui But Cssar is here speaking of nations near the lower 
1 thine, whereas the Aedui wore at a considerable distance from that 

9. Belgio, By Belgium is here meant a part of Gallia Belgica, 
not the whole. It comprehended the territory of the Belloyaci, 
Atrebates, and Ambiani. Consult CellariuSj Geog, Antiq. vol. ii., 
p. 307. 

10. Medert. "Remedy." 

1. Miliums passuum centum. There is an error in this, for from 09 
the confines of the Eburones to the winter quarters of Crassus the 
distance was nearly 180 miles. The Greek paraphrast, on the other 
hand, erraby excess, for he has h dySo^Kovra crdSiuy ftvpidvi m^ul^tro 

2. Tertium jam hunCy &c. The true reading of this passage is 
very much disputed. The one which we have given rests in part 
on the editions of Basle, Aldus (15S0), Glareanus, &c., and partly 
on the Greek paraphrase : t^ it rris paaiXilai airov Tpirt^ 2r<i, ol ivaiup- 
HS avTOVf ToXkSiv ttjs TrdXfwj ip)(6»T(i)V toUtov to3 vpdyiiaroi mlrhtv 

yiyivjiidvuv, i^ in(pawvs iviicrttvav. Hunc refers to Tasgetius, not to 

3. Quod ad plures pertinehat. " Because several persons were 
concerned." Literally, "because it pertained to more persons 
than one." 

4. In hibema perventum^ &c. " That they had reached eir 
respective quarters, and that a place for wintering in had bee /br- 
tified by each." 

6. Ad fines regni suiy &c. "Had met Sabinus and Col od 
%he borders of their kingdom." 

6. De re communi. " Relative to their common interes ."— 
Minut posse " Could be adjusted " 

7. Missu CtBsaris. Equivalent to mittente Cctsare. " Jeing 
despatched for this purpose by Cssar." 

1. Plurimum ei^ 6lc. ** Acknowledged he was under very great ] (K^ 
obligations to him.** — Stipendio liberatus esset. " He had ieen 
liberated from tribute," i. e., freed from the payment of i«. 

2. De oppugnnJttone castrorum. "As regarded th attack (m 
our eamn " 

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100 ^' ^^^^^ ^*'^ tmperia, &c. " And that his authority ma of 
Mztk a nature, that the people, at large had no le^s power over him 

than he had over them." 

4. En humiliiaU ma. " From his own weakness." Compars 
the Greek paraphrase, rotfrvo ii vtXfov r^ i/ihv rawtivSrvrm i4wmfimi 

6. Sed esse GaUia commune consilium. " But that it was tho 
common design of Gaul," i. e., that it was a common and precon- 
certed plan on the part of the whole nation. 

6. Non facile GaJUoSy &c. " That it was no easy matter for 
Gauls to give a refusal to Gauls," L e., a refusal to join with them. 

7. Quihis quoniamj 6ic. " That since he had satisfied them, as 
far as duty to his coimtry was concerned, so now he had respect to 
the claims of duty, as regarded the favours bestowed upon him Vj 
Caesar," i. e., as he had discharged his duty to his country, he 
would now discharge that which he owed to Csesar in return for his 
numerous kindnesses. — Pietate. The term pietas among the Ro- 
man writers has a very extensive meaning, denoting the duty which 
we owe to our parents, relations, friends, country, and the Deity. 
The reference in the present passage is to country merely. 

8. Pro kospitio. " In consideration of the ties of hospitality.*' 
— Conductam Rhenum transisse. "Having been hired for the 
purpose, had crossed the Rhine." — Hanc. " That this band." 

9. Ipsorum esse coTisUium, "That it was for themselves td 
consider." Ipsorum refers to Titurius and Cotta. Compare the 
explanation of Lemaire : " Deliberent ergo inter se (scil. Sabinus et 
Cotta), seu Meant Romani, au veUnt" d^c. 

10. Quod cum faciaty &c. " That in doing this, he was both 
consulting for the good of his own state, in its being freed from the 
burden of winter quarters, and was making a proper return to Cesar 
for his acts of kindness towards him." 

1 1 I- Ad consilium rem deferunt, " They lay the matter befoie a 
council of war." — Existit. " Arises." 

2. Rem esse testimonio. "That the fact spoke for itself."— 
Multis vUrOy &c. " Many wounds having been inflicted upon the 
latter, without any being received in return." Compare the ex- 
planation of Lemaire : " nam Romani intulerant hostihus xulnera ; 
ipsi vero non acceperant." 

3. Re frumentaria non premi. " That they were not distressed 
for com.' Compare ^be Greek paraphrasp, htnjS^w Ivitf'is «fa 

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4. Lethu out turpiut. " Weaker or more cowardly." — Aue- 1(^1 

lore hoste, 6ic, " To deliberate concerning matters of the utmost 
jnportance when an enemy was the author of the step.'* Com- 
pare the Greek, Kara rnv rfiv iroXefiluv yvd»nriv vtpl t&v wdvrwv jSov^f^ 
to$M. The reference is to the information derived from the enemy, 
on which their deliberations would be based. 

5. Sero. " Too Ute-^^—rClamitdbat. " Kept crying out loudly 
and repeatedly." The frequentative is here very emphatic. 

6. Aliquid calamitatis. " Some disaster." — Brevem constUendi, 
&c. "That the time for deliberation was short." — Arbitrary 
" That he supposed." Supply se. 

7. Non hostem aiLCtoremy <&c. " That he did not look to the 
enemy as an authority for the step which he recommended, but to 
the fact itself."— Sii^MW. " Was near." Compare the Greek • 
ithialw fih yip h 'P9v«f. 

8. Ardere GaUiam^ &c. " That Gaul burned with resentment 
at having been reduced, after so many insults had been received by 
it, under the sway of the Roman people." 

9. Sine certa re. " Without accurate information," i. e., unless 
on sure grounds. 

10. Si nil sit durius. " If no greater difficulty came in tLeii 
way," i. e., if no attack were made by the Gauls. 

11. Unam saluiem. "Their only safety." Compare Virgil, 
JEn. 2, 354, " Una solus victis.^^ 

12. Prasens. "Immediate." — Longmqua obsidume. "Result- 
ing from a protracted siege." Longinqims is here put for diutur' 
nus. Compare Broukhus. adPropert. 1, 6, 27. 

1* Primisque ordinibus. " And the principal centurions," i. e., ] Q2 
the centurions of the first ranks. Consult Archsological Index, 
and compare note 11, page 46. ■ 

2. Vincite. " Prevail," i. e., carry your point. — Neqiie is sum 
quit &c. " For I am not the man among you to be very greatly 
alarmed at the danger of death." 

3. Hi sapient, 6lc. " These will discover which of us is right, 
and, in case any disaster occur, will demand satisfaction, Cotta, from 
you," i. e., will call you to account for it. Ht refers to the Roman 
soldiers standing without, but near enough to hear what was said. 
Compare the Greek paraphrase: ollroi ii ^pow6vT<av tn-panQraif 
c. r. X. 

4. Qui. " Since they." — PerenMno aie. " On the third day 
aence.'* Perendis, from which the tdjective perendinus comet, if 

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IQ2 derived, according to the grammarians, from peremptut and iitM^ 

and is the same as perempta diCy the intervening day being meant 
by die. 

6. RejecH et relegatt, &c. " As if forced away and banished by 
you. to a distance from their countrymen." By ceteris are mean* 
the Romans in the other winter quarters, while by rejecti and. rele 
gati is figuratively expressed the forced separation, by t^ eommand 
of their officers, of the troops of Cotta from those in the neighbour* 
bg provhices. Compare the Greek : dXA* oh tSw aXXaif, &s ^ «eXf^ft(. 

6. Consurgitur ex eoncilio, &c. " The members rise from the 
council, they embrace and beseech both Cotta and Sabinas." 

7. Rem. " Affairs." — Facile esse rem. " That it was an easy 
matter." — Res dispuiatione perduci^. "The debate is pro- 

8. Dot manus. " Yields." Literally, " gives his hands." A 
figurative expression, borrowed from the form of making a surrender, 
by stretching forth, or holding up, hands. 

9. PronuTiciatury &,c. ** Orders are issued for the troops to 
march at daybreak." Literally, " it is announced that they wil 
depart," &c. 

10. Consumitur vigiliiSf &c. '*Is spent without sleep, each 
soldier looking about among his effects, to see what he might be 
able to cany with him, what part of his winter stores he would be 
compelled to leave behind." The expression ex instrumento hi- 
hemorum js rendered by the Greek paraphrast U r&v oKtvQv. 

11. Omnia excogitarUur, &c. "Every reason is suggested, to 
show why they could not stay without danger, and why that da iger 
would be now increased by the languor of the soldiers, and their 
want of sleep." The meaning of this passage has given rise to 
much controversy. Its import appears to us to be as follows : 
The Roman soldiers felt the disgrace of the step which they were 
aliout to take, and kept suggesting, therefore, in conversation with 
one another, various plausible arguments, to show that it was Uie 
only plan they could safely pursue in the present crisis. 

18. Posteaqttam ex noctumo fremitUf &c. " After they got in 
timation of their intended depaifure, by the noise which prevailed 
during the night, and their not retiring to repose " 

13. A miUUfuSt 6cc. " At the distance of about two miles *' 
An idiom analogous to our own mode of eTpressiou. ** about tr^ 
floilss off." 

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14. ConvaUem. The term convoZ/tf, though generally rendered 102 
** valley,"- yet conveys in strictness the idea of a long and extend- 
ed one. Compare Festusy s. v. — Demisisset se. " Had descend 

15. Ut qui nihil antCf &c. " Since he had not at all foreseen 
(he danger, \ra8 thrown into the greatest alarm, ran up and down," 
&c. — Atque Kt. " And in such a way that." Supply ita before tU 

1. Qui in ipso negotio, &c. " Who are compelled to deliber- "j y 
Ate in the very moment of action," i. e., when they ought to act. 

2. Auctor. " An adviser." — Jn appellandis, " In addressing.' 

3. Minus facile per *«, &c. " They couM less easily perform 
everything themselves," i. e., every part of their duty could not 
be readily performed by them in person ; or, they could not easily 
visit every part. The reference is to Titurius and Cotta. 

4. Jusserunt pronunciare. " They ordered the officers to an 
nounce to their men." Supply duces before pronunciare. We 
have here adopted the reading of the earliest MSS. The conunon 
text has pronunciari. 

6. Incommode aceidit. ** It turned out untowardly on the pres» 
ent occasion," i. e., proved unfortunate. 

6. Spem minuit. This was produced by the abandonment of 
their baggage, since the soldiers easily perceived from this step that 
affairs were considered to be at the last extremity. — Quod videbatur 
'* Because it was apparent." 

7. Vvlgo. "Everywhere." Compare the Greek paraphrase, 
vdvrodfv. — Ahripere. ** Tear away." A much more forcible read- 
ing than arripere. 

8. Barharis consilium non defuit. " Judgment was not wanting 
JO the barbarians," i. e., the barbarians were not deficient in judgment 
on this occasion. 

9. Pronunciare jusserunt. " Oidered the different chieftains to 
announce," i. e,, to give orders to their respective followers. 

10. Blorum. Referring to the Gauls. 

11. Erant ei virtutCj &c. " Our men, by both their value anil 
nxunbers, were a match for the enemy in fighting." The meaninj{ 
li, not that the numbers of the Romans were equal to those of the 
Oftuls, but that the former had troops enough, considering their 
bravery and discipline, to keep the latter in check. 

12. Proeurreret. " Made a charge," i. e., rushed forth fix)m ^ 

13. Cedant. " To give way before them."— Lm/o/c i 


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103 ^* " 1^^) ^^^^ ^ lightness of their anuour and daily practice, 
they could receive no barm,*' i. e., the agility which daily practica 

gave, and the light weight of their armour, would enable them to 
make a rapid and safe retreat whenever the Romans charged upon 

14. Rursus se ad signa^ 6lc. " To pursue them in turn when 
retreating to their standards/* i. e., when returning to their for- 
mer station in the orb. 

16. Excesserat. " Had issued forth.'* — Interim earn partem, 
&c. *' In the mean time, it was necessary for that part to be ex 
posed, and for a shoyer of darts to be received by our men on their 
naked flanks.'* 

1 04 1. Locum tenere, ** To retain their place in the orb," and not 
sally forth. — Virtuti locus. " Room for displaying valour." — 

Nee conferti vitare poterant. " Nor could they, being crowded to- 
gether into a small compass, avoid,** <&c. 

2. Tot incommodis conjlictati. " Although harassed by so many 
disadvantages." More freely, ** although having to struggle with 
80 many," &c. 

3. Ad horam octavam. This would answer to two o'clock in the 
afternoon ; the first honr, according to the Roman computation, 
being from six to seven in the morning, or, more strictly, from sun- 
rise to the beginning of the second hour. , 

4. Primxtm pUum dujcerai. '* Had been chief centurion." Con- 
sult Archaeological Index, and compare note 11, page 46. 

5. Ejusdem ordirds. ** Of the same rank," i. e., a primipilus, 
or centurion of the first rank. — JStibvenit, " Is striving to aid." 

6. In adversum os. " Full in the mouth." Compare B. C, 3 
09, *< Gladio in os adversum confecto." 

7. lUe. Referring to Ambiorix. — Ipsi vero, &c. ^*That no 
harm, however, should be done to himself,** i. e., he himself should 
be uninjured, whatever might be determined upon in relation tt> tbo 
lives of the soldiers. 

8. lUe, Referring to Titurius. — Cum Cotta saucio, 6lc, "Com- 
municates the answer of Ambiorix to the wounded Cotta, lequeste* 
tag him, if the step appear to him si proper one, to leave the bat- 
tle,*' &c. 

9. Atque in eo constitit. " And persisted in this resolve," i. e.^ 
of not going to Ambiorix. n 

10. In prasentia. " At the time.** In the Greek paraphrase. 
Tin. — Imperatum facit. << Does what is eommaaded." 

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11. Longiorque coTisulto, 6lc. "And a discourse longer than J 04 

tldinaiy is designedly begun by Ambiorix," i. e., and the confer- 
coce is designedly protracted by Ambioriz. 

12. Victoriam conclamant. " Shout out * Victory.* " — Ululatum. 
"A yelU" — Cotta irUerficitur. Suetonius {Vit. Cos. c. 25) says 
that this disaster took place in the country of the Germans, " in 
Germanon^fimbus," The mistake arose from the Eburones be- 
mg near neighbours to the Germans. 

1. Uli. Referring to those who had retreated to the camp. — \0b 
Ad unum. ** To a man." — Incertis iiinerihus. " By uncertain / 
routes/' i. e., wandering at hazard. 

2. Sublatus. *' Being elated." 

3. Re demonstrata. " The whole affair being laid before them,'' 
i. e., haying acquainted them with his success, and having explained 
to them the design whicfi he had in view. 

4. Nihil esse negotii. " That it was an easy matter. "^^ — Se fro- 
dUtur.' " He offers Jmnself." 

5. Hutc. " To this oiBcer.'* Referring to Cicero. Hotomann 
and Davies give kic, on conjecture, which agrees with the ivre^Ba of 
the paraphrase, but some ^ood MSS. sanction huiCf which is cer- 
tainly the more spirited reading. 

6. Lignatiords munitionisqiu causa. " To procure wood, and 
materials for the fortifications," i. e., stakes for the ramparts, &c. 

7. StLstentatur. " They hold out." Supply a nostris. 

1. Magnis propositis pramiis, &c. "Great rewards being |06 
offered to the messengers, if they should convey them to their 
destination." Literally, ** if they should carry them through," i. e., 

tn safety through the intervening dangers. 

2. Turres admodum, &c. " One hundred and twenty towers in 
^." More literally, " np to a hundred and twenty towers." Ho- 
tomann thinks this number incredible, and it certainly appears a 
very large one if we take the term turris in its literal sense. Per- 
haps, however, nothing more is meant than a species of bastion, of 
which 120 might very easily have been raised during the period 
ipecified in the text. 

8. Prausta sudes, '' Stakes burnt at the end." These were 
osed in defending the rampai^. — Muralium pilorum. " Of mural 
avelins." These were thrown from the walls against those who 
were endeavouring to scale them. They were larger and heavier 
than those used in the field. Lipshis is silent respecting them. 

4. Turres c<mtahu.antur. " Towers of several stories are raised." 

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lOQ This language would seem to sanction the conjecture gnen nodm 

note 2. — Pinna loricaqtUt &c. " Battlements and parapets are 
.onstructed of interwoven hurdles.*' 

6. Cum tenuissima, &c. " Although he was in a very feeble 
sUte of health." 

6. Ut vXtro mUtturn concursu, &c. " So that he was compelled 
at length, as their spontaneous act, by the flocking ffigether and 
the entreaties of the soldiers, to show himself some indulgence." 

7. Qui altquem sermoms adituniy &c. " Who had any intimacy 
and grounds of friendship with Cicero." By sermonis aditum ha- 
bebant is meant, literally, the having been accustomed to have in- 
terviews from time to time with the Roman officer. 

8. Amhiorigem ostentant, &c. "In order to gain credit for 
what they said, they inform him with a boastful air of the arrival of 
Ambiorix." Compare the explanation of Moms : " Amhiorigem 
adesse jactdburuU dicunt." They thought that Cicero would be 
lieve what they asserted, when he mw that so humble a state as the 
Eburones had actually commenced hostilities against the Roman 
power, and that Ambiorix himself was in arms against Cssar, from 
whom he had heretofore received so many favours. 

9. Eos. Referring to Cicero and the forces under him. — His 
Alluding to the Romans in other winter quarters. 

10. Hoc esse in animo. " Weje so favourably disposed." Had 
such a regar^. — Hanc inveterascere consuetudinem. "That this 
custom should grow into a precedent," i. e., should gather strength 
by long continuance. 

11. nits. The Romans. — Per se. " As far as depended upon 

12. Cicero ad kaCf 6lc. This officer had already been apprized 
of the defeat and death of Sabinus by one of the fugitives. 

13. Adjutore. " As an intercessor," or advocate. * The Greo^ 
paraphrase gives ovvipyVi " a co-operator." 

14. Pro ejus jusHtia. " Through his wonted clemency." Jus* 
titia loses here a portion of its strict meanmg, and denotes, not so 
much the desire to render to every one his due, as clemency oi 
compassion. Compare Terence, Heaut., 1, 1, 33, " Mea stultitia 
injustitia tua sit aliquod prasidii." "^ 

\Qn 1* Vallo pedum undedm^ 6u " With a rampart elev^ feet 

high, and a ditch fifteen feet wide.^' Some commentators suppose 

ikmt the dkch was also fifteeti feet deep, but this is unnecessary. 

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The Greek paraphrase, however, translates merely with reference |Q7 

to depth : *al rdtpp^ vtvTiKalitica rd fiddog. 

S. Hoe. Referring to their knowledge of fortification. — Cofi- 

meiudtne, "By the experience." — Cognoverant. "They had 


3. Sed nuUa ferramentorum copia. " But having no supply of 
lion tools." The ablative absolute. Supply exisiente. — Ad Hum 
Uium, •• For this purpose." 

4. Sagulisque. "And short cloaks." The term sagum (of " 
which sagulum is a diminutive) is said to be of Gallic origin. Its 
'shape was square, and hence Isidonu {Orig. c. 24) remarks, " Sa- 
gum Gallieum nomen est : dictum autem sagum quadrumi eo quod 
apud eos primum quadraium vd quadrupUx erat" It was fastened 
by a clasp around the neck. The old French word saie pomts to 
the Celtic root. The Tartan plaid of modem times may be traced 

to the same costume. Consult Adelung, Gloss, vol. vi., p. 26. 

5. Terram exhauirire. " To remove the earth." A very poeti- 
cal form of expression for so plain a writer as Cssar. The Greek 
paraphrast imitates it very neatly by l^arrXew. 

6. MiUium decern. Supply passuum. The MSS. and edition* 
vary here, many having miUium passuum XV. (i. e., quindeeimy 
We have adopted the smallest number, although even this appeon 

7. Ad altitudinem vaUi. " Equalling the height of the rampart" 
Literally,'" to the height."— -Ffl/ce*. " Grappling hooks." The» 
were the falces murales, or what the Greeks called Sopvipiiream. 
The hooks were bent into the shape of a pruning hook, and were 
fastened to long poles. They were employed for tearing down 
walls. > 

8. Testudinesque. " And mantlets." These were different from 
the testudos hitherto described in the notes to the previous books. 
They were a kind of mantlet or shed, very similar to the rnnea^ 
which were moved up to the ramparts oy means of wheels, and un - 
der which the assailants worked the batteiing-ram, or undermined 
the walls. 

9. Ferventes fusili, &c. " Red hot balls of cast clay." As r^ 
gards the epithet /u^m here applied to argilla, compare the remark 
of Farcellini, " qualis est, ex qua statuts fictiles Jiunt.*^ 

10. Fervefaeta jacula. " Fiery javelins," i. e., javelins, or dartSi 
with ignited combustibles attached to the head. — In casus qtuE, dec 

Against the huts, which were covered with thatch after the GtOic 

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107 foahion." By eaaa here ase meant the winter huts of the aoli 

diers. 7 he Antonine colvimn offers representations of siailu 

11. Disttderunt. *^ Spread the flames." 

12. Agere. '* To advance." Compare, as regards the teshuU' 
neSf what has been remarked under note 8. 

13. Demigrandi, " Of retiring from the fight" Equiyalert to 
loco cedendi. Compare the Greek paraphrase, o^x ^^^ ^«>^f i/ir/iv- 
ivTo. — Respiceret. ^'"Looked behind him/' i. e., at his effects fall- 
ing a prey to the flames. Compare the language of Celsus : " Cum 
^ortuna eonim incendio omnes dbsumererUurf nunquam aUpM ad^ 
ilUu oculum reflecteret, 

14. Hunc hahiit exUum. ** It had this issue/' i. e., was attend- 
ed with this good consequence. 

15. Ut se std) ipso vcUlOf <&c. ** As they had crowded them- 
selves together beneath the very rampart, and those farthest off gave 
no means of retreat to the foremost/' i. e., prevented the foremost 
from retreating. 

16. Et quodam loco, &c. ^* And a tower of the enemy's having 
been moved up in one quarter to our rampart, and touching it." 
The reference is to a moveable tower, of course. 

17. Deturbati, " The enemy were dislodged." — Tunisqiu sue 
eensa est. " And the tower was set fire to from below." 

Q8 !• Qtti ;awi primisy &c. " Who were now approaching tha 
first ranks," i. e., were rising fast to the rank of prinUpilus^ oi 
chief centurion. 

2. De loco. " For precedence," — Summis simultatibus. " With 
the greatest secret enmity." 

3. Spectas. " Do you look for." Equivalent to drcumspicis at 
quarts. The common text has exspectas. — Hie, hie dies. We 
have adopted the reading of Oberlin, as more spirited than the com- 
mon lection, Jdc dies, hie dies. Compare Sallust, Cat, 20, '* En 
iUa; ilia libertas." 

4. Qttaque pars, 6lc, ** And where appeared to be the thickest 
part of the enemy." — Omnium veritus existimoHonem. " Having 
feared the opinion of all," i. e., anxious to preserve his reputation 
among all. 

5. ProcurreTitem. " Running forward to engage him." — Exam 
mato. " Deprived of life." 

6. Verutum. ** A javelin." By vemtum is meant a light, slen- 
der javelin, shaped somewhat like a spit, or else as taponng as a 

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■pit.— iifc cams, " This accident." — ImpedUum. <* Thus em- JQQ 

7. Hwnc, Refexiing to Varenus. — lUum veruto^ &c. "Thoy 
•nppOM that the other was transfixed by the javelin." 

8. In locum iejectus, &c. " He stumbled and fell into a hoi- 

9. In conUiUunUf &c. ** In this honourable striving and con 
test." CantenHone refers to the spirit of emulation by which they 
were both actuated, certamine to their collision with the foe. 

10. Utrumqtie versatit. " Directed alternately the movements 
of each." Compare the explanation of Moras : " Modo hoc, modo 
iUa sortCy per viccSf tUi voluit,** — Ut alter alteri, &c. " That the 
one rival brought assistance and security to the other," i. e., the 
one rival assisted and protected the other. 

11. Gravior atque asperior, " More severe and difficult to en- 
dure."- Compare the Greek paraphrase, fiapvripa n xai ;^aX«imr/(>a 
rois 'Yaftdtois, 

12. Res ad paucitatem^ dec. " Matters had come to a small 
lumber of defenders." 

1. Uwua Nervius, "A certain Nervian." li/uu is here put ]()9 
for quidam. Compare the Greek paraphrase, rts Nfpotf»f, and B. 

G. 2, 25, 5. C. 2, 27. 

2. Stuanque in fidem prasHterat. ** And had given him proois 
of his attachment." — Servo. ** A slave of his." Supply suo. 

3.' Periculis, *'The imminent danger." What grammarians 
call the plural of excellence. 

4. Hora wndecima. Corresponding to our five o^clock in the 

5. Legionem. Caesar had placed three legions in Belgium, the 
one here referred to under the command of Crassus, and two others, 
one under Lucius Munatius Plancus, and the other under Caius 
Trebonius. Compare chapter 24. 

6. Qu^sibi iter faciendum sciebai. " Where he knew he would 
have to pass." — ReipuhHea commodo. ** With advantage to the 
state,^ i. e., to what the public interests required. 

7. Hora tertia. " Nine o'clock in the morning." 

8. Legionem. "A legion." Not the one which Crassus had 
urought, but one which Csesar had with him probably at the time. 

9. Literas puhlicas. * The public documents." — Quod eo, dec. 
** Which he had brought thither for the sake of enduring the winter ** 
i. e., which he had stored thoro for the winter supply. 

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] 09 10- ^^^ gestattij 6ce. << He writes him a fall account of what 
had taken place among the Ebuiones." — PedUatus equitattuqut 
eopias. A fuller form of expression than what other writers em- 
ploy. Compare B. G. 6, 6, '< Magnis coacHs pedittUus equitatuB- 
que copiis,^* 
IJO 1. Cojuilioejusprobato. " His conduct being approved of.' — 
Etsi, opimoM trium, &c. ** Although, being disappointed k. his 
expectation of three legions, he had been reduced to two.'' Liter- 
ally, " had returned to two." — Unum communis sabitiSf &c. " The 
only means of subserving the common safety." 

3. Gracis conscrtptam Uteris. " Written throughout in Greek 
characters," i. e., Latin words in Greek -characters. Polyaenus 
(8, 23, 6) alludes to this circumstance. 

3. Si adire non possit^ monet. " He cautions the messenger, n 
he cannot gain access to the camp." — Ad amentum deligata. 
** Fastened to the strap." By amentum is meant the strap used 
for hurling the javelin. Compare Festus : *' Amenta, quibus ui 
emitti possintj vinciuntur jacuJa.^^ The strap appears to have been 
fastened to the middle of the spear. 

4. Casu* Dio Cassius (40, 9) says, that this was done purposely 
by the messenger, but the account of Caesar is, of course, to be 

5. lUe perlectamf &c. "He read it over, and then recited ii 
aloud in an assembly of the soldiers." The student will mark tho 
distinction between lego, " to read to one's self," and recitOf " to 
read aloud," in order that others may hear. 

6. Fumi incendiorum. It was the constant custom of Cesar to 
bum the buildings of an enemy. — Expulit. " Dispelled." 

7. Armatorum. " Men in arms." Put for mUitum. Compare 
livy, 1, 29, " Cursus annatorum ;''' and Nepos, Dion. 9, " Navem 
smnatis omatV 

8. Data faculiate. "An opportunity being thus afforded," i. e., 
by the departure of the enemy. — Galium repetit. "^egs the 
Gaul again.*" — Qui literas^ &c. " To carry back an answer to 

9. C<tsar, The position of this word between quibus liieris and 
aUoHSf is intended to indicate to whom the letter was brought, and 
is regarded as a great elegance. Compare Hunter, ad lav. 1, 7, 
p. 302, and Crombie, Gymnas. vol. ii., p. 389. 

10. Trans vaUem magndm. Some editors object to the presence 
of magnam in the text, and it does not. in reality, appear to b# 

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' PtfA 

fvy correct. The Greek paraphrase, however, has fuydii^s HQ 
fmpd)ey9s, Caesar refers to a large valley, traversed by a stream, 
and on the opposite slope of which, across the stream, the army of , 
the enemy was stationed. 

11. Turn. "For the present, therefore." We have adopted 
here the meaning recommended by FlcuU {Obs, 1), who makes turn 
equivalent in this passage to "/iir die Gegenwartj** or "/tir den 
Zeitpunkt." With thi$ the Greek paraphrase agrees, r&rt fih o7r. 
Morus thinks the connexion obscure, and that Caesar ought to have 
written ergo trim quidem. This would have been too languid and 

1. Tamen angustiisy 6cc. "Yet he contracts it as much as J | 
he can by making the streets between the tents narrow." By 
tia are here meant the streets or lanes separating the tents of the 
different divisions of troops from each other. Of these avenues there 
were generally five running in the length of the camp, that is, from 
'iie porta prcUoria to the porta decumana, and three across. Con 
suit Archaeological Index, s. v. Castra. 

2. Ut in wmmam contenUumem^ 6cc. This stratagem is men- 
tioned by Frontinus, 3, 17, 6. Compare Stewecchius and Ouden- 
dorp, ad loc. — Quo commodissimo itinere, "By what most con- 
venient route." 

3. Citra vallem. His object was to entice them across the 
stream ; or, if he could not effect this, to cross the stream himself at 
that point where he might do it with least danger. 

4. Fortasque chstrui. " And the gates blocked up." The mode 
of doing this is explained in the next chapter. It was meant, of 
course, as a feint. — Atq'tu in his administrandiSf dsc. " And ha 
directs them, in executing these orders, to run to and fro as much as 
possible, and act with the greatest degree of feigned alarm." 

5. Etiam de vallo. In order to give rise still more strongly to an 
appearance of alarm on their part. 

6. Ac sic nostros contemserunt, 6cc. " And to such a degree 
did they carry their contempt for our men» that the gate, being ap- 
parently blocked up, though, in fact, only by a single row of sods " 
-^Ea. " That way," i. e., by the gates. Used adverbially. 

7. Manu. The reference, of course, is to suitable instruments 
wielded by the haiid. Compare the Greek paraphrase, rd Ifvfia r^ 

8. Neque etiam, dec. " And because he saw, that their position 
WAS abandohed by the enemy wit\ no small loss on their pstt.** 

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I J 1 The enemy lost great numbers amid the marshes and forests, oa 

abandoning the position which they had previously occupied, and 

Cssar was afraid of encountering a similar loss, in case he pursued 

them too far. The reading and interpretation of this passage haye 

been very much disputed. We have followed in both the authority 

of Oberlinus. 

112 ^- Producta legione. "The legion being drawn out from the 

• camp." — Non decitmim quemgite, &c. ** That every tenth mca 

was not le'ft unwound ed," i. e., that less than every tenth man, dec 

2. Pro ejus merito. "As he deserved," i. e., in handsome 
terms. Literally, "according to his merit." — AppeUat. "He 
addresses by name," i. e., he calls unto him and compliments bv 
name. Compare the Greek paraphrase, ivoftatrrl xapeKdXt^w. 

3. Rem gestam proponit. " He informs them of what had been 
done," i. e., of what had happened to Cotta and Sabinus. ^ 

4. QtMd. " Inasmi^ch as." — Hoc. " On this account." 

6. Expiato incommodo. " The disaster having been remedied.*' 
Compare the Greek paraphrase, to^tov havopBwBivros. — LataJtio. A 
word not occurring elsewhere in any classical author, though sanc- 
tioned here by good MSS. 

6. Eo, "To the latter place," i. e., the winter quarters of Ci- 
cero. — Horam nonam, " Three o'clock in the afternoon. — Sign^i- 
catio. " An intimation." 

7. Trinis hihemis. " In three different quarters." Compare 
the Greek paraphrase, ivi rpta x«/<<^(a* 

8. Perlato. " Being brought unto them," i. e., being circula- 
ted among them. — Consultdbant. "Were consulting." The use 
of the imperfect in this and the succeeding clauses is very graphic. 

9. Quin acciperet. " Or without his receiving.** 

IJ3 1, Armorica, Corresponding to the modem Bretagne. Tb« 
name Armorica is said to be derived from ar^ " upon," and moir, 
" the sea," and refers to a country lying along the ocean. Consult 
Geographical Index. 

2. Tantum apud homtnesy <&c. " So powerful an influence did 
U exercise among barbarous men, that some were found," dec., i. e., 
sich was the fprce of example among a savage people. 

3. Pracipuo hoviJbre haJbuit, " Treated with peculiar honour," i. 
6., on whom he had always bestowed distinguished marks of honoor. 
-^Alteros. "The aTmeT.''—Alteros. "The latter."— Q^ms. 
** Services," i. e., good offices. 

4. Tdqtat adeo, &c. " And I do not know indeed wWttlvjr ^r 

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« to be wondered at.'* A remarkable deviation from Caesar's usual || 3 

mode of speaking in the third person. He alludes i j the sudden 

change of sentiment on the part of the Gauls. 

6. Quod, qui, 6lc, ** Because they, who were accustomed to be 
ranked before dl nations in martial Talour, had lost so much of that 
reputation, as to have enduied the command of the Roman people." 
The reference in qui virtute belli, &>c., is to the Gauls in general. 
The expression a Populo Romano imperia is the same in effect as 
Populi Romani imperia. So " legiones a Deiotaro," B, Alex. 8 ; 
and " liters a Casare,'* B. C. 1, 1. 

7 . Hae spe lapsus. " Disappointed in this hope." Literally, ] ] 4 
" having fallen from this hope." — Exercere. The common text 

has exigere a finitimis. But exercere is sanctioned by the best 
MSS., and also by the term icKtw employed in the Greek para- 

2. Ultro ad se venirt. " That men were coming in unto him of 
their own accord." — ConscieiUia facinoris. The Senones on ac 
count of the expulsion of their king Cavarinus (chap. 54), the Car 
nutes on accoimt of the assassination of Tasgetiiis (chap. 25). 

3. Armatum concilium. Tacitus refers to the same custom as 
existing among the Germans, (itf. G. 11.) Compare, as regards 
the Gallic custom, the remark of Stobsus (1. 13), KcXrot aiinpo^ 
oi^PTts Ta Karcl tr6h» rdvra rpdrrovof, and Livy (21, 20), " Ll his 
nova terribilisque species visa est, quod amuUi{ita mos gentis erat) 
m concilium venerunt." The early Franks only quitted their arms 
when going to church. Consult the Capitularies of Charlemagne. 
1. 7, p. 202r. 

4. Omnibus cruciatibus, &c. " Is subjected to, and put to • 
death by, the cruellest tortures." More literally, " by every species 
of torture." 

5. AUerius principem factionis. " The leader of the opposite 
party." — Sv^a demonstravimus. Consult chapter 3. — Qtssaris 
sectUum fidem. " Had put himself under the protection of Cesar " 

6. HvA. ** To them." In the Greek paraphrase rpis ahraCs. 

7. Sub castris ejus. " Close to his caaip." — Cognosceret, "lie 
might reconnoitre." 

i. Timonsque opinionem. Compare chapter 49, where Cesar | ] ^ 
bad recourse to the same stratagem against the Nervii. 

S. Intromissis. " Being received within" th« Roman works.-— 
NuJa raiioriB. " In no way." 

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] ]5 3. Magna cum eontumeUa verborum, " In Teiy itwH^kiw^g jlc 


4. Dispern ae disstpaii, *' In a scftttared and disorderly naacc 

6. PraeipU tUque interdicU, 6lc, '' He commands them, ihA 
wben the enemy should be terrified and put to flight (which he foro* 
saw would happen, as it did), they all aim at Indutiomarus akme . 
and he forbids any one wounding a man before he sees that chief- 
tain slain." We have separated pracipit and interdicit in translsr* 
ting, in order to convey Cssar's meanmg more clearly. 

6. Mora rdiquorum^ &c. " Having gained time by the delay 
xcasioned in pursuing the rest.'' 

7. Hominis. " Referring to Labienus. — Fltaniius, The rivet 
Kosa is meant, which separated the territory of the Remi from that 
)f the Treveri. Compare Cluverius, 2, 14. 

8. Caputque ejus. Floras (3, 10), by an error of memoiy, iMkM 
. Ddabella, not Labienus, tiie Roman commander on this oraMMt 

Digitized by 



t. Pen iitureum SUanumf dtc. PenoBS so appointed to levy 1 ]7 
liAcei were called con^umterex, from their seeking after those 
WHO endeaTOured t> avoid militaiy duty. Sometimes senatortj 
and, as in the present instance, legtUi were appointed to this duty. 
Compare Lipslus, Mil. Rom, I, dial. 9, " Vides homsiiore* quo» 
damf atque t senatu^ conqutsitores : imo ipsos legatos." 

2. JHUctum habere. " To hold a levy," i. e., to raise forces. 
The common text has deUctum^ hut dUectitm is the more accurate 
form. Compare Gothofred, ad Fest. s. v. {Lindemann^ Corp 
Gramm. Lot. vol. ii., p. 405.) 

3. ProeonnUe. Pompey had been consul the year previous, and 
was now proconsul, having had the province of Spain assigned him 
Cor the space of five years. 

4. Quoniam ipse ad urhem, d&c. ** Since he himself (i. e., Pom- 
Dey) was remaining near the city with military command, on ac* 
count of the affairs of the republic, that he would order the troops 
which he (P(nnpey) had raised from Cisalpine Gaul, and which had 
taken the oath of fidelity to the consul, to repair to their standaids 
and come to him (Caesar)." Pompey, as has already been remarked 
in the previous note, had decreed unto him, while still in his con- 
sulship, the province of Spain, with proconsular powers, for iho 
space of five years to come, and was allowed permission to levy as 
many troops as, and from whatever quarter, he pleased. (Dio Cass. 
39, 33.) He levied, therefore, a part of his forces in Cisalpine 
Gaul, whe toe& the military oath to him as consul. When he was 
preparing, however, to«et out for his province, he was opposed by 
certain of the tribunes of the commons, and the result was that Af* 
omius and Petreius, his lieutenants, were sent into Spain, vihH* 
Pompey himself was compelled to remain in Italy. Being invested 
with military cooimand {cum vmperio), he could not by law enter 

hs city, but was t '>rced to stay in its vicinity, ori in othe^ words, 
K K • 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


I J7 wit'aout the walls ^ad urhem). To avoid, howeTer, the wpfftn^ 
ance of compulsory detention, Pompey pretended, that be lemained 
for the purpose of superintending the supplies of com for tie capitaL 
which Caesar here calls " reipublica causa." (Ccmipare Dio Cat" 
mus, 39, 39.) This duty had been assigned to Pompey, two yean 
previous, by a law of which Cicero was the proposer. (Ctc. ptc 
Dom. c. 4, 9eq. — Dio Cass. I. c ) Now, while Pompey waa thuf 
remaining near the city, Caesar requested him to send mto Ganl the 
troops which the former ha<> levied in Gallia Cisalpina, at Northern 
Italy. Pompey assented to the request, and the forces in question, 
amounting to one legion, were accordingly sent. It is wordij ok 
remark, that this same legion was very artfully obtained back by 
Pompey, near the commencement of the contest betweon him and 
Omar ; a step which gave great offence to the latter {Hirtms, B. G. 
9, 64. — Appian, B. C. p. 446, ed. Steph.\ and which, according to 
Plutarch {Vit. C^m, c. 26), was one dT the immediate causes of the 
oatlnreaking of tue ciyil conflict 

6. Sacramento. Consult Archaeological Index. — RogamsseL, 
The subjunctive here, and also in remaneret which precedes, refers 
to what Caesar had heard from others. The verb rogare has in this 
clause its secondary or derivative meaning. It signifies, properly, 
'* to ask ;*' then " to elect to any office,'* the people bemg asked 
^ir opinion relative to the merits of the candidate, and in the pres- 
ent instance it means " to select" or " choose soldiers in a levy," 
they being interrogated as to their willingness to bind themselvej 
by the military oath and act the part of good soldiers. Hence W9 
have in Festus (p. 2&4, ed. Lind.), " Sacramento interrogari.** 

. 6. Magni interesse, &c. " Thinking it of great importance eveo 
for the time to come, as regarded the (pinions which Slight be 
formed by the Gauls, that the resources of Italy should appear se 
great,*' dec., i. e., thinking k of great importance towards forming 
th« future opinions of the Gauls. 

7. Sarciri. "Be repaired.'* Sarcire propwly means "to re- 
pair a garment, or article of clothing generally." Here, however, 
it is employed in a sense which is very common among lega] 
writers, viz., " to repair dnnage," " to mfte whole." Thusvwe 
hav9 in the laws of the twelve tables, " Si qvadrupes pauperiem 
fazitj domimis sareUo." On which Festus remarks : " Sarcito, tn 
Xll.y Ser, Sidpieius ait significare damnum solvito, praestato." 

8. Majorihus admtgeri eopits. " Be more than compensated by 
an increase of forces," i. e., by a more powerful army than before 

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tf. Quod cum Pompeiusy du:. '*^Pompey having granted tlib |J7 
lo both the interests of the republic and the claims of private 
friendship," i. e., both through regard for the republic and private 
friendship. Literally, " to both the republic and friendship.' 

10. Par SU08. ** By his officers," i. e., the legati aheady men 
lioned. — Et eorutitutis et adductis. "Being both formed and 
brought to him." 

11. Populi Romani disciplina. Compare the spirited eulogiuin 
of Valerius Maximus on the discipline of the Roman armies (2, 8) ; 
** Disciplina militarise acriter reterUa, principatum Italia Romano 
tmperio peperit ; multarum urlnumf magnorum regum, et validissp- 
marum gentium regimen largita est ; fauces Pontiei sinus patefecit ; 
Alpium Taurique montis conmUsa claustra tradidit^ ortumque e 
parmla Romuli casa^ totius terrarum orbis fecit ro/um^n.'* 

12. Ut docuimus. Consult chapter 58, book 5. — Non desistuni 
Consult chapter 65, book 5. 

13. Jurejurando inter se, 6co. *'The two parties bind them- 
selves to one another by an oath, and secure the payment of the 
money by means of hostages," i. e., the Trevih give hostages to the 
Germans as a security for the money. The verb caveo is used here 
in its legal sense. Compare the explanation of Forcellini : ** Ca- 
vere re aliqua est re aliqua, veluti pignorCy securumfacere.^* So cO" 
vere ah aliquo is " to obtain security from one." 

14. Cisrkenanis omnibiis Gemumis. The reference is to that 
part of t&e Belga who dwelt near the Rhme, namely, the Condrusi, 
Eburones, Ceresi, and Pemani. Compare Davies, adloc, " 

15. Ad imperatum. **To perform what had been conmianded 
them." Equivalent tOf" ad id prastandum quod imperatum erat.** ' 

1 . Nondum hieme confecta, " Winter being not yet ended," ] |() 
i. e., before the end of winter. 

2. UH iTutituerat. " As he had been accustomed to do." He 
was accustomed to hold a council of the states of Gaul eveiy yeai. 
Compare chapter 44. 

3. Omma. "Everything else." — Lutetiam Pansiarum. The 
modem Pans. — Hi. Refening to the Parisii. 

4. Sed ah hoc consilioy dec. '* But were supposed not to be con- 
eemed in this plot." More literally, *' to have been away from this 
design." Compare the Grq^ paraphrase, rj); rAp Tniimv fiov^s si 

5. Hoc rCf 6cc. "This adjournment having been announced 
from the tribunal." The suggestus (called also suggfistum) was 

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1 1 3 An elevated place formed of turf, stone, or wood, according t< cir* 
- cumstances. From this speeches were delivered, and the presidhSg 
officer of a public assembly pronounced his opinion or judgment. 
Representations of it frequently occur upon Roman coins. 

6. Conantibus, &c. " To them attempting to do so, before it 
could be accomplished, word is brought,** dec. — Deprecandi, *< Of 
excusing their acts." Compare the explanation of Davies : ■" Coe- 
fta »UA exeusandi.*' 

7. Adeunt per Aeduos, &c. "They make their application 
through the Aedui, under whose protection their state was in former 
days." Quorum depends in construction on fide^ not on civitat. 
The Senones had been clients and allies of the Aedui. Compare 
the explanation of Morus : ' ** Senones erant dientes et 90cii Aeduo- 
rum ;" and the language of the Greek paraphrase, T«lfro Si Sii rO* 

8. Dot veniam. "Grants them pardon." — Quod astivum tern- 
pus, 6ic. " Because he thought, that the summer season was the 
time for prosecuting war, not for legal investigations." More liter- 
ally, " belonged to war pressing on," or *< at hand." 

9. Deprecatoribus. ** As intercessors." — Ferunt, " They bear 
away," i. e., receive from Caesar. — Peragit, " Breaks up." lit- 
erally, "finishes." 

10. Totus et mente, t&c. " He applies himself with his whole 
heart and thoughts." We have altered, in translating, the order of 
mente and animoj in order to adapt the phraseology more to the 
EngUsh idiom. 

11. Cavarinum. Compare chapter 54, book 5. — Ex hujus vror 
cundia. " From this man*s violent temper," i. e., his desire of re- 
venge acting upon a disposition naturally irascible. — Ex eo quod 
merueratf 6lc. " From that hatred on the part of t|^e state, which 
he had incurred." He had become odious to the state, because 
Caesar had made him king over it. 

119 1. Pro explorato. *' For certain." — Reliqua ejus eonsiaa, &c. 

" He watched his other plans attentively," i. e., narrowly ob* 
aerved all his movements. Ejus refers to Ambiorix. 

2. Perpetuis paludilms, d&c. " Protected by one continued ex- 
tent of marshes and woods." Compare the Greek paraphrase, stv- 
txivi XZ/iMiif rt Kcil ^\ats wdvroOtw wt^tx^fthot. 

3« Hospithim. "A frier dship founded upon the ties of I 
««litv."— ilmm^m "Ar alliance." 

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4. HU. Referring to Ambioriz. — Ipsum. Alluding to th« ]]9 
Mune, and put in opposition to OMxilia. 

6. In Menapioa se abderet. ** Might take refuge among the Men- 
apii/' i. e., ** might go among the Menapii and hide himself there," 
as the accusative plainly indicates. In Menapiis se abderet would 
imply that he had been for some time among the Menapii before he 
concealed himself. 

6. Congredi. " To connect himself with," i. e., to go and unite 
with. Compare the Greek paraphrase, cvupaxjiav wouia^at. 

7. Loci prasidio. " On the strength of their situation." More 
literally, " on the aid which their situation afforded." 

8. Adit tripartito. " Marches against them in three diyisions." 
Tripartito is equivalent here to per tres partes simul. The Greek 
paraphrase, in like manner, has rptxd- 

9. Hiemabat. Some read kiemaverat ; but kiemabat is the true 
lection, for the winter was not yet over, Oudendorp restored kie- 
mabat to the text from good MSS., and the authority of the Greek 
paraphrase, which has xfy^d^ovn r^ AaSt^^. 

10. A millibusj dec. Compare chapter 22, book 4, and consult 
note 13, page 102. 

11. Cum viginti qmnque cohortibus. Five-and- twenty cohorts 
were the same as two legions and a half, ten cohorts making a 
legion. Cesar adopts here the former phraseology, as the cohorts 
probably belonged to several different legions, 

1. Flumen. Rhellicanus and Manutius make this river to have ] jQ 
been the Mosella, but on this point there ir no certainty what- 

2. Augebaiur auxUtorum, &c. Referring to the enemy. — Lo- 
quilur. Referring to Labienus. 

3. In dubium non dewtcaturum. " Will not involve in danger." 
Some read revocaturunif which is altogether incorrect, for be had 
not before exposed them to risk. 

4. Ut ex magnoy 6lc. " Since, out of a large number of Gallic 
cavalry, nature compelled some to favour the Gallic interests," i. 
e, fiDce it was very natuitl, that, out of so large a number of Gallie 
borsd as were then in the Roman camp, some should be found to 
favorji the mterests of their countrymen, and convey to them intel 
ligenco of the Roman movements. 

5. PrinUeque ordimbus, ** And chief centurions." Compare 
chapter 30, book 6. 

6. Qui^ mi stt conwUii proponit. " T«ays before them hia real 

Kk2 ^ ' , 

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] 20 ^- ^g^ simiUm p-o/ectumcm. Frontinus (2, 6, 20) i 
meniion of this stratagem of Labienus. 

8. Speratam prctdam. Ciacconms suggests parutam for jjier«* 
torn, contrary to all the MSS. The Greek paraphrase has coiiectly, 

9. Longum esse. " That it was too long," i. e., that it wonk 
be folly. 

10. Impeditam, " Encumbered with baggage." 

11. Eadem ususy &c. " Practising the same deception as le- 
garded his march," i. e., keeping up the appearance of a retreat 

12. FacultaXem. " The opportunity." — Impediio aique iniqms 
loco. " In an embarrassed and disadvantageous situation." 

TlZ. PrasiCLte. "x Display." — Adesse turn, 6lc. *' Imagine that 
he is present, and sees these things with his own eyes," i. e., and 
is an eyewitness of your actions-. 

14. Ad impedimenta dimtssis. '* Being detached to guard the 
baggage.**— i4d Utera. " On the flanks." 
121 ^* i^f^t^ signis ad se venire. " Coming towards them with 
hostile standards," i. e., marching to attack them. — Impetum 
^nodo. *• Our charge meicly," i. e., even our charge. 

2. Propinqui Indutiomari. ' Consult chapter ^. -^Cingetorigi 
Consult chapter 3 and 56, book 5. 

3. Ex Menapiis. The narrative now goes back to the close of 
chapter 6. — QuaTum erat altera. " The one of which was." Some 

« editions have uTza, which is far inferior. 

4. Ne communi odio, &c. " Lest in his common hatred of th» 
Germans." — Poenas pendant. " Suffer." 

5. Cognita causa. " On an investigation of the case.*' 

j 22 ^* ^^^^^^0' atque imperitos homines, *.* That a barbarous and 
ignorant people." The reference is to the Suevi. 

2. Injinita magnitudine. " Of prodigious extent."— Bocenir 
A part, very probably, of the Hercynian forest. 

3. Ab Suevis. "On the side of the Suevi."— -4^ Cherusei*. 
" On the side of the Cherusci.»' 

4. Nan alienum. " Nx> way foreign to oar purpose." — Prapo* 
nere. " To treat." More literally, " to lay before** (the reader an 

5. In omnibus pagis^ &c. " In all the cantons and parts of eaib 
loos." — In singulis domibus. " In each family." 

6. Earumque faetionum, <fcc. " And the heads of these parties 
are persons, ivho, in their opinion, are supposed to possess the 

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greatest inflaenee : to whose will and decision the direction of ail j gjl 
afiain and counsels is ref^Hred," i. e., on whose will and decision 
all their most important affairs and resolotions depend. 

7. Jdque eju9 rei causoj d&c. " And this custom seems to ha^e 
Deen instituted from early times, for the following reason.*' 

%. Nt qms ex plebe, d&c. The reason here assigned was in like 
manner the basis <^ the Roman institution of patrons and clients. 

9. Quisque, " Each leader," i. e^ each patron. — Neque, aliter 
ii facuuU. We have here what grammarians call a syllepsis of 
number, or change from the singular to the plural. Compare Simet -■ 
Hin. 4, 10 (vol. ii., p. 365, ed. Bauer). 

10. Hitc eadem ratio est, &c. " This same principle prevails in 
ihe general administration of all Gaul." Compare the explanation 
of Moras : " In summa rerum pubUcantm, swe in adminisiraHone 
et forma univerea civiUUis Gallica" 

11. AUerins factioms, &c. *^The Aedai vreM at the head of 
one party." — Hi. " The laitter." Referring to the Sequani. — Sjim- 
ma auctoritoM. " The chief influence." 

12. Jactwria. "Sacrifices," i. e., expenses or gifts. Jachtra 
properly denotes what is thrown overboard in a storm in order to 
9a ve the rest of the cargo. (Compare Cic. Off. 3, 23.) Here, how- 
ever, it is employed in the sense of pecuniary sacrifices or expend!* 
tures, OTf in other words, of a- present loss, in expectation of futuse 
benefit. Compare B. C. 3, 112, and Cie. ad AU. 6, 1. Consult 
also Gronovius, de Pec. Vet. 4, 4, p. 285. 

1. TarUum fotentia antecesseratU. '* The Sequani had so far ] 23 
surpassed the tatter in power." — lis. Referring to the Aedui. 

2. Romam ad Senaium, 6lc. Compare note 13, page 18. — In 
fecta re. " His object being unaccomplished," i. e., without suc- 

3. Commtttatume. "A change." This change was broughi 
about by Caesar's defeat of Ariovistus. — Ohsidibus Aeduis redditis 
** Their hostages being given back to the Aedui." % 

4. Eorum. Referring to the Aedui. — AggregaoeraarU. " Had 
attached." — JSquiore imperio. ^ A more equitable government." 

5. Reliquds rebus eorumy &c. " The rest of their affairs, their 
cfluence, their dignity being augmented." In order to avoid am- 
oiguity, amplificata is here made to agree with digmtate instead of 

6. Dimiserant. Used here for amiserarU, but more graphic. 

7 Quos ^uod adaquare^ &c. As qiu)s begins the clause, it is to 

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123 ^ Mguded as equivalent to et eos. *' And that, nnce U i¥m§ 
known that they equalled the Aedui in Caesar's faTonr,'* dee. 
Quos refers to the Remi, and after adaquare we must supplj eat, 
i. e., Aeduos. 

8. Se RemUj dec. ** Put themselves under the protection of tba 
Aemi." More literally, ** consigned themselves to clientship undet 
the Remi."— JB/i. Referring to the Remi.— Ci>a<c/«m. "Ac- 
ijuired." ♦ 

9. Qui aliquo sunt in numerOf &c. " Who are of any note and 
are held in any estimation." Compare the explanation of Lemaiie i 
" Digni habiti qui reeenseantur et numerentur, quasi spectaii homi 

10. Genera. " Classes.'* Literally, «kinds,'» or " orders," 

11. Aere alieno. "By debt." Aes alienum means literally, 
'* the money of another," i. e., due or owing to another. The first 
money coined by the Romans was of brass, and hence the use of as 
in this sense. 

12. Magnitudine tributorum, " The weight of taxes." — Injwna 
" The oppression." More literally, " the injurious," or " insdent 
treatment." — Sese dicatU, " Give""themiselves up." 

13. In kos. " Over these." — Qua dominis. <&c. " As mafiteiB 
possess over their slaves." Equivalent to qua jura sunt dammis, 

14. AUerum est Druidum. " The one is that of the Druids." 
As regards this priesthood, consult Historical Index, s. v. Druides. 

15. Illi rebus divinis intersunt. " The former take part in sa^ 
cred matters," i. e., officiate in them. This is explained immedi^ 
ately after. The people are. said adesse, " to be present" at sacri- 
fices ; the Druids interesse, " to be present and take a part.*' 

16. Procurant. " Iliey have charge of." Compare Strabo (4, 
p. 198, Cos.) : tBvov ii oIk Svn ^li&v. — Religiones interpntaniur, 
** They expound the principles of religion." Compare the Greek 
paraphraift, rhv ^ptioKttav ipiapt^own. 

17. Disciplina causa. "For instruction." The Druids wera 
aUo a class of public instructerst and taught the doctrines of nat- 
tual and moral philosophy to he young. Compare Strabo, 4, p. 
197 : Afotiat ii vp6s r^ ^v«rioXoyl^ KaX rh* f.dvcitv ^om^(a9 ioitt^. 

18. li. Referring to the Druids. — Em. Their p'lpils. 

19. Si cades facU^ " If murder has been committed." Supplj 
sit. — Proemia poenasque. ** The sum to be paid, and t^ puniii^ 
ment to be endured." 

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1. NonstttX, " Has not abided by."— Sa<Tt>Sat«ui<«rcitei(nf. ]9^ 
" They mterdict from the sacred htes," i. e., th^ ezcommuiiicate 


2. Adfium eorumj <&c. *' All shun their company and conTezse.** 
—Ex contagione. ** By their contact,'* i. c, by coming in contact 
with them. 

3. Jtts reddituT. ** Is justice dispensed." — Negue hano9 uUu9 
eommunicatur, ** Nor do they share any of the honours of thf 

4. Deprineipatu. '* For the office of presiding Druid." 

5. Totius GaUia media, &c. This remark must not be taker 
m a very strict sense. Compare Cellarius, Geogr. Ant. vol. ii. 
p. 163. 

6. Disdflvna. <* This institution." Referring to the Druidica) 
system. — Reperta. " To have originated." 

7. DUigentius earn rem cognoscere, " To become more accu- 
lately acquainted with it." — Illo, " To that island." 

8. Militia vacatiotum, &c. "They enjoy an exemption from 
military senrice, and immunities of eVery kind." 

9. Excitati* " Urged on." Encouraged. — Pramiis, *♦ Privi- 
leges," or advantages. — In disciplinam conveniunt. ** Embrac* 
this profession." 

10. Ediscere, ** To learn by heart."— -/n disciplina. ** Under 

11. Ea Uteris mandare. "To commit these things to writing." 
—Citm. " Whereas."— /Jflft'oniiw*. "Transactions." 

12. Id instituisse. " To have established this custom." — Quod 
neque in vtUgurriy &,c. " Because they wish neither the doctrines 
of their order to be published to the common people, nor those who 
learn, to rely on books and exercise their memory less." 

13. In primis hoe volunt persuadere, " The Druids wish in par* 
ticular to inculcate this idea," i. e., it is a favourite doctrine with 
the Druids. 

i4. Non tnterire animas, &c. " That the souls of men do not 
perish but pass, after dissolution, from one body to another." This 
is the famous doctrine of the transmigration of souls, or metempsy- 
chosis. Compare Strabo (4, p. 196), ifOd^rovt rUs ^^x'^f Xfyovn 
roAirai. Consult also Lueariy Pharsal. 1, 450 ; Mela, 3,2 ; Arnm. 
MttTcell. 15, 9, &c. 

I. Disputant, ** They reason.**— Et juvenitUi irafuduni "And |2^ 
loBpart theii reflections to tiie yovmg." 

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12') ^* Cumestusus, •< Whenever there is need." 

3. OmtuM in beUo versantur, '* Are aU engag^ in war." 

4. Plurimos ambactos elunUsque. " The greatest number of i^ 
lainers and clients." Ambactut is a Gallic term, and signi&ea a 
retainer, a person attached to a household, who receiyes a certain 
aire for his services, &c. Hence in the old glossaries it is explamed 
oy ivUkn fuaOtn^, although iaXn here comes nearer, in meaning, to 
the feudal term " vassal," than tojhe Roman word " servus." The 
r^atin *' minister'* would explain its meaning better than serous. In 
the Gothic version of St. Paul's epistle to the Romans, we have 
** Waldufni ist andbaJUs gothsj** i. e;, potestas estwinistra dei{\Z, 
3, 4) ; and again, htiKovo^ (i. e., fMmster) is rendered by andbaAts. 
[t is easy to see, therefore, that Dacier is quite wrong, when he 
seeks to make ambactus a word of Latin origin, and to derive it 
from Ambigere. 

5. Hanc unam graiiam, 6lc. " This is the only kind of influ- 
ence and authority with which they are acquainted." Compare, as 
fegards the force of graiiam here^ the remark of Moras : " Qratiam, 
Benevolentiam, non quam qutk aUit ipse groHficando exhibet^ sed in 
qua ipse est apud idias, quam init abaliis, et per quam sibi concili- 
at potestatem.** 

6. Admodum dedita religiombus. " Exceedingly addicted to 
superstitious rites and observances," i. e., is exceedingly superstU 
rious. Religionibus is here equivalent, as Moras remarics, to 
'* rUihus saerisy Usque supersHtiosis." 

7. Pro victimis homines immolatU. This crael and barbaroua 
custom on the part of (he Gauls is alluded to by many ancient 
writers. Consult Strabo, 4, p. 19d, and Diod. Sic, 6, 31. They 
had a custom, also, of divining from such Acrifices the events of the 
future, deriving their omens from the palpitations of the limbs and 
fibres, the flowuig of the blood, dec. 

8. Publieeque ejusdem generis, dec. Compare the language oi 
Piacidus Lactantius {in Stat. Theh, 10, p. 368), ^^Lugtrare am- 
UJtem kumana hostia GalUcus mos est. Nam aUquis de egenOssi- 
mis peUiciebaiur pr€aniiSf utseadhoc venderet : qui anno tofo fuh- 
lieis sumtibus aUbaJtur purioribus cibisy demque certo et solemni 
die, per totam eimtatem ductus^ ex urbe extra pomaria saxis oecide- 
hatur a populo,** 

9. Contextavvmimbus, *' Formed of interwoven osiers " Stnbo 
I. e.) calls it a colossus of bay, rarcvMvrifomrc; iroX»0«ftr x^ff' 

10. Suppiida. <* That the immolation." Literally, " the puK 

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nfament," i e., by the species of unmoUtJoii just desd&ed, |2/i 
munely, buruing. Dioderus Siculus (6, 32) informs us, that they 
kept their criminals f(H: five years, and then burnt them all together. 

11. Ejus gtneris. " Of tiiis class of oflfenders." Supply no<r«ii- 
tium. — Etiam ad ifmoeerUium n^icia. " Even to the ofiering up 
•f the innocent." 

12. Dcum maxime, &c. " They chiefly worship the god Mer 
eury/' i. e., Mercury is the principal or favourite deity of the Gauls. 
By Mercury, Cssar here means a Gallic deity whose attributes in 
some degree resemble those of Mercury. This deity is thought by 
some to have been the same with Woden, whence Wodensdaah, or 
wonstagf i. e., Wednesday, or dies Mercurii. Others, however, 
are in favour of Teutates (compare the Mercurnis-TeukUes of Livy, 
26, 44r according to the old reading), and this name Teutates re- 
calls the Phoenician TUeut. Now, as commerce came into Gaul 
Irom Phoenicia, it is more than probable that this latter opinion is 
the correct one. 

13. Hunc ferunt. ** They regard this deity as.'' Literally, 
** they report that he is." — VtMrum Mtque itinerum dueem. ' " Their 
guide in travelling and on journeys.'* 

14. Ad quuBstus pecuniat &c. *' Exercises a very powerful in- 
fluence over the acquisition of gain and over traffic." 

15. AppoUinem, Supply cduni, ** they worship." According . 
to Ansonius {Prof, 2), the god here styled Apollo was called in 
the Gallic tongue Belenus. Herodian, however (8, 3), gives the 
Celtic appellation as BeliSj which approxin^tes more closely to the 
name of the ori^ital sunrgod Baal, to the early Greek form ifiiXtof 
(i. e., ^Xtet with the Doric a and the digamma), and the old Latin 
Apello (i. e., A-bell-o or Apollo). # 

16. Mortem, By Mars is here thought to be meant a Gallic 
deity named Esus, Hesus, of Hetuus. {Lactant, de F. S.^l, 21. 
— Lucofty 1, 445.) Others, however, make Hesus to hive been 
the same with Jove. Compare the Hti-Gadam (*< Hu the -power- 
ful") of Welsh tradition. 

17. Jcnem. The Gallic name of the deity here meant was Taran^ 
Irom which Lucan (1, 446) forms Tarartis. The root of Tamn 
appears to be the same with Thor^ the German Jupiter. In Gaelic, 
Tarann or Torann means << thunder." — Minervam, We have iio 
Celtic name for the deity. here meant. 

18. De his eandemfere, &c. In Cnsar's time the resemblanee 
bere spoken of was comparatively- slight. At a later day, daring 

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1 25 ^-^ ^^^ ^^ ^® Roman emperors, the religious systems mf liMtf 
and Greece were ingrafted on the Gallic creed, and the pointo <il 

similarity became, of course, more manifest. The race of the Druids 
also passed away with the ancient faith. 

19. Minervam, 6cc. ''That Minerva imparted to mankind the 
tirst knowledge of manufactures and arts," i. e., first taught the 
principles of arts and trades. Minerva, in the Greek and Romaa 
creed, was the parent of all the liberal as well as domestic arts. 

1 26 ^* ^^^'^ mperaverintf &c. *' They sacrifice whatever capturei 
jmimals may have remained after the conflict/* Supply ex cUuU 

or pralio. By animalia eapta is here meant live booty in general, 
under which head captives are also included. Hence Athenaras 
(4, 51, p. 160) remarks, that it was customary with the Gauls to 
sacrifice their prisoners taken in battle, ^nv roSf dffots n^s alxtuiJ^/^rmtt' 

2. Ne^lecta rdigione. " Through disregard of religion."- 
Posita tollere. " To remove those things that have been depos- 
ited," i. e., in sacred places. — Ei ret. ** For such an offence as 

3. Ab Ditepatre, <* From th«r progenitor," i. e., from 
Pluto. Who is actually meant here by Disy is very hard to say. 
The idea, however, intended to be conveyed would appear to be» 
that the Gauls were an aboriginal race, and sprung from the earth. 

4. Spatia omnis temporiSf &.c. " They compute all their divis- 
ions of time, not by the number of days, but by that of nights.'* 
This mode of computation was not confined to the Celtic race. We 
have traces of it even iji Scripture, *' and the evening and the morn- 
ing were the first day." The Gauls, according to this account of 
Caesar's, would not say, for example, after seoen days, but aftet 

fe seven nights. Compare the'English forms of expressioq, '* seven- 
night,*' and ''fortnight." 

6. Ut noctem dies subsequatur. The meaning is, that they couut 
ed their days from sunset to sunset, not from sunrise to sumise. 

6. hi reliquis vita insiittUis. '* In the other regulations of life." 
^Fere. " Chiefly."— Uif;>iM«n/. " So as to be able."— PaZam 
ad he adire. " To appear publicly before them." 

7. Viriy quaniaSf &c. " Whatever sum of money the husbacds 
vepeive from their wives, under the name of a dowry, so much ol 
their own property, a valuatior having been made, do they add to 
tbebe dowries." 

8. Conjunctim ratio habetur. "Ajoint account is kept."— 'JVur 
tusfue seroantur. << And the interest is laid by." 

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9. Vita guperarit. << Shall surrive the other."— i'arx utnutque, ] 2(, 
Tkh. " The portion of both, together with the mterest of the pre- 
TiouB period," i. e., the joint sum with all the profits till then ari- 
sing from it. 

10. In sensilem modum, &c. ** They examine the wives by toi- 
tire, aftear the manner of slaves," i. e., just as slaves are treated 
among us. Among the Romans, citizens gave their evidence upoi. 
oath, but could not be put to the rack. Slaves only could be exam- 
ined by torture. 

11. Si compertum est. " If any discovery is made," i. e., if n 
be discovered that the husband was destroyed by poison, assaasina 
tion, 6lc. 

12. Pro cultu GaUorum, ** For the Gallic mode of life," i. e., 
considering the little progress which they have made in refinement 
and elegances of life. 

/1 3. Vivis cordi fmsse. " To have been pleasing to the living.' 
The custom here alluded to was common to many of the barbarous 
nations of antiquity. Articles of clothing, drinking vessels, favour- 
ite slaves, horses, &c., were consumed together with the deceased 

14. Ac paulo supra hanc memoriam. " And not long before our 
own time." — Justis funeribus confectis, " After the regular cere- 
monies had been performed." Great difference of opinion exists 
abofut the reading as well as sense of this passage. One source 
of difficulty arises from the circumstance of justa being often used 
by the Latin writers as equivalent to /unera," which has made some 
commentators regard funeribus as a gloss . We have retained, how- 
ever, the conmion reading, and hate given justis the force of legtt- 
imis, ' '^ 

15. Qommodius. "To greater advantage than others," i. e. 
more judiciously, with greater judgment. — Habent legibus sanctum. 

* Have it enacted by law." Sanctum is contracted for sancitum. 

1. Imperitos. ** Inexperienced in public afiairs." Compare ]27 
tlie Greek paraphrase, -ixttp^s x^ayfdrw. 

%. Qua visa sunt. "What they thi.ik proper." More liter- 
ally, " what appears proper to be concealed." — Ex usu. " Of ad- 

8. Per concilmm. " In council." More literally, " while the 
louncil is sittiiig." 

4. Germani multt^m, <&c. " The Germans, on the ether handt 

differ widely from these customs," i. e.» differ widely *n cnataai 

from all this. 


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1 27 ^* '^'"* ii«;ii« Dnittlef kaberU, Gassar means meraij tbat Um 
Dniidical sytHeia did not extend into Germany^ not that the Ger- 
mans were without priests and priestesses of any kind. Compare 
TacUtu, Hist, 4, 61, 65.— /<2. de Mvr, Germ. c. 8. 

6. Neque Maerifidis student, " Nor do they pay much attention 
to sacrifices/* L e., they haTe sacrifices among them, but do not 
pay by any means so much attention to them as the Gauls. 

7. Vtdcanum, " Fire.*' The Gennans worshipped the sun on 
account of 'its genial influence ; fire, from its aiding them as a pro- 
tection against cold, and also in the preparation of their food ; and 
»he moon, from its assisting them with its rays during the long 

8. AcceperuiU. Cesar's statement is contradicted by that of 
Tacitus {de Mar. Germ. 9), who expressly informs us, that the Ger- 
mans worshipped Mercury, Hercules, and Mars ; and that a part 
of the Suevi sacrificed to Isis. Cesar might easily have been 
deceived, as he passed only a few days within the limits of Ger- 

9. In sttuUis ret mUitaris. ** In military pursuits.'* — Ab parvu-' 
!iSy &c. " From their very infancy they inure themselves to toil 
ind hardship." 

10. Impuheres. V Chaste." — Maximam inter suos, dec. Com- 
pare Tacitus (if. G. 20), ** Serajuvenum v^niM," and Pomponius 
Mela, 3, 3, ** Longissima ajnid eos pueritia Mf." 

11. Cujus rei nuUa est ocatUatio. Compare the explanation of 
Lemaire : ** Incognita est apud eos occultatio partium mriHum. 
Non oecultant sexum; ideo facUe dignoscvntur it qui commercium 
aliquod kalmerunt cum feminis.^* 

12. Aut parvis rhenorum, &c. *^ Or small coverings t>f deet- 
hides." By rheno is here meant a covering of the skin of the rein- 
deer. The name is supposed to come from rhen (rane or rein), a 
species of animal which we term reindeer. Compare Isidorus (19, 
23), ** Rhenones sunt velanuna humerorum et pectoris usque mi 

13. AgriaUtwra non student. " They do not pay much atten- 
ion to agriculture." The expression non studere rei is equivalent 

to non magnopere operam dare. Cesar does not mean, that the 
Germans neglected agnculture entirely, but merely that it did not 
occupy any large share of their attention. Compare note 6. — Cf>ft- 
sUtit. " Is spent." 

14. Agri modum ceyt-unif Ac. " Any fixed portion of land, ot 

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limits which he can caU his own, ' i. e., or ground espectally ap- J 27 
(iropriated to him in ownership. 

15. Gentihus eogmUionibiuquej <&c. ** To the tribes and fam 
ilies," 6cc, The term geniilus is here equivalent to the Greek 

16. QuajUum, 6cc. ''As milch land as, and where, they see 
fit."— iltto. " To a different quarter." 

17. Ejus reit dtc. '< They advance many reasons for this prac 
lice." — Assidua eonsuetiuUne. " By long continued custom," the 
custom of residing in, and cultivating, the same places. — Studium 
beUi gertndif dec. '* lliey may exchange their attention to war for 

IS. Xto^of fines. ''Extensive possessions," L e., extensive 
Unded property. 

19. HumUiore». "The weaker." Equivalent to tenmortM or 
vnfiTmiores, Compare Seneca {de Ira, 1, 3), **Nenu> tarn humilis 
est J qui poenem vel summi homittts sperare non .possit,*^ 

20. Aeeuraiius. "With greater %are." — Qua eupiditas^ Qua 
^or aliqua. 

21. Animi aquitaie. '* In evenness of temper," i. e., in a con- 
'^nted frame of mind. 

1. VastaHs fimbus. " By the desolation of their frontiers," i. ]28 
e., by laying waste the country that lies on their borders, and 
driving out the nations by whom it had been inhabited. 

■ 2. PropriumvirtuHs, "A peculiar proof of their valour." More 
•*ierally, " peculiar to their valour." 

3. DefendU, "Repels." Equivalent to propulstU. Compare 
finnius : " Serva cioer, defends hostes, eumpotes defmdere ;" and 
Quintus Claudigarius : *^ Defendehat hostes a pinnis facillims,^* 
(Enn. Fragm. ed, Hessel. p. 219.) 

4. Sed prineipes, dec. " But the chiefs of the provinces and 
cantons administer justice, and decide controversies among their 
respective foHowers." 

5. Desidue mmusnda. " Of removing sloth." Minuendm is 
bere equivalent to Udlenda, a meaning which this verb not unfre- 
quently has among the best writers. Compare the expression **con- 
hroversias nUnuuntf** just preceding, and also B, G. 6, 2ftw The 
Lacedaemonians permitted predatory excursions, for a reason exactly 
umilar to the one here assigned. {DaarisSf ad loe. — Cragtus^ de 
Rep. jLacei. 3,p. 181.) 

• Profiteantur, "May give in their names." — Causam, "IV 

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128 M^teiprise.'^ — Ex »». '* Of these," i. e., of the iiid.viduAls wl« 
have given in their names, and expressed their readiness to falow 

him as a leader. 

7. Omnhunque rerum, dec. " And all credit in eTeiything is 
ailer this withheld fcpm them." 

8. Hotpites violare. "To offer violence to stzangers." — Qm. 
** All persons who.'* Supply omtus before qvi. 

9. Trans Rhenum coiamas, dec. Csesar refers probably to the 
same period that Livy mentions, 5, 34. The latter speaks of a 
Gallic colony having migrated, when Tarquinius Priscns vras king 
at Rome, firom their own -country, towards the Hercynian forest. 

10. Eratostheni. Consolt Historical Index. — Orcymam. The 
true root of the name is the German HartZy i. e., Hartzvmld, 
Consult Geographical In^ex. 

11. Sumnuunqiu hahet^ &c. " And enjoy a very high reputation 
tor justice and military prowess." Laus is here employed to sig- 
nify, not praise itself, but what calls for praise. Goijapare Forcel- 
lini : " Laus metonymice diAur de reetefactiSf et virhUe, quia hii 
laudem meremur.*^ 

12. In eadem inopia, dec. " In the same scarcity, want, and 
hardiness as the Germans." — Eodem victu, &c. " The same sort 
of diet and clothing." 

13. Gallis. Referring to those of the VoIcsb Tectosages who 
bad not migrated with the rest of that nation into Gennany, but 
had remained in Gaul. — Rt transmarinarum, dec. " And their ac- 
quaintance with foreign commodities." More literally, "things 
that have crossed the sea." 

14. Multa ad copiam, dec. " Supplies many articles of luxury 
as well as convenience." 

129 I. Expedito. " To an expeditious tiaveHer."-*i%im "Be 
computed." Put here for dimeiiri, i. e., to ascertain a space from 

limit to limit. 

2. Oritur ab Helvetiorum, 6cc. " It begins at the confines of the 
Helvetii," dec. — Rectaque flutnim*t dec. " And stretches directly 
along the river Danube." More literally, " in a direct line (reeia 
regitme) as regards the river Danube." The direction here mean 
is an eastern one. 

3. SinittrorsuSf diverna ab fiumine regioniius. ** To the left 
handt in a different direction from the river," i. e., it turns off from 
the left bank of the Danube, and stretches to the north. 

4. Huju» Germam'tB. "In this part of Germanv."— • Oum 
•« Although." 

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b. Memorui prodtnda. "Wortfaj of. being handed dcnvnt* 1^9 

hrfembnnce." Compare the Greek paimphraae : r«S dira/i»yuKa^* 

6. Est hot centifiguia. The animal here deacribed is, acco> " 
ittg to Cnvier, the reindeer. To the same effect are Buffon (Hi*-'. 
Nat. Tol. xii., p. 82, ed. llA, 4to) and Beckmann {Busekings A*»' 
kandlungtn). The term bos employed by Cesar has misled manj. 
and induced them to imagine that the bison was meant, than which 
nothing can be more erroneous. The Romans were accustomed to 
use the term has when speaking of any large>sized animal befort 
unseen Compare the expression Lucas bones applied to elephants 
(Varro, L. L, 6, 3.— P/in, H. N. 8, 6.) . 

7. Umtm cfrmu existit. ** There g^ws a single horn." 

8 Sieutpalma. "Like palms." The reference is to the leaves 
not to the tree itself. Beckmann, however, understands by palnu* 
here the blades of oars. 

9. Alees, According to Cuvier, the animal here meant is 4hf • 
**e\k," or " elendthier'* of the Germans, and elan of the French 
Cssar*s description, however, he very justly regards as altogethe. 
false, but remarks, that the very same disadvantages under whicL 
the alees labour according to Cesar, are ascribed in popular b& 
lief to the elk, whence its German name ** elend," which means 

*' miserable.*' Compare Buffon, Hist. Nat. vol. xii., p. 83. 

10. Varietas pellium. " The varied colour of their skins," i. e 
their dappled or spotted skins. 

11. MutUaque sunt cormbus. This account does not, of course 
suit the elk, unless Cesar saw merely the female animal. Perhaps 
however, he merely describes the elk from the account of others 
and in this way has fallen into error. Compare note 9. 

12. Sine nodis ariiadisque. ** Without ligatures and.joints. 
This, of course, is Incorrect. A stiff appearance of the limbs ma^ 
have given rise to the opinion. 

13. Qiio agUeta casu. '* Having been thrown down by any ac- 
cident," i. e., having accidental'y fallen. — Erigen tese^ dec. " Tc 
raise or help themselves." 

14. 8e apjdicant. "They lean." — Paulum modo ruUnatm 
" Reclining only a little." 

15. A radieibus subruunt. " Loosen at the roots."— vitfd&ut 
tantum. " Cut in so &r."— Summa species, " The full appeal 

16. Infimuu arboreSf Ac. " They throw down bv their weigL. 
the weakened trees " 

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129 ^"^^ Tertium est genus eorunif 6lc. " The third kind of thsM 
animals consists of those which are called Uri." According tft 
Oavier, a species of mountain bull is here meant. The same di*- 
tingnished naturalist thinks, that the bison and urus mark two dis- 
tinct species, and that those Vriters, therefore, are in error who 
make the umt and bison the same animal. The German term for 
the urus is auer-ochSy contracted into isrochs (whence the Latin 
ttn»), and meaning " bull," or " ox, ai the mountain," i. e., wild 
bull, or wild ox. 

18. Paulo infra elephantos. *'A little less than elephants." 
Here again Caesar speaks from hearsay, as the exaggeration respect- 
ing the size of the urus pkdnly indicates. 
I 30 1- Ho9 stvdiose foveiSf &c. " " These they ^ake pains to catch 
in pits, and so kill them." 

2. Addeseentes. In the common text homines adoleseenUSy but 
homines is not found in severaf MSS., and is quite unnecessaiy.^- 
Ettrcent. Supply se. 

3. Qu<B sint testimonio. ** To serve as a proof." Equivalent Xr 
ui ea sint tesiimortio. 

4. Sed assuescere ad homines, dec. " These animals, however 
cannot, even though taken quite young, become accustomed to maA 
«nd tamed," i. e., become domesticated and. tamed. Compare, as 
regards the expression parouH exeepH, the language of the Greek 
oaraphrase : vtoyvobs >{alS6prH. 

5. Amplitudo comvumf <&c. " The size, shape, and species of 
their horns." — Hoc studiose eonquisita, &c. ** These horns they 
carefully seek after, encompass them with silver around the rims, 
and use them for drinking cups at their most splendid feasts." 
This custom appears to have been very common among all the 
northern* nations of Europe. Drinking vessels entirely of gold and 
silver, and fashioned like horns, have been dug up in Denmark. 
In the Runic calendars, moreover, festal days are marked by horns. 
Consult also Athensus, 2, 61. 

6. CiBsar postqttam, dec. Having finished his digressicn xespeet 
ing the manners, &c., of the Gauls and Germans, Cassar fter- 
resumes his narrative, from which he had broken off at chapter 11. 

7. Inopiam frumenti ventus. Dio Cassius says (40, 32), that 
Cesar was in fact afraid of the Suevi ; but this is not probable. — 
Supra demonstraoimus. Consnlt chapter 22. 

8. J^ellum Ambiorigis, Compare chapter 6. — Per A'duemnam 
siham, dec. These words and all that foUow, as far as pa4ei. in- 

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eliwi/e, are strongly suspected of being an interpolation, for they 130 

are absent from the Greek paraphrase, and appear, moreover, to 

clash with what has been stated in the third chapter of the 5th book. 

The number, too, of miles in length (fire hundred), is altogether too 

great. I}*AnTille thinks that the true reading was CL. (i. e., eeii" 

turn et quinquaginia), from which, by an easy error on the part of 

the copyist, arose the other lection D. (i. e., qtufngeniis), 

9. Si quid ceUritaie, &c. ** To see if he may be able to gam 
any advantage by rapidity of march and favourable opportunity." 

10. Subsequi, According to the grammarians, the present kt 
here employed for the future, subsecuturum ^se, (Perizon. ad 
Sonet. Min. 1, 13.) In truth, however, Caesar here uses the pres- 
ent purposely, instead of the future, to give the narrative a more 
animated air, and bring the actions more directly before the eyes of 

reader. Translate, therefore, " that he follows." 
1. Basilus. He was afterwafQ one of the conspirators who 
•sassinated C«sar." — Ut imperatum est, " As was ordered.*' 
J 2. MuUum potest. " Exercises a powerful influence. " — Magno 
easu. " By a singular accident." — Jpsum. ■ " Ambiorix.himself." 

1. Priusqiie ejus advejUtts^ 6o(i, *' And his arrival itself was ob- ]3I 
served by the people, before any rumour or intelligence of that ar- 
rival was brought.** All this is wanting m the Greek fjaraphrase. 
The true reading, moreover, is rendered very uncertain by the yari> 
ations of the MSS. 

2. Magna fuit fortunat die. "It was a piece of great good 
fortune on his part, that, after every implement of war, which he 
had around him, was taken away,** &c. 

3. Hoe^o factum est. " It happened in this way.'* More liter- . 
^y, " on this account.'* 

4. Angusto in loco. ** In a narrow pass.*' — Ilium in equum^ &c. 
** One of his friends mounted him on horseback.** 

6. Ambiorix eopias suaSy dec. ** It is a matter of doubt whether . 
Ambioriz did not draw together his forces through choice," i. e.« 
inrposely avoided assembling his forces. — An tempore exdusus^ 
dec. " Or whether he was excluded from this step by the shortness 
of the time, and prevented from so doing by the sudden arrival ci 
•or horse, believing, at the same time, that the rest of our army was 
coming after.** 

6. Sed eertCy &.c. " But one thing is certain, that he ordered," 

7. In continentes paludes. The Greek paraphrast errs in render- 

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13] mg this tk Td wXiiaUp SVr- The term eantinentu is here eqaiva 
lent to amimuds. Compare B. G. 3, 28. 

8. AHemssimU. "To total strangers." — Cativolcus. Tht' 
Greek paraphrast calls him KorlSMXuf . 

9. OfoutOnu preeilnts^ &e. ** Haying, with every kind ef execra- 
tkni, deTOted Ambiorix to the gods below, for haTing been the 
aothor of that design, killed himself with yew, of which tree there 
is an abandance in Gaol and Germany.'* The expression precihu 
deiettan is equivalent here to diri* devovere, i. e., to devote^ a per- 
son to destruction with bitter imprecations. Compare the Greek 
paraphrase, sd^attltanipdmn Kardpaif. 

10. Toxo. With the juice of the berry, or a decoction of the 
lesTes, both of which are regarded as extremely poisonous to men 
and animals. (Compare Plin. if. N, 16, 10.) 4 modem writer, 
however, cited by F^ {Flore de VtrgiUt p. 169), maintains, that 
the yew is harmless and may be used with advantage in medicine. 

11. Omnium Germanarumf dec. ** That there was one common 
cause for all the Germans," dec, i. e., that they were all joine^Uo 
one common cause. 

12. Qu<e9Hone eapiworum. " From an examination of the pns- 

1 32 ^' -A-iuatueam. All the MSS. and early editions had ad Fatu- 

eamy which Ursinus first, and after him Valesius {Notit. Gait, p 

566), joined into one word Aduatucam, A town of the Eburones 

is meant, as appears from what is immediately after added, and not 

the city of the Aduatici. 

2. Quintum Tullium Cteeronem. The brother of the orator, 
, and already mentioned in the filth book, chapters 38, 39, %c. 

3» Sabim. The editions have Scaldem^ which creates very great 
difficulty,* since the Scheldt does not flow into the Meuse, and the 
** Sylva Arduenna" did not extend to the confines of the Menapii 
and the junction of the Scaldis and Mosa, if such junction ever ex 
isted. The Greek paraphrase, moreover, has :£dBi». They who d» 
ftfid the reading Sealdem, suppose that the Scheldt and Meust 
formed a junction in Cesar's time, and that the aspect of the coun 
try has become subsequently altered. 

4 Post diem septimum. Supply ivickoatum. The _ phrase is 
•q[aivalent to ante diem septimum fimtum. Consult Vlericus^ Art 
CM. 2, 1, c. 10, 5. 

0. Ut eupi'ji demotutravimue. Compare chapter 31. — MamtM 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 


«crfa nulla,. *' No regular force.'' Because Ambiozix had not ] 32 
drawn together his forces, but had ordered them to lie concealed. 

6. Vicinitati&iu. ** To those who dwelt in the neighbourhood." 
Compare Nepos, Aldb. 3, " VicinUaH negoHum datU ,•" and Sue- 
tonius, Vit. Aug. 6, " Tenetque vtcinitatem opiTiio." We have here, 
to adopt the language of gnunmarians, the abstract for the concrete. 

7. Magnamque diligentianiy 6u:. ** And it required great Tigi« 
lance, on the part of Caesar, not indeed to secure the safety of the 
whole army (for no danger could happen to them in a body, from a 
terrified and scattered foe), but to save the soldiers individually." — 
Ex parte. " In some measure." 

1. Con/ertos "In large parties." 133 

2. Vellet. Supply Catar. — DiduceruLu Equivalent to divi- 
dendi. Compare the Greek paraphrase, koI tig xoXXd ita^funim ^ 

3. InstUutaratio, " The established discipline." Compare thm ' 
Greek paraphrase, i( r&v 'tmitalmw Max^- 

4. In nocendo aliquid omUteretur. Caesar means* that he rathei 
> omitted an opportunity of injuring the enemy, than injured them to 

the detriment of his own soldiers. 

6. Legionaarius miles. " The soldiery of the legions," i. e., the 
Roman soldiers, who composed the regular legions. 

6. Pr^f/taU facinore. " As a punishment for such an offence," 
i. e., as was that which they had committed.--^iStirp«. "The 
xw:e."—Tollatur. ** May be annihilated." Those of the Eburones 
who survived on this occasion became merged in the name and na- 
tion of the Tungri. Compare RUter, Hist. GaU. p. 107. 

7. Magnus undique^ &c. There is nothing corresponding to thi* 
in the Greek paraphrase. 

8. Appetebat. " Was drawing near." — Reverti constituerat. 
Compare chapter 33. 

9. Et quantos afferat casus. "And what changes she brings 
about." Literally, "how great accidents she brings with her*' 
Compare the Greek-paraphrase, Kal nfiaas iirtpyd^trai avvrvxlas. 

10. Manus erat nulla. . " There was no collected body." 

11. Ultra. "Freely." 

12. Supra docunnus. Compare book 4, chapter 16. 

18. Erat perfectus. " Had been constructed." Perfecius m 
fiere equivalent to confectuSf or the simple /actus. Many read t»- 
fterfectus, and translate the clause, " where the bridge was incam- 
pteto,*' i. e., partially destroyed, or broken of^ by CaMwr. This 

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133 )>M^ of imperfeUus, however, is extremely harsh, and hardly id 
accordance with the idiom of the language. The term woald 

rather carry with it the idea of something that had never been com- 
pleted. If any change be allowed in the text, it would be perhapt 
the conjecture of Achaintre, who suggests persecttu for perfectus. 

14. MvUoa txftLgOy &c. *' They intercept many stragglers at 
tempting to escape." 

15. Non has paltu, 6ce. " No marsh, no woods retard these 
men, bred up amid war and depredations." 

134 *!• FcrturuUiasimis, A Graecism for fortUTuUUnmos. This 
construction is classed by grammarians under the head of attiae- 

tion. Compare Zumpty L. G. p. 366. 

2. Prandu tantum est. "There is so little of a garrison." 
Tanium is equivalent here to tarn panim. Compare B. C. 3, 3, 
** TatUum navium.^^ — Ut ne nmrtu, 6lc. " That the walls cannot 
dven be manned." Compare the Greek paraphrase, &9Tt ra2 |4 

3. Usi eodem duce. " Having taken the same individual for a 

4. De numero dieruniy &c. ** That Caesar would keep his promise 
respecting the number of days," i. e., during which he intended to 
be absent. Compare chapter 33. 

6. Qui mhu paUentiam, d&c. *' Who called his forb^rance al- 
most a siege," i. e., complained that he kept them within the camp, 
with almost the same strictness 'as if an enemy were besieging the 

6. NvMum ejusmodi casum^ &c. " Expecting no event of such 
a nature, as that by means of it any harm could be received within 
three miles of his camp, while there were nine legionsi; and a very 
large body of cavalry opposed to the foe, and the enemy themselves 
were dispersed and almost annihilated." The nine legions, here 
referred to, were stationed in various quarters against the enemy* 
Cicero had with him the thirteenth legion and two hundred horse. 

7. Qui hoe spaiiOy &c. " As many as had recovered in those 
few days," i. e., the days which had elapsed since Caesar's depar- 
ture. — Sub vexillo una mithitUur. " Are sent out along with the de- 
tachment, under a standard of their own," i. e., in a separate body 
By vexUliim is commonly meant the standard or banner of thccav 
airy ; here, howeVer, it denotes one under which the veteran fool 
who belonged to no particular legion, o the soldiers who were de- 
tached firom their legion, Vrere accustomed to fight. Compare Ia(»> 
siufe. Mit Rtrni. p. 48. 

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6. Subsederat. '< Remained." |34 

9. Casu. The common text has et catu, but we have rejected 
the copulative as Clarke and Oudendorp recommend. Compare 
the Greek paraphrase : h roCr^ it xard nvrvxlnf. 

10. Ah decumana porta. " By the decuman gate." This was 
the gaie in the rear of the camp. Consult Archaeological Index. 

11. Qui sub vallOf &c. "The sutlers, who had their tents 
pitched close to the ramparts." Tenderent is equivalent here to 
tentoria haherent. Compare Virgil, JEn. 2, 29 : " Hie Dolopum 
vumus, hie savut tendchat Ackille*." On the other hand detendere 
is to break up an encampment. Compare B. C. 3, 85 : " Taber- 
naculiaque detensis." 

12. Mercatores. The sutlers were not allowed to reside within 
the camp, but pitched their tents without They were so near, 
however, as easily to take refuge within the encampment, in case of 
any alarm. On the present occasion, the German horse came too 
suddenly upon them to allow of any escape. 

1. Portas nostri tuentur. The GenAn horse came directly ] 35 
np to the gates, as there were no ditches in front of these. — Re- 
hqtua adttus, ** The other avenues of entrance." 

2. Neque quam in partem, &c. " Nor to what quarter each one 
is to betake himself." / 

3. Plerique novas, &c. " Most of them form unto themselves 
strange superstitions notions, from the place where they were." 
The encampment wore an ill-omened appearance in their eyes, as 
connected with the overthrow of Sabinus and Cotta. 

4. Capiivo. The prisoner mentioned .in chapter 35, and whom 
they had taken as a guide. 

5. Qui primum pilum, 6cc. ** Who had been chief centurion 
^th Caesar." Compare note 11, page 46. 

6. Superioribus prcdOs. Consult book 2, chapter 25, and book 
S, chapter 5. 

7. In staHone. " On guard." The term statio gets the mean- 
ing here given it from its referring to a body '* standing'^ at their 
post on guard. 

9^ Relinquit animum Scxtius, " Sextius faints." Davies is y 
§mmg in translating this, ** Sextius dies." The Greek paraphrast 
gives the true meaning, Acntf ^xv^'* From what follows, it will 
be pesrceived that Sextius was still alive, for how can one be said to 
be dead who is immediately after said to have been saved % The 
error arose from confounding the phrase rehnquere 4 
fi.;nt," with rdmguere ammam» " to die." 

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1 35 ^' ^^ amtcriptt, &c. " Those who had been only lately en- 
listed, acd were, consequently, not familiar with the usages of war." 
I3G 1. Calones. "The servants." Compare book 2, cbaplei 
24, and consult ArcbaBOlogical Index.— /n Mtgna tMnifuiatque. 
*' Among the standards and maniples," i. e , among the very ranks 
of the soldiers. Compare the Greek paraphrase, th ai-as rdc rfiv 

2. Cutuo facto, " Having formed a wedge." Soldiers were 
drawn up in the focm of a wedge, in order to cut through the ene. 
my*8 lines. According to Yegetius (3, 19), the Roman soldiers call 
this arrangement caput pordnum. It seldom failed of proving suc- 
cessful, since the missiles of those who composed it were all aimed 
at one point. 

3. Si. " Even if.»'--.A*. " Yet." 

4. Nulla etiam nunc, &c. " Having as yet acquired no military 
experience." Compare the explanation of Achaintre, " Qui mm- 
dum rei mUitaris experienliam habebant,** 

5. Ex inferioriius ordimbu*. ** From the lower ranks." — Ermu 
trantducti. " Had been promoted." More literally, ** had been 

6. Fidem non faceret, ** He could not induce t|iem to believe." 
Literally, " he could not gain credit," i. e., for himself. — Adesse 
Ccutarem. Hotomannus thinks that the following passage of Sue- 
tonius has > reference to the events mentioned in this chapter. 
" Catar obtessione casirorum in Gemumia nunciaia, par giationes 
hotttum^ GaUu^ habitu petutravit ad xuof." The opinion is aver^ 
l^bable one ; but for tn .Gemuinta, we must read in GaUiaa Ga 

7. Pane aUenaUL mente. ** As if ahnost divested of reason.*- 
Literally, " with an almost alienated mind." 

37 I* Unum qucatus. " Having found fault with only one thing.^ 
Literally, " having complained of,** &c. 

2. Ex ttatione et prandio essent emissa. " Had been sent off 
iirom guard and garrison.'* — Cagu. Old form of the dative for casui 

3. Maxime nurandum videbatur. " It appeared the most sur- 

4. Optatissimum Atnbiorigi, dec. '* Had incidentally rented 
ft most acceptable service to Ambiorix." 

5. Omnes vict, &c. A dreadful picture. Comparft the remazli 
«f Barron : ** Horrcnda malorum el arumnarum fua heUum seeum 
^ert imago hie nobia reprtuentaiwrV 

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C Ac sape in aim locum, 6lc.' <* And matters often came to J 37 
/ nch a pass (i. e., it often happened) from the nmnber of hone 
that were scattered in all directions, that the captives declared Am- 
Morix had just been seen by them in his flight, and was not even yet 
^one entirety ont of sight ; insomuch that ;Bome, who thought to 
atand high in the favour of Caesar, being inspired with the hope of 
overtaking him, and having assumed a task of infinite labour, almost 
overpowered nature by their zeal." 

7. Ad tummam feUciiatcm. "To complete success." — Atque 
Jhy &c. " While he kept snatching himself from their hands by 
rhe aid of lurking-places « forests." 

8. Duarum cohortium damno. Referring to the two cohorts cut 
to pieces by the Sicambri. 

9. De AccoM, ConsuU chapter 4. 

10. More majorum siij^Hcium sumMt.' " He inflicted punish 
jient according to the custom of our ancestors," i. e., he punished 
according to ancient Roman usage. What this punishment was we 
)eam from Suetonius (Ner. 49) : " Nttdi liominis ceroicem insert 
furciBj corpus virgis ad necem eitdiy 

1. Quibus cum aqua, &c. '< After he had interdicted these ] 3Q 
ftom fixe and water," i. e., had banished them. The expression 
aqua ct ignis tnterdictio, or the forbidding one the use of fire and 
water, was the Roman judicial form of inflicting the sentence of 
banishment. By the operation of this formula the individual was 
banished from Italy, but might go to any other place he chose. In 
the present case, it means banishment from the land of GaiiL 

%, Exsreiiu. Old dative for exereitui 

• Mm 

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140 ^' Cognoaeii de Clodii cade. ** He receiYes intelligence of tiie 
death of Clodius." A turbulent and licentious Romaii, slain in 

an encounter by Milo, or rather by the retinue of the latter at the 
eommand of their master. 

2. Senatus consuUo. In consequence of the troubles attendant 
upon the death of Clodius, the senate passed a decree that the In- 
terrex for the time being, the tribunes of the commons, and Pompey, 
who was outside the city, and proconsul, should see that the re- 
public suffered no injury, and ^at the last-mentioned individual 
should hold a general levy throughout all Italy. 

3. Ut omnes, &c. *' That all the youth of Italy should take up 
arms." In' dangerous wars, or on sudden emergencies, the regular 
mode of raising soldiers was dispensed with. Two flags were dis- 
played from the capitol, one red for the infantry, and the other of s 
green colour for the cavalry. On such occasions, as there was no 
time for taking the military oath in due form, the consul or com- 
mander merely said, " Qui rempuhlieam salvam esse wit, me se- 
qtuUur." This was called conjuraiio, or evocatio, and men thus 
raised were styled conjurati, as b^ing bound all at once by a mili- 
tary oath or engagement, i. e., quia simul jurabarU. On the con- 
trary, when the regular oath was taken, one soldier was chosen to 
repeat over the words, and the rest swore after him, every one as he 
passed along, saying, " idem in m^." Consult LipsiuSf Mil. Rom 
1, dial. 6,' p. 42, and Stewecchius^ ad Veget. c. 6, p. 20. 

4. Retineri urharu) motu Casarem. Plutarch well remarks, thai 
had Yercingetorix waited a little longer, uiftil CsBsar was actualW 
engaged in the civil war, the rising of the Grauls would have ap- 
peared not less formidable to the Romans than the inroad of tfas 
Cimbri and Teutones. ( Vit. Cos. c. 27.) 

141 I • -Z'^ Acc^is morte. Consult the last chapter of the preWr ua 
book— -fluiw; casum, 6cc. "That this fate may fall in tnip on 


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2.Depa9cu,tUfquihelU,6cc, << They call on sonifi to begin the |4| 
war, and assert the freedom of^Gaul at the hazard of their own 

3. Ejus in primU rationem habwdam. ** That care should be 
taken in particular of this,'* L e., that this pomt ought particularly 
to be attended to. 

4. In ode prastare interfict, *< That it was better to be slain'in 
lAttle." Compare the Greek paraphrase, jc«fXX<«y dlwmi fktyv f^o^ 

5. Et qnaniam, &c. *' And since they cannot, at present, give 
hostages among themselves, as a security that the afiair shall not 
be divulged,* they require that an assurance be given them, by oath 
and on honour, the military standards being brought together for this 
purpose, by which custom their most sacred ceremonies are guarded." 
Continere ie here employed in the sense of eustodire. Compare 
Cic, in Vatin. c. 6, ** Non eustodem ad coTUinendas, ted poriitorem 
ad partiendas merees missum putaHs;*' and Terence, Eun. 1, 2, 
23, ** Qua vera audivi taceo, et cofiHneo optmey 

6. Bn eonMtiUranU << Had established themselves there." Sup 
ply 8696. — Himestum equiiem Romanum, The term honettm was 
specially applied to the knishts, as iUtutris was to the senators. 
The Greek paraphrast weir expresses honestum here by koK^ 

7. Jllustnor, " More remarkable than ordinary." 

8. Centum ef sexaginta. Supply passwum, which appears m 
the common text, though omitted in many MSS. 

1. StmHi ratione. '* In like manner." — Verctngetofix. The J |^^ 
name Cxngetorix is equivalent, according to Celtic scholars, to 
Cim-cido-ngh, i. e., ** chieftain of a hundred heads," or, in other 
words, " a captain," or ** leader." Verdngetorix is the same ap- 
pellation strengthened by a prefix, Ver-dmrcedo-rigk, and meant 
'-great captain," or '< generalissimo." These are evidently twt 
titles of office, and the personal or proper names of the two nidi 
Wduals have perished. {Thierry, HiitL des GauloiSf yol iii., p. 97, 

2. OaUuB toHus. The reference is to Celtic Gaul, not to the 
whole ooimtry. (jrompare B. G. 1, 1. 

3. Quasainque adit, dec. '* As many of his countrymen as he 
has access to.** Cimtaie la here eqmvalent in effect to tota regione 

4. Ex dvifaie. '* From the state," i. e., from the country of thv 
Arveirm at large. Campaie note 6, page 176, and the usage of thv 

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398 Norss on tjos sbyenth book. 


* 42 OiMk lai^age in the case of the substantive iM^.'^AppeUutKr 
••He is saluted." 

5. Qui oceanum atiingunt. The Armonc states are meant 
Compare book 2, chapter 34, and book 6, chapter 53. 

6. Efieiat, **l8 to prepare." — Quodque a%te tempus, ' And 
before what time.'* — In primis equitaiui studet. ** He turns hie 
attention in particular to cavaby.*' 

7. jSuffURom imperii sneriiatem, ** The utmost rigour of au- 
thority." — Magnitudine tupplidi, &c. ** He brings over the yrvvm- 
ing by the severity of his punishments." 

- 8. Avt singulis effossis octdis. ** Or having put out one of their 
eyes.*' Some give a different turn to the clause, '* having put out 
their eyes for each," making singulis the dative. The fbnner, 
however, is preferable. 

9. Cadurcum. '* The Caduican," i. e., one of the Cadurci. So 
tiie Greek paraphrase has rdv Ka^oSpmv. 

0. De consUio kgatorum. " By the advice of the lieutenauts." 
— Ad exercitum. " With the army." 

11. Qui. An instance of what grammarians ^aXi synesis, where 
the relative agrees in gender, not with the antecedent, but with the 
person or thing to which that antece^nt refers. 
13 1. Ipsi. Referring to the Bitu^es. 

2. Id eane de eatisa, &c. '* Whether they acted thus for the 
^ reason which they mentioned to the lieutenants," dec. 

3. Quod nihil nobis constat. " Inasmuch as we have no proo 
on the subject." 

4. His rehus in Italiam^ dec. " Intelligence of these things 
being brought into Italy to Cesar." The student will mark the 
force of the construction in Italiam. 

6. Urbanas res, &c. Alluding to the agency of Pompey m 
quieting the disturbances that ensued after the death of Clodins.*^- 
Ccmmodiorem in statum, <* Into a more settled state." 

6. Qui eo tempore paeati tiderentur. For they might still entap- 
tain hostile feelings towards him, and would, therefore, gladly seii* 
this opportunity of gratifying those feelings. 

7. Omnibus eonsilUs, &c. *^ That he ought to prefer a settmg 
out for Narbo, to all other plans," i. e. ought to go to Narbo before 
he did tnything else. 

8. Rutenis protdncialibus. ** The Ruteni of the Roman piDT 
lice." The allaaion is to those of the Rnteui whose towns wers 
neorporated in the province,' f» there we** others without its 

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linuU. CompaietlM Greek panphia8e,r0vlyi^«rafx^'^^'"i*^ 143 

9. In Helvios eonvenire, " To rendezTOus anioiig tho HeWii," 
u e.f to go unto the HeMi and asieinble there. 

10. EepreMO jam^ &c. '* Lucterius beiog now checked and 
obliged to retire." — Intra prtuidia, ** Within the line of Roman 

U. Durissimo, 6lc. "It being the most inclement season of 
the year." — DUeusta. ^ Being clearied away." Oudendorp pre- 
fers dUcisa, " being cut away," I e., with axes, &c., as refening 
to the frozen snow. 

1. Singulari qvidem hamini. <<£yen to a single person." ]44 
Mach less, therefore, to an army. The passage of Mount Ce- 
benna is to be ranked among the most memorable achieTements of 

2. Quod hoe de Vercingetorige, <&;c. " Because he had already 
conceived in mind, that these things would happen in of 
Vercingetorix," i. e., that Yercingetorix would act in this way 
In Latin, usu venire is equivalent to aecidere or evenire. Compare 
Ctc. in Vert. 4, '* Quod ego in paucis tamen usu venisse eo mo 

3. Per causam. " Under pretence." 

4. Recentem eqtutatum. *' A fresh body of cavaliy," i. e., a fresh 

5. Aeduieque aUrihuerat. ''And had made tributary to the 
Aedui." Conq>are the .explanation of Moras : " Ut m etipendw 
et tributa eoherent,^* 

6. Oppugnare instittui. The boldness and despateh of Yercin 
getorix place him here in a very favourable light. 

7. Ad consilium capiendum. *' As to what measures he should 
pfursue." More literally, " with regard to the forming of a plan." 

8. Stipendiariit, ** The tributaiies.^' Compare note 13, page 
Vt.^^Expugnutie, Equivalent here to oppugntOie. 

1. Ne ah re frumentaria, dec. " Lest he might suffer mcon- ] /\ /| 
venience from the-want of provisions, the conveyance being dif- 

2. Quamy taaUa contumelioy 6cc. " Than by submitting to so 
great an afiront, to alienate from him the affections of all his friends." 

3. Deeupportandoeommeatu. ''To supply him with provisions** 
Litotally, "respecting the supplying of provisions." 

4. AUero die. " On the second day." 


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1 45 ^' -^^^^ eonftrri. Hie common text has pofcrri^ which wc 
have changed to conferri, on the authority oi some of the MSS. 

The latter is more in accordance with the manner of Cassar, and 
prevents the awkward similarity of sound between proferri and 

6; Ipse ut quam prtmum, 6lc. ** He himself sets out, in order 
to arrive as soon as possible at Genabum, a town of the Camutes," 
i. e., with the intention of reaching Genabum as quickly as pdtai- 
Ue. We have retained the common reading faeeret, instead of am^ 
JUeret, which latter does not sound well after conficeret in the pre- 
vious clause. The meaning and reading of the passage haye both 
been much disputed, but the punctuation of Oberlin, namely, a com- 
ma after Camu^m, removes all the difficulty. 

7. Cum longvMj 6lc. " Thinking that it could be protracted to 
a still longer period,'* i. e., thinking that the place could hold out 
for some time longer. 

8. Etf quod oppidutn GenaJbumy &c. ** And because a bridge 
over the Liger afforded the only means of egress from the town of 
Genabum." CorUinehai is well explained by Daehne, '' ita coer- 
eebat, ut alius non esset exUus.** Oudendorp and most other editors 
make corUinebat equivalent here to " was adjacent*' or ** contiguous 
to,** but the propriety of such an explanation is more than ques- 

9. Excuhare, "To keep watch there,'* i. e., at the brid^ 
Compare the Greek paraphrase, irpo^Xarftv. 

146 ^* OppugruUione dettitit. " Desisted. from the siege of fjfer- 
govia,** Supply Gergovia. 

2. JUe oppidum, &c. After oppidum there follows in the com- 
mon text Bitungunij positum in may but as these words are want- 
ing in most of the MSS. and earlier editions, and are included m 
brackets by many editors, we have rejected them at once from 
the text. The Noviodunum here meant was not the town of the 
Aedui, known by that name, but another place, between Genabum 
and Avaricum, now Neum-sur-Baranjon. 

3. Conferri. The common text has ;pt>/em. Compare note 5, 
page 146. 

4. Cum reliqua administrarentur. "While the other things 
wcrtJ getting performed.'* 

5. Ex tignificatione G{Ulorum. " From the signs made to one 
another by the Gau ^.** Compare the explanation of Achaintvri. 
•* ex signis vel nutibus quibus inter se Galli utebantury 

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6. CommiUit, Hotomann suggests conwdUij because Cssw ]4g 
did not, as appears from what follows, engage personally in the 
fight. The objection is quite unnecessary, since commUtit and 
odier verbs of the kind do not always imply personal agency or 

7. Amu tempore. The winter season, when the fodder was 
stored away within doors. — Ex adifieiis petered " Seek it from the 
houses." — DeUri posse. " Can be cut off.** 

1. Hoe spaZiOy a Boia, 6lc. ** At such a distance from Boia, ] 47 
m every direction, as it appeared possible for the Romans to go 

in order to obtain forage." Great difference of opinion exists as to 
the true reading of this passage, some eiitors suggesting a Bonsy 
others in place of a Boia giving ah koste. We have retaiifed the 
common lection, though labouring under strong suspicions of being 
conrupt. Bota, according to Davies, refers to the territory of the 
Boii, just as Venetia is used for the country of the Yeneti. B. Q. 
3, 9. We would rather regard it as an appellation, on the part of 
the Boii, for the city of Gergovia. Thus Gergovia Boia, i. e., Ger 
govia Boiorum. 

2. Neqiie interesse, d&c. " And that it makes no diffeareace 
whether they, cut to pieces the latter themselves, or strip them ot 
their baggage, since if this be lost, the war cannot be carried on by 
them." Quibtbs refers to impedimentis. 

3. Neu suis sinty dco- " That they may neither be places of re- 
treat for such of their countrymen as wished to avoid the war " 
Literally, " to their own countrymen, for avoiding the war." 

4. Romania proposita. ** Placed as so n^any invitations to the 
Romans.*' Literally, ** placed before their view unto the Romans.** 
— ToUendam. Hotomann thinks this word superfluous here, but it 
is found in all the MSS., and, as Oudendorp remarks, its presence 
suits the plain and unelliptical style of Cssar. 

5. Qua sit necesscj dec. There is a striking resemblance be- 
tween the advice here offered by Vercingetorix, and that on which 

he Russians acted in the memorable campaign of 1812. Vercin- 
getorix would have done better, however, had he not spared Avari- 

6. PropoTiehant. After this word there follows in the common 
text, quod ««, prope^ and the sentence is made to close with confide- 
hant after reeuperaturos. We have thrown out the words in ques 
tion as manifest interpolations, in accordance with the opinions of 
Owlendorp, Mnrus, and many otlier editors. Some MiSS. omit 

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I A^ pud #e» propi, othen want #< prope, while others agsm for 0011^ 
debant have ponehant. As Morns weU remarks, " Hoe nun 
eerta indicia verborum asntionun.** 

7. Flwmine. The rirer here meant b the Avera, now Euwt^ 
from which the city derived its name. Compare Mannert, Geogr. 
Tol u., p. 129. 
148 1- ^^ ''^^ etploratares, " By trusty scouts." Thtf Gve^ 
paiaphrast errs in rendering this 8t^ «ara««4irwv nv&v.-^In sMfwIi 
iti<» tempora. '* Every hour." Equivalent to **per nngtdM 
AoTM." So the Greek paraphrase has correctly, naff iUonpf 6pmp. 

2. Ineertis temporihus, "At irregular times." Compare the 
Greek paraphrase, h iofftms Kotpolg. 

3. Casar. As regards the position of this word in the sentence, 
compare note 9, page i 10. In constructing take it first in order.'— 
Qika tntemUsMOj dLC. " Which, nof being surrounded by the rivet 
and marsh, had, as we have before said, a narrow approach," i. e., 
where the intermission of the river and marsh left a narrow paa 

4. AUeri. Referring to the Aedui.— iV»^ tiudw. « Without 
any zeal."-^ilAcr» non magnii faeulttUiku, " The others, hxmg 
uu great resources." Referring to the Boii. 

6. AJfecto. *' Being straitened." — TemdtaU Boiorum, &e 
. ** Through the poverty of the Boii, the negligence of the Aedui." 

6. Et pecore, &c. " And were forced to satisfy their extreme 
hunger by cattle driven to the camp from the more distant villages.*' 
Ciacconius and Ursinus suggest abacto, but odAieto is far preferaUe, 
and has all the its favour. 

7. Casar cum, &c. " When CaBsar addressed himself to the le- 
gions one by one, while at work." — Si acerbius inopiam ferreni. 
•* If they felt the 'scarcity too severe for them." Literally, " if they 
boro the scarcity too severely." 

8. Univern. " They all with one accord." — Sie se eomplureSf 
Ac, ** That they had, for several years, so conducted themiselves 
under his command, as to have incurred," &c. 

9. Quamnon parentarefU, '* Than not avenge." The primitive 
meaning of parentare is ** to perform the funeral rites of parents,* 
or '* near relations," i. e., to appease by such rites the shades of tLa 
departed. Its secondary meaning, as in the present case, is " t( 
avenge," i. e., to appease the shade of a deceased friend, or com 
tiyman, by the death of the one who had deprived him oif Ufe. 

10. Gendbi. Compare chapter third of this book. 

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1. la arcHorea sUvds. " In the thicker part of the wooda,'^ i ] ^9 

»., where the crowded state of the trees prevented access. The 
explanation of Davies is to the point : ** Ita vocat densiores, gwui 
crebris arboribiu arcebatur hominum aditus." 

2. GeneroHmque, dec. " And being arranged tribe by tribe, ac 
cording to their respective states." We must either adopt thif 
mode of translating the clause, or else agree with M<Mms, that in cu 
vitai-es is superfluous, for it would be a manifest pleonasm to say, 
as some do, " being arranged by nations and states.'* 

8. Omnia vada ac saltusy 6lc. "They held all the fords and 
passages of this morass with strong guards.*' More literally, with 
guards on which reliance could be placed. Compare the version 
of De Criss^, " t^ oecupoiejit par defortet gardes les guis et Us 
passages etroits qui se trouvoient dans le tnarais." 

4. Hitsitantes premerent, &c. " They would overpower them, 
while sticking in the mire, from the higher grounds." 

5. Ut qui propinquitatemy 6u;. ** So that whoever saw the near 
position of the two armies, would imagine that they were prepared 
to fight on almost equal terms ; while whoever regarded the ine- 
quality of situation would discover, that the t^auls displayed them 
selves to the view with only an empty assumption of courage," L e., 
made only an empty show of courage. Cssar means, that, if any one 
observed how very favourably the Gauls were posted, he would per- 
ceive, in a moment, that they derived all their courage from their 
situation, and, throwing this advantage aside, were mere empty 

6. Qitanto detrimentOf &c. ** With how great loss, and with 
the lives of how many men, even victory must necessarily be pur- 
chased." More literally, ** how great loss, &o., victory must nece» 
•sarily cost." 

7. Quod castroy &c. " That, as to his having moved his camp, 
this was done," &c. 

1. Munitione, "By a natural fortification," i. e., by its own \yi^ 
strengtL. Supply naturdi. 

2. Cut reif &c. " To which step he saw them mclined through 
the effemmacy of their minds." 

3. Bomani si casu, &c. " That, if the Romans came up by 
chance, they should thank fortune ; if invited by the mformation of 
any person, they should thank the informer, that they were en- 
abled," &c* 

4. Eorum. Referring to the Romans — VirhUem. Inmical. 
(^n. Referring still to the Romans. 

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* 50 ^* Q*^^'"' ^*^^ ^p***i ^* " ^&y> ^^^ ^0 cvei^ g^^^ \»ick Ui0 

command unto them, if they appear to bestow more honour upon 
Um, than receive safety at his hauds." 

6. Servos. ** Some soldiers* serTants." Called on other occ» 
»ions calones. 

7. Operis labarem. ** The fatigue of the work," i. e., the l&boai 
of pushing the siege, &c. Compare chapter 28. 

8. ArmU concrepat. " Clash their arms." — In to. . ** In the 
case of him." 

j1 *. Majorc ratione, " With greater prudence." 

2. Quod penes eos, 6cc. The common text has pane in eo, 
which is inferior to the reading here given. — Summam fnctoria, 
**^ The glory of the victory." Conxpare the explanation of Cellarios ; 
** ne tervati oppidi gloria solonim eetet BUurigwnj sed Gallonim 

3. Singulari miUtwni noetrorunij &c. " Devices of every kind, 
on the part of the Gauls, opposed the uncommon brav^ of our 
soldiers," i. e., the -Gauls opposed, by devices of every kind, the 
valour of our soldiers, though displayed in a remarkable degree. 

4. Ut est eumnue, dec. " Since they are a race of consummate 
Ingenuity." — Qua ah guoque tradanti&. ** That are imparted b? 
any one,*' i. e., which they see done by others. 

5. Laquei* falcee avertebarU. " They t\imed aside the hooks 
with nooses." The falces, referred to here, are different from the 
mural hooks mentioned in the previous part of this work. (B. G. 
3, 14, and 5, 42.) They appear to have been a species of ram, 
differing from the ordinary kind in having a curved, or hooklike, 
instead of a round iron, head. (Compare Vegetxus^ 4, 23.) The 
process, alludeJ to m the text, consisted in catching the head of this 
species of ram witn a noose, and either drawing it within by means 
of engines, or else raising the head on high, and thus oveituming 
the vines under which the hook or ram was worked, {ytgelmsy L 
c. — Appian, B. M. 74.) 

6. Quae curn, destinaveranty &c. " And when they had caught 
Dold of them firmly, they drew them in by means of engines.** 
DesHnare is here equivalent to **laqueo prekensas fakes figere.*' 
The term tormentum was applied by the Romans to any species of 
aiilitary engine or machine. Compare Cic. Ep. ad Fam. 15, 4, 
'*Aggere, vineisy turrUmSt oppugnavi, ususque tormentU mtUits.** 
rhe reference in our t«jzt appears to be to a species of eranc. 

T. Afrgerem cumcuUa^ &c. " Thev removed the earth of fho 

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mound by mines," i. e., they undermine the mound. Wooden |5] 

props were erected until the excavation was completed, aad then, 

fire being communicated and the props thus consumed, the mound 

fell in. Compare Vegetius, 4, 23, and SteioecchitUt ad loc. 

8. Magnet ferrojia. " Large iron mines." — Omnt genua cunt- 
Kulorum. ** Every species of mining." 

9. . Toium atUem murunit dec. ** They had covered, moreover, 
he whole wall, on every side with towers of several stories." The 
expression murum turribus centabtdaverant is equivalent in effect 
to murum turribus corUabulatis tJistruxerant. The ordinary mean- 
ing of contabulare is ** to cover over with boards or planks," ** to 
plank or floor with boards," " to raise or frame a building of timber, 
and of several stories," &e. 

10. Coriis. Towers of the kind mentioned in the text were 
Qsually covered with raw hides, as a protection against fire. 

11. Aggeri. The mound was fenced or kept in by stakes, and 
to these the besiegers applied fire. The reference^ however, is not 
merely to the mound itself, but to the wooden works and engines 
both upon and before it. 

12. Et nostrarum turrmmy d&c. '' Moreover, by splicing the up- 
right timbers of their own towers, they kept equallin|^he height oi 
ours as fast as the mound had daily raised them f ^i^d, having 
countermined them, they impeded the working of our mines by 
means of stakes burnt and sharpened at the end, and by throwing 
apon our men boiling pitch and stones of very great weight, and 
did not^suffer them to get near the walb."- 

13. Quotidiamu agger. As the mound kept increasing in size, 
by the addition of firesh earth, the towers erected on it were like- 
wise increased in the number of their stories. These the enemy, 
on their side, kept equalling. — Expresterat. Caesar has here em- 
ployed a technical term. Deprimere is " to let down," andexpri- 
mere, "to raise," or "elevate." 

14. Apertos .cuniculoSf &c. The term apertos has given rise \a 
much discussion, end great diversity of opinion. We have adopted 
he explanation of De Criss^. According to a well-known rale, 
tpertos mordbantur is equivalent to apemerufU et morabantur. 
Compare the version of De Criss^, " Si nous ouvrums une mtn^, 
lis I'^ventaient, et la remplissaient de pieux poinius,^* dec. 

16. Trabes directay d&c. " Straight bedims, connected together 
.n long rows," i. e., long rows of straight beams, formed by*cOD- 
aecting them at their extremities, and each row l3ring parallel to Urn 

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151 ^^^' The expression p«y7«AMB tn ^ongiYtf<2tii«m is eqinviieiit ts 
cimtimuUa serie nexa. The conrespo n ding Greek fonn would be 
SttfPtKtls or wpoetx^iSj ^ » shown by Bos, Animadv. in Cos* p. 81, 
from Josephus, B. I. 7, 33. 

16. Paribus intenaUis dtstanies, 6cc. These long paiallel rows 
of beams were each two feet apart. 

17. Ha revineiuntur, &c. " These are mortised together un 
the inside, and then covered with a large quantity of ear^*' L e., 
one row is mortised to another. Intrornu is here the same as in 

18. Intervallfi. The space of two feet between the rows. — jhf 
fronte «am, &c. *' Are stopped closely in front with large stones.** 
The interior of the wall is filled up with earth, the facing is of stone. 

19. IdemiUud intervallum. Alluding to the distance of two 
feet between each row. — Neque inter se conHngaTU, dec. Except- 
ing, of course, where .they are mortised. 

20. Sedj paribuf, 6lc. " But, equal spaces interrenmg, each 
row of beams is kept firmly in its place, by a row of stones." We 
have changed irUermsaa of the common text into mtenmuu, as 
more in accordance with the manner of CaMar, and as sanctioned by 
B. C. 1, 20, " Nam certit spoHis iTUermissis^" &c. 

21. Hoc Mm in speeiem, 6lc. *^ This work, both as regards 
appearance and variety, is not unpleasing to the eye, beams and 
stones being placed alternately, which keep their own places in 
straight lines ; and, besides, it possesses very great advantage, as 
regards actual utility and- the defence of cities." 

1 53 , '• ^^^ ** "* incendiOf &c. " For the stone facing defends 
it from fire, and the timber from the battering-ram," i. e., and the 
well-compacted timber forms a security against the blows of the ram. 
% Perpetuis trdbibuSf 6lc, ** Long rows of beams, each beam 
'«if the most part forty feet in length, being mortised on the mside." 
Compare the explanation of Achaintre, " Trabes erard perpetua im 
iengitudinef quadntgems pedibus constantes.** 

3. Picem, Hotomann inserts alii here, and is followed by Seal- 
iger. The emendation is unnecessary^ 

4. Ut, qxM primurn^ &c. ** So that a plan could hardly be formed! 
ftt the moment, as to where we should first make opposition," dse^ 
i e., so that it could hardly be determined at the moment, dee. 

5. Institute Casaris, <* By an established rule of Cassar's."- 
ParHtis temparibus: "At stated Vines." Literally, **at times 
pnrcelled omt between them.* 

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6. TurreMredueerent, " Diew back the towen." These were J53 

the jQOveable towers, and were placed on wheels. — Aggeremqueiftr 
terscindereni, " And made a cut across the mound/' i. e., severed 
the communication between the part on fire and the rest of the 

7. Quod deustog pluteos, <&c. ** Because they saw the coverings 
cf vii towers burnt away." The plutei here meant, were cover 
*Dg8 or defences erected on the tops of the towers, like a kind oi 
roof, in order to protect the men while fighting. Hence the Greek 
paraphrast correctly calls them oriyti. Another species of pluiei 
were in the form of moveable sheds, under which the soldiers 
worked. In either case, the plutei appear to have been formed of 
a framework covered with hides. Compare Vegetius, 4, 15. At 
Hrst tiiey were made of beams and planks, as the name phUeus lit 
erally denotes ; afterward lighter materials, such as osiers, were em 
ployed. {Iap9 Poliore, 1, dial. 7, p. 493, seq.) 

6. NeefadUy &c. *' And perceived that we could not easily go 
exposed to give assistance." — In Ulo vesHgio tempcria positam. 
" Depended on that very juncture." 

9. Dignum numoria vinan. ** Having appeared to us worthy of 

10. Per tnanus transditas. " Handed &om one tb another."— 
Scorpione tib latere dextro, 6lc. v" Wounded ii\the right side, and 
deprived of life, by a crossbow." As regards the term scorpio, con- 
sult Archsological Index. 

1. Trarugrestus. "Striding across." — Eedem iUo munerei |54 
&.C. '* Performed the same office," i. e., of casting balls at our 
works.— ili^ero. "The second." 

2. PropugmUoribus, "Defenders." Propu^'Tia/br properly moans 
one, who, being besieged, defends the ramparts of a fortified pcsi- 
tion.; or, in nautical operations, one who fights from the deck of a 

3. Restincto aggere. "The fire of the mound being extin- 
guished." Compare Achaintre, " restiricto igne gui aggerem cmn- 

. 4. Profagere, A HeUenisn: for pfcofvgiendi. The infinitive for 
the gerund is more frequent, however, in poetry than in proso. 
Compare Vechnery Hellenolex. p. 265. 

5 . Natura et virium ir^irmitas* " ^e weakness of their natom 
and stiengthf" i. e., the natural weakness of their bodily powan 

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f 1^ An hendiadys for *■ naturaUs virium infirmiias" So in JimIii^ 
2, 2 : " loTUB USU9 ae vesiiumf** for " lanearum tuns vestmmJ*' 

6. Muerieordiam non recipit. '* Admits not pity/' i. e., tarns « 
daaf ear to every feeling of pity. — Sigmficare. " To give notice." 

7. Directisque operihu. '* And the works being now complete- 
ly arranged," i. e., completed and arranged preparatory to the as 
saolt Compare the explanation of Oadendoip : " ita dupoMSf ul 
operibus iUis jam factis noceri et appropvnquari postet urbi. The 
reading of the MSS. varies here, several of them having perftetu 
instead ofdirectis ; but the former is evidently a mere gloss or in- 
teipretation of the latter. The idea of completion is implied in di- 
ruti*. Some editions have dereliciis, which is altogether wrong. 

8. Nan imUUenif &c. " Thinking this no bad time for fomung 
a plan," i. e., for making some attempt on the town. 

9. ItUra vineas in oeculto. Oberiin thinks that in oeculto ought 
to be rejected, as being a mere explanation of intra vineas. Not 
so. The expression intra vtneas does not mean " under the vines, " 
out "within" (i. e., behind) 'Hhe vines." If the troops then were 
stationed behind the vineae, they must, of course, be concealed some 
way, in order to escape the observation of the foe. Compare Bar 
Jon, ad hoc. 

10. Expeditas. *< Ready for battle," i. e., without any peisonal 
encumbrance except their mere armour. 

11. Pramia. Pecuniary rewards are meant. Compare B. H. 
46, " Casar, ob virtutem turrha Cassiana donavit miUia ^ededm^ 
St prafecto torgtus aureos quinque, et levi armaJtunt mHUa decern.** 

lOi ^' Obviam vemretur, "An attack should be made." The 
common text has oJmam contra veniretar, but c<m<ra after olmam 
is an awkward pleonasm, or, at best, a mere interpretation of cbviam. ' 
We have therefore rejected it in accordance with the opinion of 
Morus, Hotomann, Ursinus, Faemus, and others. 

2. Ade insiructa. " With their force drawn up to receive tt,*' 
i. e., the attack. 

3. Continenti impetu. " Without stopj ing," i. e., in the greatest 
baste. Ctmtinenti is here equivalent to ctmtinuo. 

4. Cum se ipsi premerent% " Crowding upon each other."— 
Neefuit quisquam^ t&c. " Nor was there any one of our men whc 
seemed anxious for plunder." 

5. Genahensi cade. "B/the massacre at Genabum." Cem- 
psie chapter 3. — Lahore operis. Corapaie note 7, page IfiO. Tilt 
lefsrence is to the fatigues of the siege. 

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6. Ex eorum cancursu, " From their coming in a body." ] gg 

7. Disparandos. " That they should be separated." Two 
If SS. have dispertiendost which is certainly the more usual form. 
Diaparare, however, though of rare occurrence, is found in Plautus, 
Prol. Rud. 6, and in Cicero, d€ Inv. 1, 28 : " Disparalum OMtem 
ttt idf quod ah aliqua re per oppositionem negationtt separatur** 

8. Qua emque civUcUif &c. ** Whatever part of the camp had 
fidlen to each state originally," L e., according as a |>articular part 
•f the camp had originally been assign^ to each state. 

9. Artificio quodam, <&c. " By a sort of art and knowledge m 
assault." — Errarty ai quif dec. " Thi^t they were mistaken, who 
think that all the issues of affairs, in war, are going to prove suc- 
cessful," i. e., who expect the issues of war to prove constantly 

10. Nimia GUequtrUia. ** The too ready compliance." Com 
pare chapter 15, and the explanation of Achaintre : " Nimia facilt' 
tote, qua duces Gallorum aique ipse Verdngetorix predbus Btturt- 
gum cesserant." 

11. Canaensu, Old form for consenaui. 

12. Ut caatra munire inatUuerent. " That they would set about 
lortifying their camp." 

1. Pluaque ammo, 6lc. " And he was thought to possess ] gg 
gteater forecast and sounder judgment than the rest." 

2. Inatuti laboria. " Unused to labour." — Patienda et perfer- 
enda. "Must be patiently endured." CsBsar here enq>loy8 two 
terms nearly synonymous, in order to strengthen the signification. 

3. Qui Avarico expugnato refugerarU. ** Who had escaped from 
Avaricum, after it was taken." 

4. Certum rmmerum. " A definite number," i. e., a fixed 

5. Avarici. Several MSS. have Avarico, but this is later Latin- 
ity. Compare Juliua Obsequena, c. 114, ** Aaculo per ludoa Ro" 
maini trucidoH;" and JuaHn. 2, 13, ^ Conailium ineutU poniia in- 
terrumpendi, quern tile Ahydo vekui victor maria fecerat." 

6. Teutomarua. The MSS. vary surprisingly as regards thia 
proper name. The common text has Teutomaiua, but the Greek 
paraphrast gives Tovrv/ulvo^ We have adopted the form suggested 
by OberUn. The Celtic termination in mar (i. e., illustrious, or 
MMBbrated) is of very firequent occurrence, as in Viridomarua, dee. 

7. Exercitum ex labore, dec. *' Refreshed his army after their 
fitigae and scarcity." 

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1 57 1. Cum, '< Whereas."— Smguli magUtratus. ^ A. inngM 

magiatrate.** — Annum, ^ " For a single year.*' Some editions 
have- annuam, but this savours of a gloss. 

2. Duo magistratum gereant. " Two persons now exercise this 
office.** — Eatum. Referring to the nation of the Aedui. 

3. Siuu cupuque eorum elierUeUu. " That each of them has 
his own adherents/' i. e., his own clients or dependants. Clten- 
Uia is here used for clieTUes, as elsewhere servUia for 9ervi. 

4. Detrimentosum. Two MSS. have detrimerUo suo, one delri- 
menium summum. Bentley su^ects that we ought to read tUiri- 
mento sibi fare. The objection to detrimentosum is, that it does 
not occur in any other writer, but still it is formed according -t* 
toalogy, from detrimentum^ just as portentosus from portentum. 

5. Ea parSf qua minus sUfi, dec. Alluding to the defeated, o. 
▼eaker faction. 

6. Ne quid de jure, dec. ** That he might not appear in any 
degree to infringe upon their privileges and laws.'* 

7. Docereturquej &c. " And he was informed, that, only a few 
persons having been privately assembled for the purpose, one broth- 
er had been declared magistrate by the other, at a different place 
and different time from what he ought to have been." Cotus had 
been declared magistrate by his brother Valetiacus, before only a 
few, and at an unusual time and place. 

8. Renuniiatum. Equivalent here to dularatum. The fdnoai 
word, in such oases, is renuntiare. Thus, renuntiatur consul, tri- 
bunus, &c., i. e., declaratur foetus. 

9. Qui per sacerdotes, <&c. " Who had been elected by the 
priests, after the usual manner of the state, the inferior magistrates 
being present.** Oberlin gives intermissis magistratibus, but ac- 
knowledges intromissis to be the preferable reading. This last is 
also in accordance with the Greek paraphrase, napdvmw r&v J^px^^'^^^- 
The grounds of Cssar's selection of Convictolitanis were, his having 
been created magistrate by the priests, the regular authority in such 
cases, and*, secondly, this having been done in the presence* of the